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Ogg

Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph. Org Foundation; the creators of the Ogg format state that it is unrestricted by software patents and is designed to provide for efficient streaming and manipulation of high-quality digital multimedia. Its name is derived from "ogging", jargon from the computer game Netrek; the Ogg container format can multiplex a number of independent streams for audio, video and metadata. In the Ogg multimedia framework, Theora provides a lossy video layer; the audio layer is most provided by the music-oriented Vorbis format or its successor Opus. Lossless audio compression formats include FLAC, OggPCM. Before 2007, the.ogg filename extension was used for all files whose content used the Ogg container format. Since 2007, the Xiph. Org Foundation recommends that.ogg only be used for Ogg Vorbis audio files. The Xiph. Org Foundation decided to create a new set of file extensions and media types to describe different types of content such as.oga for audio only files.ogv for video with or without sound, and.ogx for multiplexed Ogg.

As of November 7, 2017, the current version of the Xiph. Org Foundation's reference implementation is libogg 1.3.3. Another version, libogg2, has been in development, but is awaiting a rewrite as of 2018. Both software libraries are free software, released under the New BSD License. Ogg reference implementation was separated from Vorbis on September 2, 2000; because the format is free, its reference implementation is not subject to restrictions associated with copyright, Ogg's various codecs have been incorporated into a number of different free and proprietary media players, both commercial and non-commercial, as well as portable media players and GPS receivers from different manufacturers. It is sometimes assumed that the name "Ogg" comes from the character of Nanny Ogg in Terry Pratchett's Discworld novels, but the Ogg developers say, not true. Ogg is derived from "ogging", jargon from the computer game Netrek, which came to mean doing something forcefully without consideration of the drain on future resources.

At its inception, the Ogg project was thought to be somewhat ambitious given the limited power of the PC hardware of the time. Still, to quote the same reference: "Vorbis, on the other hand is named after the Terry Pratchett character from the book Small Gods"; the Ogg Vorbis project started in 1993. It was named "Squish" but that name was trademarked, so the project underwent a name change; the new name, "OggSquish", was used until 2001 when it was changed again to "Ogg". Ogg has since come to refer to the container format, now part of the larger Xiph.org multimedia project. Today, "Squish" refers to a particular audio coding format used with the Ogg container format; the "Ogg" bitstream format, spearheaded by the Xiph. Org Foundation, has been created as the framework of a larger initiative aimed at developing a set of components for the coding and decoding of multimedia content, which are available free of charge and re-implementable in software; the format consists of chunks of data each called an "Ogg page".

Each page begins with the characters, "OggS". A "serial number" and "page number" in the page header identifies each page as part of a series of pages making up a bitstream. Multiple bitstreams may be multiplexed in the file where pages from each bitstream are ordered by the seek time of the contained data. Bitstreams may be appended to existing files, a process known as "chaining", to cause the bitstreams to be decoded in sequence. A BSD-licensed library, called "libvorbis", is available to encode and decode data from "Vorbis" streams. Independent Ogg implementations are used in several projects such as RealPlayer and a set of DirectShow filters. Mogg, the "Multi-Track-Single-Logical-Stream Ogg-Vorbis", is the multi-channel or multi-track Ogg file format; the following is the field layout of an Ogg page header: Capture pattern – 32 bits The capture pattern or sync code is a magic number used to ensure synchronization when parsing Ogg files. Every page starts with the four ASCII character sequence, "OggS".

This assists in resynchronizing a parser in cases where data has been lost or is corrupted, is a sanity check before commencing parsing of the page structure. Version – 8 bits This field indicates the version of the Ogg bitstream format, to allow for future expansion, it is mandated to be 0. Header type – 8 bits This is an 8 bit field of flags, which indicates the type of page that follows. Granule position – 64 bits A granule position is the time marker in Ogg files, it is an abstract value. It may, for example, be a count of the number of samples, the number of frames or a more complex scheme. Bitstream serial number – 32 bits This field is a serial number that identifies a page as belonging to a particular logical bitstream; each logical bitstream in a file has a unique value, this field allows implementations to deliver the pages to the appropriate decoder. In a typical Vorbis and Theora file, one stream is the audio, the other is the video Page sequence number – 32 bits This field is a monotonically increasing field for each logical bitstream.

The first page is the second 1, etc.. This allows implementations to detect. Checksum – 32 bits This field provides a CRC32 checksum of the data in the entire page; this allows verification. Pages that fail the checksum should be discarded; the checksum is generated using a polynomial value of 0x04C11DB7. Page segments – 8 bits This field indica

Köln International School of Design

The Köln International School of Design is an institution of the Cologne University of Applied Sciences and offers an interdisciplinary study program in the field of design. In 2002 – eleven years after the Cologne Model of design education was initiated in 1991 – the school was renamed to Köln International School of Design. With the establishment of TH Köln in 1971 the Kölner Werkschulen were incorporated as a department of "Art and Design" in this university of applied sciences. In 1991 the course »free art« was abandoned and the design degree program was transferred into the so-called "Cologne Model", characterized by a project-oriented teaching and the abolition of traditional disciplines and semester structures; the study program in the Department of Design first time involved teaching areas such as Service Design, Design Management and Gender or Ecology and Design. Since 2008 the Diploma Study Programs at TH Köln ran out. New registrations are made only for the Master Degree Programs.

In 2002, the organization was abandoned in departments as part of a high school internal reform. Since KISD forms with the CICS - Institute for Conservation Sciences and the CGL and the Cologne Game Lab the Faculty of Cultural Studies. KISD offers the 7-semester Bachelor and 3-semester Master program "Integrated Design". In addition it takes part in the Master of European Design-program. 75% of all courses in the Bachelor program are held in English, the Master program is in English. Key aspects of the areas of expertise are e.g. healthcare, work environment and educational organisations. This twelve areas of expertise are the focus of the project-oriented design programme. Students can develop their own main focusses. Image and Motion Identity and Design Design for Manufacturing Design Concepts Design and Economy Design Theory and -Research Gender and Design Interface Design and Interaction Design Ecology and Design Production Technology Service Design Typography and Layout Köln International School of Design

Welsh Rates of Income Tax

Welsh Rates of Income Tax is part of the UK income tax system and from 6 April 2019 a proportion of income tax paid by taxpayers living in Wales will be transferred straight to the Welsh Government to fund Welsh public services. It will be administered by HM Revenue and Customs; the Wales Act 2014, which received Royal Assent on 17 December 2014, gave the National Assembly for Wales the power to set a Welsh basic and additional rate of income tax to be charged on people living in Wales. From 6 April 2019 the UK government will reduce the three rates of UK income tax paid by people in Wales 10p; the Welsh Government will decide the WRIT on the Welsh three rates, which will be added to the reduced UK rates. The National Assembly for Wales will be able to set Welsh rates anything from zero to any number in the pound; these Welsh rates will be added to each of the UK income tax rates after 10p in the pound has been deducted from each rate. The reduction in the three rates of income tax by the UK government will reduce the amount of tax paid to the HM Treasury.

If the Welsh rates of income tax are set at less than 10p, the UK Government will recover the money it does not collect from Wales by reducing Wales’ block grant.. WRIT rates for the 2019-20 year have been left at 10p, so income tax in Wales will be the same as those in England The Welsh Revenue Authority collects and manages Land Transaction Tax and Landfill Disposals Tax in Wales since 2018, however WRIT will continue to be collected by HMRC from Welsh taxpayers as one payment and will transfer WRIT receipts to the Welsh Government; the block grant will be reduced as a result. The rates in the table are the rates proposed by the Welsh Government, they exclude the standard UK Personal Allowance and the reduced income tax rates which are collected by the UK Government. Those earning more than £100,000 have a reduced Personal Allowance