A Korean name consists of a family name followed by a given name, as used by the Korean people in both South Korea and North Korea. In the Korean language, ireum or seongmyeong refers to the family name and given name together. Traditional Korean family names consist of only one syllable. There is no middle name in the English language sense. Many Koreans have their given names made of a generational name syllable and an individually distinct syllable, though this practice is declining in the younger generations; the generational name syllable is shared by siblings in North Korea, by all members of the same generation of an extended family in South Korea. Married men and women keep their full personal names, children inherit the father's family name unless otherwise settled when registering the marriage; the family names are subdivided into bon-gwan, i.e. extended families which originate in the lineage system used in previous historical periods. Each clan is identified by a specific place, traces its origin to a common patrilineal ancestor.
Early names based on the Korean language were recorded in the Three Kingdoms period, but with the growing adoption of the Chinese writing system, these were replaced by names based on Chinese characters. During periods of Mongol influence, the ruling class supplemented their Korean names with Mongolian names; because of the many changes in Korean romanization practices over the years, modern Koreans, when using languages written in Latin script, romanize their names in various ways, most approximating the pronunciation in English orthography. Some keep the original order of names, while others reverse the names to match the usual Western pattern. According to the population and housing census of 2000 conducted by the South Korean government, there are a total of 286 surnames and 4,179 clans. Fewer than 300 Korean family names were in use in 2000, the three most common account for nearly half of the population. For various reasons, there is a growth in the number of Korean surnames; each family name is divided into one or more clans.
For example, the most populous clan is Gimhae Kim. Clans are further subdivided into various pa, or branches stemming from a more recent common ancestor, so that a full identification of a person's family name would be clan-surname-branch. For example, "Gyeongju Yissi" romanized as "Gyeongju Leessi" and "Yeonan-Yissi" are, technically speaking different surnames though both are, in most places referred to as "Yi" or "Lee"; this means people from the same clan are considered to be of same blood, such that marriage of a man and a woman of same surname and bon-gwan is considered a strong taboo, regardless of how distant the actual lineages may be to the present day. Traditionally, Korean women keep their family names after their marriage, but their children take the father's surname. In the premodern, patriarchal Korean society, people were conscious of familial values and their own family identities. Korean women keep their surnames after marriage based on traditional reasoning that it is inherited from their parents and ancestors, cannot be changed.
According to traditions, each clan publishes a comprehensive genealogy every 30 years. Around a dozen two-syllable surnames are used; the five most common family names, which together make up over half of the Korean population, are used by over 20 million people in South Korea. After the 2015 census, it was revealed that foreign-origin family names were becoming more common in South Korea, due to naturalised citizens transcribing their surnames in hangul. Between 2000 and 2015, more than 4,800 new surnames were registered. During the census, a total of 5,582 distinct surnames were collected, 73% of which do not have corresponding hanja characters, it was revealed that despite the surge in the number of surnames, the ratio of top 10 surnames had not changed. 44.6% of South Koreans are still named Kim, Lee or Park, while the rest of the top 10 are made up of Choi, Kang, Jo, Yoon and Lim. Traditionally, given names are determined by generation names, a custom originating in China. One of the two characters in a given name is unique to the individual, while the other is shared by all people in a family generation.
In both North and South Korea, generational names are no longer shared by cousins, but are still shared by brothers and sisters. Given names are composed of hanja, or Chinese characters. In North Korea, the hanja are no longer used to write the names, but the meanings are still understood. In South Korea, section 37 of the Family Registry Law requires that the hanja in personal names be taken from a restricted list. Unapproved hanja must be represented by hangul in the family registry. In March 1991, the Supreme Court of South Korea published the Table of Hanja for Personal Name Use, which allowed a total of 2,854 hanja in new South Korean given names; the list was expanded in 1994, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2013 and 2015. Thus, 8,142 hanja are now permitted in South Korean names, in addition to a small number of alternative forms; the use of an official list is similar to Japan's use of the jinmeiyō kanji. While the traditional practice is still followed, since the lat
The Others (2001 film)
The Others is a 2001 horror film. It was written and scored by Alejandro Amenábar, it stars Fionnula Flanagan. The film won eight Goya Awards, including awards for Best Director; this was the first English-language film to receive the Best Film Award at the Goyas, without a single word of Spanish spoken in it. The Others was nominated for six Saturn Awards including Best Director and Best Writing for Amenábar and Best Performance by a Younger Actor for Alakina Mann, won three: Best Horror Film, Best Actress for Kidman and Best Supporting Actress for Fionnula Flanagan. Kidman was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in Drama and a BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role, with Amenábar being nominated for a BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay, a rare occurrence for a horror film. Set in 1945, Grace Stewart occupies a remote country house in the Channel Islands and one day awakens from a harsh nightmare in the immediate aftermath of World War II, she lives with her two young children and Nicholas, who have an uncommon disease characterised by photosensitivity.
Grace hires three new servants—the aging Mrs. Bertha Mills, elderly gardener Edmund Tuttle, a mute girl named Lydia. Mills explains that she had worked in the house many years ago. Anne tells Mills that "mummy went mad" after the previous servants left. Nicholas disagrees and argues that "nothing happened". Grace requests Mills not to trust everything; when odd events occur at the house, Grace begins to fear. Anne claims to have seen a group of people in the house several times: a man, woman, an old woman and a child called Victor, who have claimed that "the house is theirs". After Grace hears footsteps and unknown voices, she orders the house to be searched. Grace finds a 19th-century so-called "book of the dead", a photo album of mourning portrait photos of deceased family members, with some missing pages. Grace asks Mills about. Mills says. At night, Grace witnesses a piano playing itself and becomes convinced that the house may be haunted. Convinced that something unholy is in the house, Grace runs outside in search of the local priest to bless the house.
Before leaving, Grace instructs Tuttle to check a small nearby cemetery to see if there was a family buried there who had a little boy named Victor. Tuttle covers the gravestones with fallen autumn leaves, under the orders of Mills, who comments that Grace thinks the house is haunted. Outside, Grace discovers her husband Charles. Charles greets his children after a long absence, but is distant during the short time he spends at the house. Grace has a vision of an elderly woman and attacks her. Grace soon learns that she has attacked Anne, who retreats to her father. Charles asks Grace what happened "that day". Grace claims that she does not know but recalls that the servants left without giving notice and without her husband there, she could not leave the house and she did not know what came over her. Following Grace's attack, Anne tells Nicholas that Grace went mad in the same way that she did "that day". Nicholas denies recollection of that day. Charles says he must leave for the front though Grace claims that the war is over.
Charles weeps when Grace thinks that he wanted to leave her, the two embrace lie motionless together in bed. The next morning he is gone again; the children wake up screaming. Grace blocks out the light. Grace banishes them. After leaving, an annoyed Mills asks Tuttle to uncover the gravestones; that night, as Grace searches for the curtains, the children sneak outside and Anne discovers a graveyard and realises that these are the servants' graves from years past. Grace finds a torn out photograph from the photo album of portraits of the dead, is horrified to see it is of her three servants; the servants try to speak to the children, who retreat. Grace tells the children to hide upstairs in the bedroom. From outside, Mills reveals that the three servants died of tuberculosis more than 50 years ago and that the living and the dead should learn to live together. Hearing the children scream as they face the elderly woman, Mills tells Grace to go upstairs and talk to the intruders. Grace discovers that the old woman, described by Anne as an intruder, is in fact acting as a medium in a séance with Victor's parents.
The medium asks what happened to Nicholas. The children's answers read out by a man, it is revealed that Grace smothered the children to death with a pillow on the day she "went mad". The children scream. Grace, in denial, rips the medium's papers. Victor's family sees the papers being ripped. Grace, now realising herself as being the spirit which the séance tried to contact, regains her memories of the end of the war years: stricken with grief without her husband, isolated alone with the children, Grace lost her mind and in psychosis killed her children. Realising what she had done, she shot herself; when she "awoke" and heard her children's laughter, she assumed God had granted her family a second chance at life. Grace questions whether they are now alive and Mills says that Lydia wondered this before becoming mute, it was only Charles' spirit that came to visit them before d
Fruits Basket, sometimes abbreviated Furuba, or Furuba, is a Japanese shōjo manga series written and illustrated by Natsuki Takaya. It was serialized in the semi-monthly Japanese magazine Hana to Yume, published by Hakusensha, from 1998 to 2006; the series was adapted into a 26-episode anime series, directed by Akitaro Daichi. The series tells the story of Tohru Honda, an orphan girl who, after meeting Yuki and Shigure Soma, learns that twelve members of the Soma family are possessed by the animals of the Chinese zodiac and are cursed to turn into their animal forms when they are weak, stressed, or when they are embraced by anyone of the opposite sex, not possessed by a zodiacal spirit; the title comes from the name of a popular game played in Japanese elementary schools, alluded to in the series. A new anime television series adaptation produced by TMS Entertainment and directed by Yoshihide Ibata premiered in April 2019; the anime series is licensed in North America under the Crunchyroll-Funimation partnership.
When high school student Tohru Honda's mother dies in a car crash, Tohru decides to live with her grandfather. Renovations on the house and unsupportive and unkind family members cause her to move out of her grandfather's house temporarily and, since she has nowhere else to go, Tohru begins living in a tent and supporting herself; that is, until she finds a home in the least of places, inhabited by her popular classmate Yuki Soma and his cousin Shigure. The first day Tohru moves into the Soma house, an orange haired teenager crashes through the roof of her new bedroom and starts attacking Yuki; this newcomer is Kyo and Shigure's aggressively angry cousin. Once Kyo loses to Yuki, he tries to fight him again; when he's about to attack, Tohru tries to stop him, but slips on an article of clothing, making her fall onto Kyo's back. When this happens, Tohru discovers something big about the Somas; the Somas live with a curse. Twelve members of the family are possessed by spirits of the Chinese zodiac and turn into their zodiac animal when they are weak, under stress, embarrassed, or when hugged by someone of the opposite sex.
When Tohru discovers the Somas' secret, she promises not to tell and is allowed to keep living with them. Although the Somas' curse is deeper and darker than Tohru realized, her presence and her acceptance of them soon becomes a large, positive influence on those possessed by the zodiac, she sets out to break the curse and, on the way and discovers the Soma's vengeful zodiac spirits. Each has a different personality, just like the animals in the Chinese zodiac. One by one, Tohru's existence changes the Soma clan's lives forever. Tohru Honda Tohru Honda, aged 16–18, is an orphaned high school student who, at the start of the story, lives in a tent before she encounters the Soma family. More she begins living with Shigure and Kyo Soma in exchange for housekeeping, she loves to cook, describes herself as an excellent housekeeper, has an after-school job as an office janitor in an effort to pay her tuition fees and avoid being a burden to her grandfather. Throughout both the manga and anime series, it is noticeable from those around her that she has a good heart and genuinely cares about those in her life.
Although knowing the Soma's curse, Tohru embraces their secret. Kyo Soma Kyo Soma, aged 16–18, is cursed by the cat, an animal not in the Chinese zodiac, but which legend says would have been if it had not been tricked by the Rat into missing the induction feast. In an author's note, Natsuki Takaya described the character of Kyo as a powerful force that pulled the story of Fruits Basket along. In spite of his cold and aggressive nature, Kyo's heart softens upon realizing Tohru's care for him be sincere, their bond not only encourages Kyo to have a change of heart, but it allows Kyo to trust in Tohru when he's to expose what it means to be excluded from the zodiac. Yuki Soma Yuki Soma, aged 16 -- 18, is younger brother of Ayame. Yuki is depicted as an attractive and accomplished young man with many admirers, but who finds being friendly difficult. He's been able to confide to Tohru without problem and has expressed vulnerability as one who has the Soma curse; the title of the series is taken from a children's game, Fruits Basket, in which the participants sit in a circle, the leader of the game names each person after a type of fruit.
When the protagonist, Tohru Honda, first plays this game in kindergarten, she is assigned "onigiri", by her cruel classmates, but she does not mind because she thinks onigiri are delicious. Once the game is finished, all of the children but Tohru are called, Tohru realizes that onigiri are not a type of fruit at all, she realizes that she does not belong. Tohru comes to associate this game with the Soma family, that she does not fit in among them any more than an onigiri does in a basket of fruit. In volume 1 of the manga, after Yuki and Kyo bring Tohru home from her grandfather's house, she begins to feel like she belongs with the Soma family. After this, she imagines herself as a child hearing "onigiri" called in the game, symbolizing that she has found her place. Natsuki Takaya named most of the twelve Somas cursed by zodiac animals after archaic names of month in the former Japanese lunisolar calendar that corresponds to their zodiac animal; the exceptions are Kureno and Mo
Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation
Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation is one of the leading South Korean television and radio network companies. Munhwa is the Korean word for "culture", its flagship terrestrial television station MBC TV is Channel 11 for Digital. Established on December 2, 1961, MBC is a Korean terrestrial broadcaster which has a nationwide network of 17 regional stations. Although it operates on advertising, MBC is a public broadcaster, as its largest shareholder is a public organization, The Foundation of Broadcast Culture. Today, it is a multimedia group with one terrestrial TV channel, three radio channels, five cable channels, five satellite channels and four DMB channels. MBC is headquartered in Digital Media City, Mapo-gu, Seoul and has the largest broadcast production facilities in Korea including digital production center Dream Center in Ilsan and outdoor sets in Yongin Daejanggeum Park. Launching the first radio broadcast signal from Seoul, MBC started as the first non-governmental commercial broadcaster in Korea.
On April 12, 1963, it obtained a license from the government for operating regional stations in major cities in Korea, established a broadcast network which connects 6 cities including Seoul and Busan. MBC launched TV broadcasting on August 8, 1969, started to broadcast its main news program MBC Newsdesk on October 5, 1970, it reached affiliation deal with 7 commercial stations between 1968 and 1969, started nationwide TV broadcasting through its 13 affiliated or regional stations. In 1974, FM radio was launched; the first color TV broadcasting was started on December 22, 1980. MBC was separated from The Kyunghyang Shinmun according to the 1981 Basic Press Act. In 1982, it moved into the Yoido headquarters and founded professional baseball team MBC Cheong-ryong. With the live coverage of the 1986 Seoul Asian Games and the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games, MBC made a great advancement in scale and technology. After growing into a large corporation, covering major international events, MBC established specialized companies for each value chain and spined them off as subsidiaries to become a more efficient corporation amid fiercer competition in the multimedia era.
※ MBC Production and MBC Media Tech were merged into MBC C&I in August, 2011. As the convergence of broadcasting and communications becomes full-fledged, MBC made its subsidiary iMBC an independent corporation and pursued various internet-related business. Furthermore, it started new DMB broadcasting. In 2007, MBC established digital production center Ilsan Dream Center, equipped with high-tech production facilities. In September 2014, it completed the construction of a new headquarters building and moved from Yoido to Sangam-dong, opening a new era of Sangam MBC. In 2001, MBC launched cable television broadcasting; as part of this expansion it created MBC America, a subsidiary based in Los Angeles, United States, to distribute its programming throughout the Americas. On August 1, 2008 MBC America launched MBC-D, a television network carried on the digital subchannels of KSCI-TV, KTSF-TV, WMBC-TV; the service was planned to be launched in Atlanta and Washington, D. C. by the end of the year. In northeast metro Atlanta, it aired on WKTB-CD channel 47.3, but as of 2011 is on WSKC-CD channel 22.1.
MBC is an active member of international organizations such as ABU, IATAS and INPUT, is affiliated with 21 broadcasters in 13 different countries. It is engaged in various global business through overseas corporations in Los Angeles and Shanghai, bureaus in North America, Latin America and the Middle East as well as Asia, in close cooperation with major global media groups. MBC is devoted to expanding the business area, it maintains a close relationship with foreign buyers by participating in major content markets every year such as MIP-TV, MIPCOM, NATPE, BCWW and ATF. In addition, it operates an English web site which introduces various MBC content to the overseas buyers and viewers so that they can access its content. MBC drama What on Earth Is Love? is the first Korean Wave drama which sparked the K-drama boom across China, when it was aired on CCTV in 1997. Since numerous MBC dramas, entertainment shows, documentaries have been exported to different countries; the drama "Dae Jang Geum" was shown in as many as 91 countries around the world.
More MBC is widening its content business area by exporting show formats such as I Am a Singer, We Got Married and Dad! Where Are We Going? to other countries. See in Korean Wikipedia: Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation Television1 terrestrial TV 3 Radio stations:5 cable 5 satellite 3 terrestrial DMB 2 satellite DMB List of programs broadcast by Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation Korean Broadcasting System Educational Broadcasting System List of South Korean broadcasting networks List of Korea-related topics Contemporary culture of South Korea http://www.misodacom.com/bbs/board.php?bo_table=3_3&wr_id=11 Official Homepage Live Stream (Chunch