Oglethorpe is a city in Macon County, United States. The population was 1,200 at the 2000 census; the city is the county seat of Macon County. It was named for James Oglethorpe. Oglethorpe was founded in 1838, it was located in the Black Belt of Georgia, where slaves outnumbered whites and did the work to support cultivation of cotton as a commodity crop. Oglethorpe was incorporated as a town in 1849 and as a city in 1852. In 1857, the seat of Macon County was transferred to Oglethorpe from Lanier. Oglethorpe was once one of the largest cities in southwestern Georgia. Epidemics of malaria and smallpox caused high fatalities in the early 1860s. Oglethorpe is located at 32 ° 17 ′ 36 ″ N; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,200 people, 481 households, 320 families residing in the city. The population density was 590.3 people per square mile. There were 566 housing units at an average density of 278.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 27.67% White, 70.25% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.75% Asian, 0.75% from other races, 0.33% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.83% of the population. There were 481 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.0% were married couples living together, 29.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,875, the median income for a family was $28,971. Males had a median income of $27,250 versus $18,571 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,673. About 19.1% of families and 23.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.5% of those under age 18 and 20.3% of those age 65 or over.
The Macon County School District holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of one elementary school, a middle school, a high school. The district has 129 full-time teachers and over 2,200 students. Macon County Elementary School Macon County Middle School Macon County High School
Oconee County, Georgia
Oconee County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,808; the county seat is Watkinsville. Oconee County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Oconee County was created from the southwestern part of Clarke County in 1875 by the Georgia General Assembly; the new county was created to satisfy southwestern Clarke County residents' demand for their own county after the county seat was moved from Watkinsville to Athens by the General Assembly in 1872. It is named for the river flowing along part of its eastern border; the county was ranked as the third-best rural county to live in by Progressive Farmer magazine in 2006. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 186 square miles, of which 184 square miles is land and 2.1 square miles is water. The entirety of Oconee County is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. Clarke County Oglethorpe County Greene County Morgan County Walton County Barrow County Oconee National Forest The city has limited walkability options available.
However, since 2017 plans are being discussed to develop a multi-use trail network. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 32,808 people, 11,622 households, 9,346 families residing in the county; the population density was 178.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,383 housing units at an average density of 67.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88.4% white, 5.0% black or African American, 3.1% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 2.0% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 19.9% were English, 14.7% were American, 13.3% were Irish, 12.2% were German. Of the 11,622 households, 43.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.4% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.6% were non-families, 16.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.16.
The median age was 39.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $74,352 and the median income for a family was $85,371. Males had a median income of $57,303 versus $39,375 for females; the per capita income for the county was $34,271. About 6.3% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.1% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over. In 2012, the Wisconsin Population Health Institute ranked Oconee County as one of the top 3 healthiest counties in Georgia; the study ranked the county second in the state in "Overall Health Factors" and third in "Overall Health Outcomes." Oconee County is governed by a four-member Board of Commissioners. The Board is led by a separately-elected Chairman; the Board is vested with budget and taxing authority, ordinance making authority, control of county property and facilities. The chairman and all members of the board are elected from at-large districts to staggered terms of four years; the Chairman of the Board is the county's Chief Executive Officer who, in consultation with the Commissioners, appoints officers and staff as needed to administer the responsibilities of the Board.
The current members of the Board are: Chairman: John Daniell Post 1: Mark Thomas Post 2: Chuck Horton Post 3: W. E. "Bubber" Wilkes Post 4: Mark SaxonThe judicial branch of government is administered through the Georgia court system as a part of the 10th Judicial District, Western Circuit. Primary law enforcement services in the portion of the county outside the City of Watkinsville are provided by the Sheriff's office; the office of Sheriff is an elected position. Berry is the current President of the Georgia Sheriff's Association; the Oconee County School District provides education for grades pre-school to twelve and consists of six elementary schools, two middle schools, two high schools. The district has over 5,615 students. There are three private schools located in the county, they are: Westminster Christian Academy Prince Avenue Christian School Athens Academy The University of North Georgia maintains a satellite campus near Watkinsville. It was a Gainesville State College campus until the 2012 merger of Gainesville State College with North Georgia College and State University.
There is one weekly-published newspaper in Oconee County: The Oconee Enterprise. Oconee Patch is a community website offering daily news and events. Cox Media Group operates a radio broadcast facility on Tower Place in northeast Oconee County. Four radio stations are operated from this facility: WNGC 106.1 FM WGMG 102.1 FM WPUP 100.1 FM WRFC 960 AM Bishop Bogart Eastville Farmington North High Shoals Watkinsville Nathan Crawford Barnett, member of the Georgia House of Representatives and Georgia Secretary of State for more than 30 years. John Berry, country music singer Phil Campbell, farmer Colt Ford, county music singer and professional golfer Migos, Famous rap group spreading from all across the globe Migos was formed in 2009, by Quavo and Offset known as Polo Club, they were from Lawrenceville, Georgia National Register of Historic Places listings in Oconee County, Georgia Oconee County Tourism Official Website
Sandy Springs, Georgia
Sandy Springs is a city in northern Fulton County, United States, part of the Atlanta metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, Sandy Springs had a population of 93,853, its 2017 estimated population was 106,739. Sandy Springs is Georgia's sixth-largest city and is the site of several corporate headquarters such as UPS, Inspire Brands, Cox Communications, Mercedes-Benz USA's corporate offices. In 1842, the Austin-Johnson House was erected on, it is the oldest house in Sandy Springs. In 1851, Wilson Spruill donated 5 acres of land for the founding of the Sandy Springs United Methodist Church, near the natural spring for which the city is named. In 1905, the Hammond School was built at Johnson Ferry Road and Mt. Vernon Highway, across the street from the church. In 1950, the state legislature blocked Atlanta from annexing the community, which remained rural until the Interstate Highway System was authorized by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. In 1959, after a fire at Hammond Elementary School, William Hartsfield, the mayor of Atlanta, urged residents to support annexation so that the area would have better firefighting protection.
Community opposition killed the proposal. In the early 1960s, Georgia 400 and Interstate 285 were constructed, connecting Sandy Springs to metro Atlanta and initiating a housing boom that brought new residents and major land development. In 1966, annexation by Atlanta was defeated with two-thirds voting against. On January 16, 1997, Eric Rudolph bombed an abortion clinic in Sandy Springs. Efforts to incorporate Sandy Springs began in 1966, in response to attempts by the city of Atlanta to annex this unincorporated area of North Fulton County. Sandy Springs residents, led by Eva Galambos, fought for 40 years to obtain their own government. In the 1970s, the city of Atlanta attempted to use a state law to force annexation of Sandy Springs; the attempt failed. In response, the Committee for Sandy Springs was formed in 1975. In every legislative session, state legislators representing the area introduced a bill in the Georgia General Assembly to authorize a referendum on incorporation. Legislators representing Atlanta and southwestern Fulton County, who feared tax revenue that would be lost from incorporation, blocked the bills using the procedural requirement that all local legislation be approved first by a delegation of representatives from the affected area.
In 1989, a push was made for Sandy Springs to join neighboring Chattahoochee Plantation in Cobb County. This move was blocked by Speaker Tom Murphy; when the Republican Party gained a majority in both houses of the General Assembly in 2005, the procedural rules used to prevent a vote by the full chamber were changed so that the bill was handled as a state bill and not as a local bill. The assembly repealed the requirement that new cities must be at least 3 miles from existing cities, because the new city limits border both Roswell and Atlanta; the bill allowing for a referendum on incorporation was introduced and passed as HB 37. The referendum initiative was signed by Governor Sonny Perdue; the referendum was held on June 21, 2005, residents voted 94% in favor of incorporation. Shortly afterwards, voters returned to the polls selecting Eva Galambos as the City’s first mayor. Many residents expressed displeasure with county services, based upon financial information provided by the county, that the county was redistributing revenues to fund services in less financially stable areas of the county, ignoring local opposition to rezoning, allowing excessive development.
Many residents of unincorporated and less-developed south Fulton County opposed incorporation, fearing the loss of tax revenues which fund county services. County residents outside Sandy Springs were not allowed to vote on the matter. Efforts such as requesting the U. S. Justice Department to reject the plan were unsuccessful. A mayor and six city council members were elected in early November 2005, with Eva Galambos, who had initiated and led the charge for incorporation, elected mayor by a wide margin. Formal incorporation occurred on December 1, making Sandy Springs the third-largest city to incorporate in the U. S; the city's police force and fire department began service in 2006. Prior to 2005, residents relied upon a large, traditionally modeled county government for the provision of services, which residents felt did not adequately meet their needs; these challenges formed the basis for desiring a streamlined government physically closer to constituents and responsive to community desires.
Sandy Springs initiated a non-traditional approach by operating as a Public Private Partnership, with nearly half of City staff employed by a private company. In 2010, the City undertook a comprehensive procurement process to rebid all general city services, resulting in multiple providers, providing considerable savings and higher levels of service for the City; the Sandy Springs PPP model is regarded as an example for other local governments, with city leaders from across the country and around the globe, including China, Korea and others visiting Sandy Springs to learn about the PPP model. Since the incorporation of Sandy Springs, several other metro cities have formed – Dunwoody, Peachtree Hills and Johns Creek – each instituting a form of the Public-Private model. In 2010, the city became the first jurisdiction in Georgia to "bail out" from the preclearance requirements of Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act; the boundaries of Sandy Springs are Atlanta to the south, Cobb Count
Greene County, Georgia
Greene County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,994; the county seat is Greensboro. The county was created on February 3, 1786 and is named for Nathanael Greene, an American Revolutionary War major general. Greene County was formed on February 1786, from land given by Washington County, it was named in honor of a hero of the American Revolutionary War. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 406 square miles, of which 387 square miles is land and 19 square miles is water; the majority of Greene County, west of a line between Woodville, Union Point, White Plains, is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. The northern half of the remainder of the county is located in the Little River sub-basin of the Savannah River basin, while the southern half is located in the Upper Ogeechee River sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin. Interstate 20 U. S. Route 278 State Route 12 State Route 15 State Route 44 State Route 77 State Route 402 Oglethorpe County Taliaferro County Hancock County Putnam County Morgan County Oconee County Oconee National Forest At the 2000 census, there were 14,406 people, 5,477 households and 4,042 families residing in the county.
The population density was 37 per square mile. There were 6,653 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 52.95% White, 44.45% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.49% from other races, 0.56% from two or more races. 2.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,477 households of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.00% were married couples living together, 18.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.20% were non-families. 23.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.02. 25.10% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 27.50% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 91.90 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.50 males. The median household income was $33,479 and the median family incomewas $39,794. Males had a median income of $31,295 versus $20,232 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,389. About 16.00% of families and 22.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.80% of those under age 18 and 20.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 15,994 people, 6,519 households, 4,677 families residing in the county; the population density was 41.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,688 housing units at an average density of 22.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 56.6% white, 38.2% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 3.4% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 21.1% were American, 7.6% were English, 6.1% were German.
Of the 6,519 households, 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 15.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were non-families, 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.85. The median age was 46.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,513 and the median income for a family was $42,307. Males had a median income of $32,245 versus $24,622 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,943. About 17.8% of families and 23.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.0% of those under age 18 and 15.6% of those age 65 or over. The county supports the racial-integrated Greene County School Board, Lake Oconee Academy and Nathanael Greene Academy. In 2001, Georgia Supreme Court Chief Justice Robert Benham convened a committee to investigate indigent defense in the state of Georgia. An avalanche of complaints about the state of public defense in Greene County, along with a number of lawsuits filed by Stephen Bright and the Southern Center for Human Rights, contributed to the formation of this commission.
The commission discovered during its investigation that indigent defendants in Greene County were pleaded guilty by judges without the presence of counsel and sometimes without being present in court to make their pleas, violations of the Sixth Amendment. Excessive bail, e.g. $50,000 for loitering, was set as well, a violation of the Eight Amendment. After two years of investigation, the committee's recommendations led to the passage of the Georgia Indigent Defense Act. Greensboro Scull Shoals Siloam Union Point White Plains Woodville National Register of Historic Places listings in Greene County, Georgia Greene County historical marker Old Greene County "Gaol" historical marker
The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia; the Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. In the 19th century, James Mooney, an American ethnographer, recorded one oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived. Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers.
The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U. S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated that Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States; the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, some of these are state-recognized. A total of more than 819,000 people are estimated to claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the UKB are descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act; the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina.
A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi, translating as "Principal People". Tsalagi is the Cherokee word for Cherokee. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee", it may have been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country". The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei. Another theory is; the Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ. The word Cherokee means “people of different speech.” Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
Another theory is. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times, they may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds; the Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE. Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.
During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, pigweed and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn, it resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions; the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as
Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forest
The Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forest in northern Georgia comprises two United States National Forests, the Oconee National Forest in eastern Georgia and the Chattahoochee National Forest located in the North Georgia Mountains. The Chattahoochee National Forest is composed of an western forest; the western forest contains Johns Mountain, Little Sand Mountain, Taylor Ridge. The combined total area of the Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forest is 866,468 acres, of which the Chattahoochee National Forest comprises 750,145 acres and the Oconee National Forest comprises 116,232 acres; the county with the largest portion of the eastern forest is Rabun County, which has 148,684 acres within its boundaries. Numerous animals can be found in this forest including birds such as species of hawk, species of owl, ducks, sparrows, hummingbirds and cardinals. Mammalian species that roam in the forest are American black bear, coyote, a variety of bats, beaver, river otter, deer, weasel and foxes; the forest is known to be home to the mysterious blue glow of the Blue ghost firefly, Phausis reticulata and many species of fish and amphibians swim in the many streams and lakes.
The Chattahoochee National Forest takes its name from the Chattahoochee River whose headwaters begin in the North Georgia mountains. The River and the area were given the name by the English settlers who took the name from the Indians living here; the Cherokee and Creek Indians inhabited North Georgia. In one dialect of the Muskogean languages, Chatta means stone; these marked or flowered stones were in the Chattahoochee River at a settlement near Columbus, Georgia. In 1911, the United States Forest Service purchased 31,000 acres of land in Fannin, Gilmer and Union Counties from the Gennett family for $7 per acre; this land was the beginning of. The initial land purchases became a part of the Cherokee National Forest on June 14, 1920. Ranger Roscoe Nicholson, the first forest ranger in Georgia and had advised the Forest Service in its initial land purchases, continued the growth of the Chattahoochee by negotiating the purchase of most of the Forest Service land in what is now the Chattooga River Ranger District.
The Coleman River Scenic Area near Clayton, Georgia was dedicated to "Ranger Nick", as he was called, in honor of his promotion of conservation ideals. Ranger Arthur Woody promoted conservation and was a key figure in the early development of the Chattahoochee. Unwise land and resource use had caused the deer and trout populations to disappear in the North Georgia mountains and Woody brought trout and deer back to the area; the trout were shipped to Gainesville, hauled across the narrow, mountain roads and released in the streams. Woody purchased fawns with his own money, fed them until they could be released on what became the Blue Ridge Wildlife Management Area. Many landmarks in the Chattahoochee bear Ranger Woody’s name in tribute to his work. Sosebee Cove, a 175 acres tract of prize hardwood along GA 180 is set aside as a memorial to Woody, who negotiated its purchase for the Forest Service. On July 9, 1936, the Forest Service was reorganized to follow state boundaries and President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed the Chattahoochee a separate National Forest.
In 1936, the Chattahoochee was organized into the Blue Ridge and the Tallulah. In 1959, President Dwight D. Eisenhower proclaimed 96,000 acres of federal lands in central Georgia as the Oconee National Forest; the Oconee joined the Chattahoochee to become the Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forests of today. The Chattooga River was designated a Scenic River during the 1970s; the Chattooga remains one of the few free-flowing streams in the Southeast and is known for its white water rafting and scenery. The movie Deliverance was filmed on the Chattooga River, which became the fictional Cahulawassee River in the movie; the Chattahoochee National Forest today covers 18 north Georgia counties. The Chattahoochee has three ranger districts: Blue Ridge Ranger District, Office in Blairsville, GA Chattooga River Ranger District, Office in Tallulah Falls, GA Conasauga Ranger District, Office in Chatsworth, GAIt includes over 2,200 miles of rivers and streams. There are over 450 miles of hiking and other recreation trails, 1,600 miles of "roads."
In addition to the Chattooga River and the headwaters of the Chattahoochee River, natural attractions within it boundaries include the beginning of the 2,174-mile Appalachian Trail, Georgia's highpoint, Brasstown Bald and Anna Ruby Falls. The Chattahoochee includes ten wildernesses that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, all of which are managed by the United States Forest Service. Parts of these wilderness extend outside Chattahoochee National Forest; the wildernesses are: Big Frog Wilderness Blood Mountain Wilderness Brasstown Wilderness Cohutta Wilderness Ellicott Rock Wilderness Mark Trail Wilderness Raven Cliffs Wilderness Rich Mountain Wilderness Southern Nantahala Wilderness Tray Mountain WildernessThe Oconee National Forest today is spread over eight Georgia counties and is organized into one ranger district. The Oco
The Muscogee known as the Mvskoke and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Mvskoke is their autonym, their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Most of the original population of the Muscogee people were forcibly relocated from their native lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory; some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue to exist today in Louisiana and Texas. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy managed to remain in Alabama and is now known as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians. A large population of Muscogee people moved into Florida between 1767 and 1821 and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people, thereby establishing a separate identity from the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were fleeing conflict and encroachment by European settlers.
The great majority of Seminoles were later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today, although the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern day branches and tribes, except one, are all related variants called Muscogee and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible; the Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, who between AD 800 and AD 1600 built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids; some Mississippian city populations may have been larger than colonial European-American cities.
Muscogee Creeks are associated with multi-mound centers such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, Moundville sites. Mississippian societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century; the Muscogee were the first Native Americans considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. In fact, Muscogee confederated town networks were based on an 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh resisted European-American encroachment.
Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War. Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek Bands in the War of 1812 against the United States while the Southern Creeks remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creeks; the result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory; the Muscogee Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes, as are the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Seminole people today are part of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
At least 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians lived in what is today the Southern United States. Paleo-Indians in the Southeast were hunter-gatherers who pursued a wide range of animals, including the megafauna, which became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. During the time known as the Woodland period, from 1000 BC to 1000 AD, locals developed pottery and small-scale horticulture of the Eastern Agricultural Complex; the Mississippian culture arose as the cultivation of maize from Mesoamerica led to population growth. Increased population density gave rise to regional chiefdoms. Stratified societies developed, with hereditary religious and political elites, flourished in what is now the Midwestern and Southeastern United States from 800 to 1500 AD; the early historic Muscogee were descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture along the Tennessee River in modern Tennessee and Alabama. They may have been related to the Tama of central Georgia. Oral traditions passed down by the ancestors of the Creeks have alleged that their nation migrated eastward from places West of the Mississippi River settling on the east bank of the Ocmulgee River.
It was here that they waged war with other bands of Native American Indians, as the Savannas, Wapoos, Yamafees, Icofans