A traditional yurt or ger is a portable, round tent covered with skins or felt and used as a dwelling by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. The structure comprises an assembly or latticework of pieces of wood or bamboo for walls, a door frame, ribs. The roof structure is often self-supporting, but large yurts may have interior posts supporting the crown, the top of the wall of self-supporting yurts is prevented from spreading by means of a tension band which opposes the force of the roof ribs. Yurt - originally from a Turkic word referring to the imprint left in the ground by a moved yurt, the term came to be used in reference to the physical tent-like dwellings only in other languages. In modern Turkish the word yurt is used as the synonym of homeland or a dormitory, in Russian the structure is called yurta, whence the word came into English. гэр - in Mongolian simply means home, тирмә is the Bashkir term for yurt. киіз үй - the Kazakh word, and means felt house, боз үй - the Kyrgyz term is meaning grey house, because of the color of the felt.
Ak öý and gara öý - In Turkmen the term is literally white house and black house, depending on its luxury and elegance. Qara uy or otaw - in Qaraqalpaq the first term means black house, while the second means a newborn family and is used only to name a young familys yurt. Kheymah is the word for a yurt or a tent like dwelling in Pakistan, from the Urdu, خیمه In Persian yurt is called chador, in Tajik the names are yurt, khona-i siyoh, өг is the Tuvan word for yurt. Yurts have been a feature of life in Central Asia for at least three thousand years. The first written description of a used as a dwelling was recorded by the ancient Greek historian Herodotus. He described yurt-like tents as the place of the Scythians. Traditional yurts consist of a wooden circular frame carrying a felt cover. The felt is made from the wool of the flocks of sheep that accompany the pastoralists, the timber to make the external structure is not to be found on the treeless steppes, and must be obtained by trade in the valleys below.
The frame consists of one or more expanding lattice wall-sections, a door-frame, bent roof poles, the Mongolian Ger has one or more columns to support the crown and straight roof poles. The wood frame is covered with pieces of felt, depending on availability, felt is additionally covered with canvas and/or sun-covers. The frame is held together with one or more ropes or ribbons, the structure is kept under compression by the weight of the covers, sometimes supplemented by a heavy weight hung from the center of the roof
Northern and southern China
Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between two regions are not precisely defined. Often used as the dividing line between northern and southern China is the Huai River–Qin Mountains Line. This line approximates the 0 °C January isotherm and the 800 millimetres isohyet in China, however, the division is more ambiguous. In the eastern provinces like Jiangsu and Anhui, the Yangtze River may instead be perceived as the boundary instead of the Huai River. This may have been deliberate, the Mongol Yuan Dynasty and Han Chinese Ming Dynasty established many of these boundaries intentionally to discourage regionalist separatism. The Northeast and Inner Mongolia, areas that are thought of as being outside China proper, are conceived to belong to northern China according to the framework above. Historically, Xinjiang and Qinghai were not usually conceived of as being part of either the north or south, Xinjiang is now regarded as being part of the north due to the spread of north Chinese culture and the use of Mandarin.
The concepts of northern and southern China originate from differences in climate, culture, there are major differences in language, cuisine and popular entertainment forms. For a large part of Chinese history, northern China was economically more advanced than southern China, the population of Shanghai increased from 12,000 households to over 250,000 inhabitants after Kaifeng was sacked by invading armies. This began a shift of political and cultural power from northern China to southern China, the east coast of southern China remained a leading economic and cultural center of China until the Republic of China. Today, southern China remains economically more prosperous than northern China, during the Qing dynasty, regional differences and identification in China fostered the growth of regional stereotypes. Such stereotypes often appeared in historic chronicles and gazetteers and were based on circumstances and literary associations. These differences were reflected in Qing dynasty policies, such as the prohibition on local officials to serve their home areas, as well as conduct of personal and commercial relations.
During the Republican period, Lu Xun, a major Chinese writer, According to my observation, Northerners are sincere and honest, yet sincerity and honesty lead to stupidity, whereas skillfulness and quick-mindedness lead to duplicity. Some of this was based on the idea there would be conflict between the bureaucratic north and the commercial south. In addition there are cultural divisions that exist within and across the north–south dichotomy. Nevertheless, the concepts of North and South continue to play an important role in regional stereotypes and it should be noted that these are only rough and approximate stereotypes among a large and greatly varied population
Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting and pressing fibers together. Felt can be made of fibers such as wool, or from synthetic fibers such as petroleum-based acrylic or acrylonitrile or wood pulp-based rayon. Felt from wool is considered to be the oldest known textile, many cultures have legends as to the origins of felt making. Sumerian legend claims that the secret of feltmaking was discovered by Urnamman of Lagash, the story of Saint Clement and Saint Christopher relates that while fleeing from persecution, the men packed their sandals with wool to prevent blisters. At the end of their journey, the movement and sweat had turned the wool into felt socks, feltmaking is still practised by nomadic peoples in Central Asia, where rugs and clothing are regularly made. Some of these are items, such as the classic yurt, while others are designed for the tourist market. Wrapping the properly arranged fiber in a sturdy, textured material, such as a mat or burlap. The felted material may be finished by fulling, only certain types of fiber can be wet felted successfully.
Most types of fleece, such as those taken from the alpaca or the Merino sheep, one may use mohair, angora, or hair from rodents such as beavers and muskrats. These types of fiber are covered in scales, similar to the scales found on a strand of human hair. Heat and moisture of the causes the scales to open, while agitating them causes them to latch onto each other. There is a theory that the fibers wind around each other during felting. Plant fibers and synthetic fibers will not wet felt, needle felting is a method of creating felted objects without using water. The special needles used to make 3D sculpture, adornments and 2D art have notches along the shaft of the needle that catch fibers and tangle them with other fibers to produce felt. These notches are sometimes erroneously called barbs, but barbs are protrusion, there are many sizes and types of notched needles for different uses while working. Needle felting is used in processes as well as in individual crafting. Invented in the mid 17th century and used until the mid-20th centuries, rabbit or hare skins were treated with a dilute solution of the mercury compound mercuric nitrate.
The skins were dried in an oven where the fur at the sides turned orange
Khagan or Qagan is a title in the Mongolian language equal to the status of emperor and used to refer to someone who rules a khaganate or empire. The title was adopted by Ögedei Khan from the Turkic title kaɣan and it may be translated as Khan of Khans, equivalent to King of Kings. In modern Mongolian, the title became Khaan with the g sound becoming almost silent or non-existent, since the division of the Mongol Empire, emperors of the Yuan dynasty held the title of Khagan and their successors in Mongolia continued to have the title. Kağan and Kaan are common Turkish names in Turkey, the common western rendering as Great Khan, notably in the case of the Mongol Empire, is translation of Yekhe Khagan. In the speech one of the Murongs general named Yinalou addressed him as kehan, the Rouran Khaganate was the first people to use the titles Khagan and Khan for their emperors, replacing the Chanyu of the Xiongnu, whom Grousset and others assume to be Turkic. However, many believe the Rouran were proto-Mongols.
The Avar Khaganate, who may have included Rouran elements after the Göktürks crushed the Rouran ruling Mongolia, the Avars invaded Europe, and for over a century ruled the Carpathian region. Westerners Latinized the title Khagan into Gaganus or Cagan, Khagan or Khaan refers to Emperor or King in the Mongolian language, Yekhe Khagan means Great Khagan or Grand Emperor. Thus, the Yuan is sometimes referred to as the Empire of the Great Khan, coexisting with the independent Mongol khanates in the west, including the Chagatai Khanate, only the Ilkhanate truly recognized the Yuans overlordship as allies. Later Yuan emperors made peace with the three khanates of the Mongol Empire and were considered as their nominal suzerain. The nominal supremacy, while based on nothing like the foundations as that of the earlier Khagans, did last for a few decades. After the breakdown of Mongol Empire and the fall of the Yuan dynasty in the mid-14th century, dayan Khan once revived Emperors authority and recovered its reputation in Mongolia, but with the distribution of his empire among his sons and relatives as fiefs it again caused decentralized rule.
The last Khagan of the Chahars, Ligdan Khan, died in 1634 while fighting the Qing dynasty founded by the Manchu people, in contemporary Mongolian language the word Khaan and Khan have different meanings, while English language usually does not differentiate between them. The title is used as a generic term for a king or emperor. Minor rulers were rather relegated to the title of khan. Khagan is the title of Safavid and Qajar shahs of Iran. For example, Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar, Fath Ali Shah, the nickname of Shah Ismail and other Safavid shahs is Kagan-i Suleyman shan. Emperor Taizong of Tang was crowned Tian Kehan, or heavenly Khagan after defeating the Tujue, a letter sent by the Tang court to the Yenisei Kirghiz Qaghan explained that the peoples of the northwest had requested Tang Taizong to become the Heavenly Qaghan
Sorghaghtani Beki or Bekhi, written Sorkaktani, Sorkhogtani, Siyurkuktiti was a Keraite princess and daughter-in-law of Genghis Khan. Married to Tolui, Genghis youngest son, Sorghaghtani Beki became one of the most powerful, Sorghaghtani Beki was a Christian, specifically a member of the Church of the East. Sorghaghtani was the daughter of Jakha Gambhu, the brother of the powerful Keraite leader Toghrul. However, Toghrul refused this alliance, and attempted to kill the increasingly powerful Temüjin through an invitation to discuss this proposal, Temüjin discovered this plan and they escaped at the last moment. Eventually, the Keraites were routed in the war and Toghrul was killed. Unlike his brother, Jakha usually supported Temüjin and gave his two daughters to him and one daughter to Genghis Khans oldest son Jochi. Genghis married the elder of the daughters, and gave young Sorghaghtani, Sorghaghtanis father Jakha was probably killed when the Keraites revolted against Genghis Khan in 1204. Like most Mongol women of the time, Sorghaghtani wielded great authority at home, Mongol women had far more rights than in many other cultures at the time, especially since the men were often away and they were the ones responsible for the home.
Although she herself was illiterate, she recognized the value of literacy in running such a far-flung empire, each of her sons learned a different language for different regions. Sorghaghtani, a Nestorian Christian, respected other religions and her sons, like Genghis, were all very liberal-minded in matters of religion, and the Mongol Empire promulgated the notion of state above religion while supporting all major religions of the time. Sorghaghtani financed the construction of a madrasa in Bukhara and gave alms to both Christians and Muslims, soghoghtanis husband Tolui, whose appanages included eastern Mongolia, parts of Iran and North China, died at the age of 40 in 1232. Ögedei Khan, Genghiss third son who had succeeded his father, the Secret History suggests that Ögedei may have consulted Sorghaghtani on various matters, and he always held her in high regard. Ögedei sought to link her realm to his and proposed marriage, which she declined, he proposed that she marry his son Güyük. This decision turned out to be one of the most important ones in the formation of the Mongol Empire, as all four of Sorghaghtanis sons became leaders in their own right.
When Sorghaghtani asked for part of Hebei province as her appanage in 1236 after the end of the Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty, Ögedei hesitated and she shunned him into compliance by pointing out that the place was hers by right anyway, because her husband had conquered it. However, Ögedei expanded his personal appanage, seizing some territories of Tolui, after Ögedei Khans death in 1241, his wife Töregene Khatun ruled as regent until 1246, when she managed to get her son Güyük elected as the Khagan at a large kurultai. However, he set out to undermine his mothers power as well as that of Sorghaghtani, Alaqai Beki. Meanwhile, the ambitious Sorghaghtani had secretly teamed up with Güyüks cousin Batu Khan, after Güyüks death, Sorghaghtani sent her eldest son Möngke to Batu Khan
Batu Khan, known as Sain Khan and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, division of the Mongol Empire. Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan and his ulus was the chief state of the Golden Horde, which ruled Rus, Volga Bulgaria and the Caucasus for around 250 years, after destroying the armies of Poland and Hungary. Batu or Bat literally means firm in the Mongolian language, after the deaths of Genghis Khans sons, he became the most respected prince called agha in the Mongol Empire. After his son Jochis death, Genghis Khan assigned Jochis appanages to his sons, but the Great Khan installed Batu as Khan of the Golden Horde. Jochis eldest son, Orda Khan, agreed that Batu should succeed their father, Genghis Khans youngest brother Temüge attended the coronation ceremony as an official representative of Genghis. When Genghis Khan died in 1227, he left 4,000 Mongol men to Jochis family, Jochis lands were divided between Batu and his older brother Orda. Ordas White Horde ruled the lands roughly between the Volga river and Lake Balkhash, while Batus Horde ruled the lands west of the Volga, in 1229, Ögedei dispatched three tumens under Kukhdei and Sundei to conquer the tribes on the lower Ural River.
Despite heavy resistance of their enemies, the Mongols conquered major cities of the Jurchens, at the kurultai in Mongolia after the end of the Mongol-Jin War, the Great Khan Ögedei ordered Batu to conquer western nations. In 1235 Batu, who earlier had directed the conquest of the Crimean Peninsula, was assigned an army of possibly 130,000 to oversee an invasion of Europe. His relatives and cousins Güyük, Büri, Möngke, Khadan and notable Mongol generals Subutai, the army, actually commanded by Subutai, crossed the Volga and invaded Volga Bulgaria in 1236. It took them a year to extinguish the resistance of the Volga Bulgarians, Kypchaks, in November 1237 Batu Khan sent his envoys to the court of Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal and demanded his allegiance. When Yuri refused to surrender the Mongols besieged Ryazan, after six days of bloody battle, the city was totally annihilated and never restored to its former glory. Alarmed by the news, Yuri II sent his sons to detain the horde, having burnt Kolomna and Moscow, the horde laid siege to the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal on February 4,1238.
Three days the city was taken and burnt to the ground, the royal family perished in the fire, while the grand prince hastily retreated northward. Crossing the Volga, he mustered a new army, which was exterminated by the Mongols on the Sit River on March 4. The most difficult to take was the town of Kozelsk, whose boy-prince Titus. As the story goes, at the news of Mongol approach, the city of Kitezh was submerged in a lake with all its inhabitants and Buri stormed the city in three days after they joined Batu. Batu sent an envoy to his uncle Ögedei to complain of his cousins rude behavior, Ögedei got angry on hearing the news and recalled Buri and Güyük
In practice, a diplomatic mission usually denotes the resident mission, namely the office of a countrys diplomatic representatives in the capital city of another country. As well as being a mission to the country in which it is situated. There are thus resident and non-resident embassies, a permanent diplomatic mission is typically known as an Embassy, and the head of the mission is known as an Ambassador, or High Commissioner. Therefore, the Embassy operates in the Chancery, European Union missions abroad are known as EU delegations. Some countries have more particular naming for their missions and staff, under the rule of Muammar Gaddafi, Libyas missions used the name peoples bureau and the head of the mission was a secretary. Missions between Commonwealth countries are known as commissions and their heads are High Commissioners. This is because Ambassadors are exchanged between foreign countries, but since the beginning of the Commonwealth, member countries have maintained that they are not foreign to one another.
An ambassador represents one head of state to another and a letters of credence are addressed by one head of state to another. Until India became a republic on 26 January 1950, all members of the Commonwealth had the head of state. In the past a diplomatic mission headed by an official was known as a legation. Since the ranks of envoy and minister resident are effectively obsolete, a consulate is similar to, but not the same as a diplomatic office, but with focus on dealing with individual persons and businesses, as defined by the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. A consulate or consulate general is generally a representative of the embassy in locales outside of the capital city. For instance, the United Kingdom has its Embassy of the United Kingdom in Washington, D. C. but maintains seven consulates-general, the person in charge of a consulate or consulate-general is known as a consul or consul-general, respectively. Similar services may be provided at the embassy in what is called a consular section.
In cases of dispute, it is common for a country to recall its head of mission as a sign of its displeasure, a chargé daffaires ad interim heads the mission during the interim between the end of one chief of missions term and the beginning of another. Contrary to popular belief, most diplomatic missions do not enjoy full extraterritorial status, the premises of diplomatic missions usually remain under the jurisdiction of the host state while being afforded special privileges by the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. Diplomats themselves still retain full diplomatic immunity, and the host country may not enter the premises of the mission without permission of the represented country, international rules designate an attack on an embassy as an attack on the country it represents. The term extraterritoriality is often applied to missions, but normally only in this broader sense
Oirats are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia. Although the Oirats originated in the parts of Central Asia, the most prominent group today is located in Kalmykia, a federal subject of Russia. Historically, the Oirats were composed of four tribes, Torghut, Dörbet. The minor tribes include, Bayads, Zakhchin, the name probably means oi and ard, and they were counted among the forest people in the 13th century. A second opinion believes the name derives from Mongolian word oirt meaning close, the name Oirat may derive from a corruption of the groups original name Dörben Öörd, meaning The Allied Four. In the 17th century, Zaya Pandita, a Gelug monk of the Khoshut tribe, the Todo Bichig writing system remained in use in Kalmykia until the mid-1920s when it was replaced by a Latin-based script, and the Cyrillic alphabet. It can be seen in public signs in the Kalmyk capital, Elista. In Mongolia it was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet in 1941.
Some Oirats in China still use Todo Bichig as their writing system. A monument of Zaya Pandita was unveiled on the 400th anniversary of Zaya Panditas birth, comprising the Khoshut, Choros or Ölöt, and Dörbet ethnic groups, they were dubbed Kalmyk or Kalmak, which means remnant or to remain, by their western Turkic neighbours. Various sources list the Bargut, Buzava and Naiman tribes as comprising part of the Dörben Öörd, some tribes may have joined the original four only in years. This name may reflect the Kalmyks remaining Buddhist rather than converting to Islam. One of the earliest mentions of the Oirat people in a text can be found in The Secret History of the Mongols. In the Secret History, the Oirats are counted among the forest people and are said to live under the rule of a known as bäki. They lived in Tuva and Mongolian Khövsgöl Province and the Oirats moved to the south in the 14th century, in one famous passage the Oirat chief, Quduqa Bäki, uses a yada or thunder stone to unleash a powerful storm on Genghis army.
The magical ploy backfires however, when a wind blows the storm back at Quduqa. During early stages of Temujin Genghiss rise, Oirats under Quduqa bekhi fought against Genghis and were defeated, Oirats were fully submitted to Mongol rule after their ally Jamukha, Temujins childhood friend and rival, was destroyed. Subject to the khan Oirats would form themselves as a loyal, in 1207, Jochi the eldest son of Genghis, subjugated the forest tribes including the Oirats and the Kyrgyzs
Kherlen River is a river of 1,254 km length in Mongolia and China. The river has its origin in the slopes of the Khentii mountains, near the Burkhan Khaldun mountain in the Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area. This area is the watershed between the arctic and pacific basins and named Three river basins, from there the Kherlen flows in a mostly eastern direction through the Khentii aimag. On its further way it crosses the eastern Mongolian steppe past Ulaan Ereg and Choibalsan, entering China at 48°3′N 115°36′E, emptying into Hulun Nuur after another 164 km. In years with high precipitation, the normally exitless Hulun Lake may overflow at its shore. The Ergune marks the border between Russia and China for about 944 km, until it meets the Amur River, the system Kherlen-Ergune-Amur has a total length of 5,052 km
The Golden Horde was a Mongol and Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate and it is known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi. After the death of Batu Khan in 1255, his dynasty flourished for a century, until 1359. The Hordes military power peaked during the reign of Uzbeg, who adopted Islam, the territory of the Golden Horde at its peak included most of Eastern Europe from the Urals to the Danube River, and extended east deep into Siberia. In the south, the Golden Hordes lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, the khanate experienced violent internal political disorder beginning in 1359, before it briefly reunited under Tokhtamysh. However, soon after the 1396 invasion of Timur, the founder of the Timurid Empire, at the start of the 15th century the Horde began to fall apart. By 1466 it was being referred to simply as the Great Horde, within its territories there emerged numerous predominantly Turkic-speaking khanates.
These internal struggles allowed the northern state of Muscovy to rid itself of the Tatar Yoke at the Great stand on the Ugra river in 1480. The Crimean Khanate and the Kazakh Khanate, the last remnants of the Golden Horde, in any event, it was not until the 16th century that Russian chroniclers begin explicitly using the term Golden Horde to refer to this particular successor khanate of the Mongol Empire. The first known use of the term, in 1565, in the Russian chronicle History of Kazan, applied it to the Ulus of Batu and its left wing was referred to as the Blue Horde in Russian chronicles and as the White Horde in Timurid sources. Western scholars have tended to follow the Timurid sources nomenclature and call the left wing the White Horde, the khanate apparently used the term White Horde to refer to its right wing, which was situated in Batus home base in Sarai and controlled the ulus. However, the designations Golden Horde, Blue Horde, and White Horde have not been encountered in the sources of the Mongol period.
At his death in 1227, Genghis Khan divided the Mongol Empire amongst his four sons as appanages, Jochi was the eldest, but he died six months before Genghis. In 1235, Batu with the great general Subedei began an invasion westwards, first conquering the Bashkirs, from there he conquered some of the southern steppes of present-day Ukraine in 1237, forcing many of the local Cumans to retreat westward. The military campaign against the Kypchaks and Cumans had started under Jochi, by 1239 a large portion of Cumans were driven out of the Crimea peninsula, and it became one of the appanages of the Mongol Empire. The remnants of the Crimean Cumans survived in the Crimean mountains, moving north, Batu began the Mongol invasion of Rus and for three years subjugated the principalities of former Kievan Rus, whilst his cousins Möngke, and Güyük moved southwards into Alania. Using the migration of the Cumans as their casus belli, the Mongols continued west, raiding Poland and Hungary and culminating in the battles of Legnica, in 1241, however, Ögedei Khan died in the Mongolia homeland.
Batu turned back from his siege of Vienna to take part in disputing the succession, the Mongol armies would never again travel so far west