Flintshire is a principal area of Wales, known as a county. It was created by the Local Government Act 1994, it is in north-east Wales, bordering the English county of Cheshire to the east, Denbighshire to the west and Wrexham County Borough to the south. It is named after the historic county of Flintshire. Flintshire is considered part of the Welsh Marches and formed part of the historic Earldom of Chester and Flint; the county is governed by Flintshire County Council based in county hall Mold. The largest town in the county is Connah's Quay, followed by Flint and Mold. Flintshire takes its name from the former county of Flintshire established in 1536 which existed until 1974 when it was abolished under the Local Government Act 1972, its re-establishment in 1996 under the Local Government Act 1994 does not follow those original boundaries and covers a smaller area. At the time of the Roman invasion, the area of present-day Flintshire was inhabited by the Deceangli, one of the Celtic tribes in ancient Britain, with the Cornovii to the east and the Ordovices to the west.
Lead and silver mine workings are evident in the area, with several sows of lead found bearing the name'DECEANGI' inscribed in Roman epigraphy. The Deceangli appear to have surrendered to Roman rule with little resistance. Following Roman Britain, the emergence of various petty kingdoms, the region had been divided into the Hundred of Englefield, derived from the Latin Deceangli, it became part of the Kingdom of Mercia by the 8th century AD, with much of the western boundary reinforced under Offa of Mercia after 752, but there is evidence that Offa's Dyke is a much earlier construction. By the time of the Norman conquest in 1066 it was under the control of Edwin of Tegeingl, from whose Lordship the Flintshire coat of arms is derived. Edwin's mother is believed to have been daughter of Eadwine of Mercia. At the time of the establishment of the Earldom of Chester, which succeeded the Earl of Mercia, the region formed two of the twelve Hundreds of Cheshire of which it remained a part for several hundred years.
Flintshire today resembles the boundaries of the Hundred of Atiscross as it existed at the time of the Domesday Book. Atiscross, along with the Hundred of Exestan, was transferred from the Earldom of Chester to the expanding Kingdom of Gwynedd from the west in the 13th century following numerous military campaigns; this region, as well as an exclave formed from part of the Hundred of Dudestan formed the main areas of Flintshire, established by the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 under Edward I. It was administered with the Palatinate of Flint by the Justiciar of Chester; the county was consolidated in 1536 by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 under the Tudor King Henry VIII, when it was incorporated into the Kingdom of England. Flintshire remained in existence until 1974 when it was merged with Denbighshire and Edeyrnion Rural District to form the administrative county of Clwyd. Clwyd was abolished 22 years and Flintshire reorganised in its present form in 1996. However, some parts of the historic country are not included within the present boundaries of Flintshire: English Maelor was incorporated into Wrexham County Borough, St Asaph and Rhyl into Denbighshire.
The current administrative area of Flintshire came into existence in 1996, when the former administrative county of Clwyd was split into three smaller areas. The principal area was formed by the merger of the Deeside and Delyn districts. In terms of pre-1974 divisions, the area comprises the former borough of Flint the urban districts of Buckley, Connah's Quay, Mold the rural district of Holywell Rural District all of Hawarden Rural District except the parish of Marford and HosleyThe district of Rhuddlan, formed from the administrative county of Flintshire was included in the new Denbighshire instead. Other parts of the pre-1974 administrative Flintshire to be excluded from the principal area are the Maelor Rural District and the parish of Marford and Hoseley, which became part of the Wrexham Maelor district in 1974 and are now part of Wrexham County Borough. See List of places in Flintshire for a list of towns and villages. Flintshire is a maritime county bounded to the north by the Dee estuary, to the east by Cheshire, to the west by Denbighshire and to the south by Wrexham County Borough.
The coast along the Dee estuary is developed by industry and the north coast much developed for tourism. The Clwydian Range occupies much of the west of the county; the highest point is Moel Famau. The chief towns are Buckley, Connah's Quay, Hawarden, Mold and Shotton; the main rivers are the Dee, the River Alyn. Located on the North Wales Coast Line with services run by Virgin Trains and Transport for Wales calling at Flintshire stations such as Flint and Shotton with an interchange at Shotton with the Borderlands Line, which links other Flintshire stations with the Liverpool area. Parts of Flintshire have major manufacturing industries. Amongst these are an advanced Toyota plant that manufactures engines, Shotton Paper, Airbus, making the wings for the A330 and the A380 at Broughton. There are daily flights of the Airbus Beluga transport aircraft of Airbus wings from Broughton for the smaller aircraft; the wings for the A380, which are too large to be transported by air, use a multi-modal transport using Flintshire's roads, the River Dee and the port of Mostyn in Flintshire.
Flintshire is known for its inter
Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock, composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones. About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones; the solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as foraminifera; these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, leave these shells behind when they die. Other carbonate grains composing limestones are ooids, peloids and extraclasts. Limestone contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, varying amounts of clay and sand carried in by rivers; some limestones do not consist of grains, are formed by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters; this produces speleothems, such as stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance; the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock building upon past generations. Below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not form in deeper waters.
Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors with weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock; when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.
Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying the types of carbonate rocks collectively known as limestone. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems and cement; the Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample; the Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962.
Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are for rock families, his efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were in mutual contact, therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock; the Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample. A revised classification was proposed by Wright, it adds some diagenetic patterns and can be summarized as follows: See: Carbonate platform About 10% of all sedimentary rocks are limestones. Limestone is soluble in acid, therefore forms many erosional landforms; these include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known
The vadose zone termed the unsaturated zone, is the part of Earth between the land surface and the top of the phreatic zone, the position at which the groundwater is at atmospheric pressure. Hence, the vadose zone extends from the top of the ground surface to the water table. Water in the vadose zone has a pressure head less than atmospheric pressure, is retained by a combination of adhesion, capillary action. If the vadose zone envelops soil, the water contained therein is termed soil moisture. In fine grained soils, capillary action can cause the pores of the soil to be saturated above the water table at a pressure less than atmospheric; the vadose zone does not include the area, still saturated above the water table referred to as the capillary fringe. Movement of water within the vadose zone is studied within soil physics and hydrology hydrogeology, is of importance to agriculture, contaminant transport, flood control; the Richards equation is used to mathematically describe the flow of water, based on Darcy's law.
Groundwater recharge, an important process that refills aquifers occurs through the vadose zone from precipitation. The vadose zone is the undersaturated portion of the subsurface that lies above the groundwater table; the soil and rock in the vadose zone are not saturated with water. In some places the vadose zone is absent, as is common where there are lakes and marshes, in some places it is hundreds of meters thick, as is common in arid regions. Unlike the aquifers of the underlying water-saturated phreatic zone, the vadose zone is not a source of available water for human consumption, it is of great importance in providing water and nutrients that are vital to the biosphere, it is intensively used for the cultivation of plants, construction of buildings, disposal of waste. The vadose zone is the main factor controlling water movement from the land surface to the aquifer, thus it affects the rate of aquifer recharge and is critical for the use and management of groundwater. Flow rates and chemical reactions in the vadose zone control whether and how fast contaminants enter groundwater supplies.
Understanding of vadose-zone processes is therefore crucial in determining the amount and quality of groundwater, available for human use. In speleology, cave passages formed in the vadose zone tend to be canyon-like in shape, as the water dissolves bedrock on the floor of the passage. Passages created in water-filled conditions are called phreatic passages and tend to be circular in cross-section. Aquifer – Underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock Epiphreatic zone – The zone between vadose zone above it and phreatic zone beneath it Groundwater – water located beneath the ground surface Water retention curve "Unsaturated Zone". USGS. Retrieved 2014-05-01. "Aquifers". USGS. Retrieved 2014-05-01. "Unsaturated Zone Definitions Page". USGS. Retrieved 2006-07-01. "Unsaturated Zone Flow: Definitions and Details". USGS. Archived from the original on 2006-05-24. Retrieved 2006-07-01. Wilson, L. G.. Handbook of Vadose Zone Characterization & Monitoring. CRC Press. ISBN 0873716108
Cilcain is a village and community, near Mold in Flintshire, north-east Wales. The village has an industrial history and includes the Millennium Woods, a post office, a public house, a parish church, a primary school and a village hall. Cilcain borders the parishes of Rhes-y-cae and Rhydymwyn; the community includes the village of Rhydymwyn. The Welsh placename Cilcain, which has in the past been spelled as Kilken and Cilcen, has been suggested to derive from cil meaning'retreat' and cain meaning'fair' or'pleasant' in the Welsh language. In the early years of Cilcain's existence it was noted as a place of retreat and was locally famous for its regular village fairs, where a notable amount of alcohol was consumed. Cilcain was known for cockfighting, which took place on Sundays after the local church service; the first recorded mention of the church at Cilcain dates from 1291. Cilcain is one of the "ancient parishes" of Flintshire, it comprised the seven townships of Cefn, Llystynhunydd, Llys y Coed, Maes y Groes and Trellyniau.
On 27 June 1848, the township of Trellyniau and part of the township of Llystynhunydd went to the new parish of Rhes-y-Cae. On 31 March 1865, the remainder of Llystynhunydd, parts of the townships of Cefn and Mechlas, went to the new parish of Rhydymwyn. An electoral ward in the same name exists; this ward stretches north and had a total population at the 2011 Census of 1,874. The Millennium Woods were planted in 2000 through the'Woods on your doorstep' scheme of the Woodland Trust. Many of the trees were planted by some of the students attending the local school, Ysgol y Foel, in that year; the official name is Coed y Felin, named after the disused mill that now lies in ruins by the stream below. Cilcain Hall Brynle Williams, Cilcain farmer and Conservative member of the National Assembly for Wales. Cilcain Village Hall - news and events Cilcain Community Shop Cilcain Community Council Cilcain Today Cilcain & Nannerch website Photos of Cilcain and surrounding area on geograph.org.uk
A cave survey is a map of all or part of a cave system, which may be produced to meet differing standards of accuracy depending on the cave conditions and equipment available underground. Cave surveying and cartography, i.e. the creation of an accurate, detailed map, is one of the most common technical activities undertaken within a cave and is a fundamental part of speleology. Surveys can be used to compare caves to each other by length and volume, may reveal clues on speleogenesis, provide a spatial reference for other areas of scientific study and assist visitors with route-finding. Traditionally, cave surveys are produced in two-dimensional form due to the confines of print, but given the three-dimensional environment inside a cave, modern techniques using computer aided design are used to allow a more realistic representation of a cave system; the first known plan of a cave dates from 1546, was of a man-made cavern in tufa called the Stufe di Nerone in Pozzuoli near Naples in Italy. The first natural cave to be mapped was the Baumannshöhle in Germany, of which a sketch from 1656 survives.
Another early survey dates from before 1680, was made by John Aubrey of Long Hole in the Cheddar Gorge. It consists of an elevational section of the cave. Numerous other surveys of caves were made in the following years, though most are sketches and are limited in accuracy; the first cave, to have been surveyed with instruments is the Grotte de Miremont in France. This includes numerous cross-sections. Édouard-Alfred Martel was the first person to describe surveying techniques. His surveys were made by having an assistant walk down the passage until they were out of sight. Martel would take a compass bearing to the assistant's light, measure the distance by pacing up to the assistant; this would equate to a modern-day BCRA Grade 2 survey. The first cave to have its centreline calculated by a computer is the Fergus River Cave in Ireland, plotted by members of the UBSS in 1964; the software was programmed onto a large university mainframe computer and a paper plot was produced. There are many variations to surveying methodology, but most are based on a similar set of steps which haven't changed fundamentally in 250 years, although the instruments have got smaller and more accurate.
Since the late 1990s digital instruments such as distometers have started to change the process, leading to the advent of paperless surveying around 2007. The main variation on the normal methodology detailed below have been devices such as LIDAR and SONAR surveyors that produce a point cloud rather than a series of linked stations. Video-based surveying exists in prototype form. A survey team begins at a fixed point and measures a series of consecutive line-of-sight measurements between stations; the stations are temporary fixed locations chosen chiefly for their ease of access and clear sight along the cave passage. In some cases, survey stations may be permanently marked to create a fixed reference point to which to return at a date; the measurements taken between the stations include: direction taken with a compass inclination from horizontal taken with a clinometer distance measured with a low-stretch tape or laser rangefinder optionally, distance to surrounding walls – left, right, up, down Coincident with recording straight-line data, details of passage dimensions, gradual or sudden changes in elevation, the presence or absence of still or flowing water, the location of notable features and the material on the floor are recorded by means of a sketch map.
The cartographer analyses the recorded data, converting them into two-dimensional measurements by way of geometrical calculations. From them he/she creates a line-plot; the cartographer draws details around the line-plot, using the additional data of passage dimensions, water flow and floor/wall topography recorded at the time, to produce a completed cave survey. Cave surveys drawn on paper are presented in two-dimensional plan and/or profile views, while computer surveys may simulate three dimensions. Although designed to be functional, some cavers consider cave surveys as an art form. Hydrolevelling is an alternative to measuring depth with clinometer and tape that has a long history of use in Russia; the technique is used in building construction for finding two points with the same height, as in levelling a floor. In the simplest case, a tube with both ends open is used, attached to a strip of wood, the tube is filled with water and the depth at each end marked. In Russia, measuring the depth of caves by hydrolevelling began in the 1970s, was considered to be the most accurate means of measuring depth despite the difficulties in using the cumbersome equipment of the time.
Interest in the method has been revived following the discovery of Voronja on the Arabica Massif in the Caucasus – the world's deepest cave. The hydrolevel device used in recent Voronja expeditions comprises a 50-metre transparent tube filled with water, coiled or placed on a reel. A rubber glove which acts as a reservoir is placed on one end of the tube, a metal box with a transparent window is placed on the other. A diver's digital wristwatch with a depth gauge function is submerged in the box. If the rubber glove is placed on one station and the box with the depth gauge is placed on a lower one the hydrostatic pressure between the two points depends only on the difference in heights and the density of the water, i.e. the route of the tube does not affect the pressure in the box. Reading the depth gaug
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Ogof Nadolig is a cave in the Alyn Gorge near Cilcain, Wales. It is crawling, 300 metres long, ends with a shaft up to the surface and a locked manhole cover. Nearby, but closer to the river, are the caves Ogof Hesp Alyn and Ogof Hen Ffynhonnau, its name derives from the fact. Tourist write-up of caving cowdery's cave guide to nadilog