A metaphor is a figure of speech that, for rhetorical effect, directly refers to one thing by mentioning another. It may identify hidden similarities between two ideas. Antithesis, hyperbole and simile are all types of metaphor. One of the most cited examples of a metaphor in English literature is the "All the world's a stage" monologue from As You Like It: This quotation expresses a metaphor because the world is not a stage. By asserting that the world is a stage, Shakespeare uses points of comparison between the world and a stage to convey an understanding about the mechanics of the world and the behavior of the people within it; the Philosophy of Rhetoric by rhetorician I. A. Richards describes a metaphor as having two parts: the tenor and the vehicle; the tenor is the subject. The vehicle is the object. In the previous example, "the world" is compared to a stage, describing it with the attributes of "the stage". Other writers employ the general terms figure to denote the tenor and the vehicle.
Cognitive linguistics uses source, respectively. Psychologist Julian Jaynes contributed the terms metaphrand, metaphier and paraphier to the understanding of how metaphors evoke meaning thereby adding two additional terms to the common set of two basic terms. Metaphrand is equivalent to metaphor theory terms tenor and ground. Metaphier is equivalent to metaphor theory terms vehicle and source. Paraphier is any attribute, characteristics, or aspect of a metaphier, whereas any paraphrand is a selected paraphier which has conceptually become attached to a metaphrand through understanding or comprehending of a metaphor. For example, if a reader encounters this metaphor: "Pat is a tornado," the metaphrand is "Pat," the metaphier is "tornado." The paraphiers, or characteristics, of the metaphier "tornado" would include: storm, wind, danger, destruction, etc. However, the metaphoric use of those attributes or characteristics of a tornado is not one-for-one; the English metaphor derived from the 16th-century Old French word métaphore, which comes from the Latin metaphora, "carrying over", in turn from the Greek μεταφορά, "transfer", from μεταφέρω, "to carry over", "to transfer" and that from μετά, "after, across" + φέρω, "to bear", "to carry".
Metaphors are most compared with similes. It is said, for instance, that a metaphor is'a condensed analogy' or'analogical fusion' or that they'operate in a similar fashion' or are'based on the same mental process' or yet that'the basic processes of analogy are at work in metaphor', it is pointed out that'a border between metaphor and analogy is fuzzy' and'the difference between them might be described as the distance between things being compared'. A simile is a specific type of metaphor. A metaphor asserts the objects in the comparison are identical on the point of comparison, while a simile asserts a similarity. For this reason a common-type metaphor is considered more forceful than a simile; the metaphor category contains these specialized types: Allegory: An extended metaphor wherein a story illustrates an important attribute of the subject. Antithesis: A rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words, clauses, or sentences. Catachresis: A mixed metaphor, sometimes by accident.
Hyperbole: Excessive exaggeration to illustrate a point. Metonymy: A figure of speech using the name of one thing in reference to a different thing to which the first is associated. In the phrase "lands belonging to the crown", the word "crown" is metonymy for monarch. Parable: An extended metaphor told as an anecdote to illustrate or teach a moral or spiritual lesson, such as in Aesop's fables or Jesus' teaching method as told in the Bible. Pun: Similar to a metaphor, a pun alludes to another term. However, the main difference is that a pun is a frivolous allusion between two different things whereas a metaphor is a purposeful allusion between two different things. Metaphor, like other types of analogy, can be distinguished from metonymy as one of two fundamental modes of thought. Metaphor and analogy work by bringing together concepts from different conceptual domains, while metonymy uses one element from a given domain to refer to another related element. A metaphor creates new links between otherwise distinct conceptual domains, while a metonymy relies on the existing links within them.
A dead metaphor is a metaphor. The phrases "to grasp a concept" and "to gather what you've understood" use physical action as a metaphor for understanding; the audience does not need to visualize the action. Some distinguish between a dead metaphor and a cliché. Others use "dead metaphor" to denote both. A mixed metaphor is a metaphor that leaps from one identification to a second inconsistent with the first, e.g.: I smell a rat but I'll nip him in the bud"-Irish politician Boyle Roche This form is used as a parody of metaphor itself: If we can hit that bull's-eye the rest of the dominoes will fall like a house of cards... Checkmate. An extended metaphor, or conceit, sets up a principal subject wit
Lust is a psychological force producing intense wanting or longing for an object, or circumstance fulfilling the emotion. Lust can take any form such as the lust for sexuality, money or power, it can take such mundane forms as the lust for food as distinct from the need for food. Religions Christianity, tend to draw a distinction between passion and lust by further categorizing lust as an inappropriate desire or a desire, inappropriately strong, whereas passion is maintained to be something God-given and moral. Lust holds a critical position in the philosophical underpinnings of Buddhist reality, it is named in the second of the Four Noble Truths, which are that Suffering is inherent in all life. Suffering is caused by desire. There is a natural way to eliminate all suffering from one's life; the ending of desire eliminates all suffering from someones life. Lust is the, attachment to, identification with, passionate desire for certain things in existence, all of which relate to the form, perception and consciousness that certain combinations of these things engender within us.
Lust is thus the ultimate cause of general imperfection and the most immediate root cause of a certain suffering. The passionate desire for either non-existence or for freedom from lust is a common misunderstanding. For example, the headlong pursuit of lust in order to fulfill a desire for death is followed by a reincarnation accompanied by a self-fulfilling karma, resulting in an endless wheel of life, until the right way to live, the right worldview, is somehow discovered and practiced. Beholding an endless knot puts one, symbolically, in the position of the one with the right worldview, representing that person who attains freedom from lust. In existence are four kinds of things that engender the clinging: rituals, worldviews and the self; the way to eliminate lust is to learn of its unintended effects and to pursue righteousness as concerns a worldview, speech, livelihood, effort and concentration, in the place where lust sat. In many translations of the New Testament, the word "lust" translates the Greek word ἐπιθυμέω in Matthew 5:27-28: Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery: But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her in his heart.
In English-speaking countries, the term "lust" is associated with sexual desire because of this verse. But just as the English word was a general term for desire, the Greek word ἐπιθυμέω was a general term for desire; the LSJ lexicon suggests "set one's heart upon a thing, long for, desire" as glosses for ἐπιθυμέω, used in verses that have nothing to do with sexual desire. In the Septuagint, ἐπιθυμέω is the word used in the commandment to not covet: You shall not covet your neighbor's wife. While coveting your neighbor's wife may involve sexual desire, it's unlikely that coveting a neighbor's house or field is sexual in nature, and in most New Testament uses, the same Greek word, ἐπιθυμέω, does not have a clear sexual connotation. For example, from the American Standard Version the same word is used outside of any sexual connotation: Matthew 13:17: For verily I say unto you, that many prophets and righteous men desired to see the things which ye see, saw them not. Luke 22:15-16: And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer: for I say unto you, I shall not eat it, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.
Acts 20:33: I coveted no man's silver, or gold, or apparel. Ye yourselves know that these hands ministered unto my necessities, to them that were with me. Luke 15:14-16: And when had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that country, and he joined himself to one of the citizens of that country. And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat: and no man gave unto him. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, a Christian's heart is lustful when "venereal satisfaction is sought for either outside wedlock or, at any rate, in a manner, contrary to the laws that govern marital intercourse". Pope John Paul II said that lust devalues the eternal attraction of male and female, reducing personal riches of the opposite sex to an object for gratification of sexuality. Lust is considered by Catholicism to be a disordered desire for sexual pleasure, where sexual pleasure is "sought for itself, isolated from its procreative and unitive purposes". In Catholicism, sexual desire in itself is good, is considered part of God's plan for humanity.
However, when sexual desire is separated from God's love, it becomes self-seeking. This is seen as lust; the Latin for extravagance was used by St Jerome to translate a variety of biblical sins, including drunkenness and sexual excess. Gregory the Great placed luxuria as one of the seven capital sins, narrowing its scope to disordered desire, it was in this sense that the Middle Ages took luxuria. In Romanesque art, the personified Luxuria is feminine represented by a siren or a naked woman with breasts being bitten by s
Super Bowl XLVI
Super Bowl XLVI was an American football game between the National Football Conference champion New York Giants and the American Football Conference champion New England Patriots to decide the National Football League champion for the 2011 season. The Giants defeated the Patriots by the score of 21–17; the game was played on February 5, 2012 at Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis, the first time that the Super Bowl was played in Indiana. In addition to winning their fourth Super Bowl in team history, the Giants set a new record for the lowest regular season record by a Super Bowl champion; the Patriots entered the game with a 13–3 regular season record, were seeking their fourth Super Bowl win. Some considered this game to be a rematch of Super Bowl XLII, which New York won, spoiling New England's run at a perfect 2007 season; the Giants jumped to a 9–0 lead in the first quarter of Super Bowl XLVI before the Patriots scored 17 unanswered points to take a 17–9 lead in the third quarter. But the Giants prevented the Patriots from scoring again, two consecutive New York field goals chipped away New England's lead, 17–15, late in the third quarter.
The Giants capped off an 88-yard drive with running back Ahmad Bradshaw's 6-yard game-winning touchdown with 57 seconds left in the game. Eli Manning, who completed 30 of 40 passes for 296 yards, one touchdown, no interceptions, was named Super Bowl MVP for the second time in his career, he became the third consecutive quarterback to win the award after Aaron Rodgers in Super Bowl XLV and Drew Brees in Super Bowl XLIV. The broadcast of the game on NBC broke the record for the most-watched program in American television history set during the previous year's Super Bowl. Super Bowl XLVI was watched by an estimated average audience of 111.3 million US viewers and an estimated total audience of 166.8 million, according to Nielsen, meaning that over half of the American population watched at least some of the initial broadcast. The game set the record for most tweets per second during a sporting event, with 13.7 million tweets from 3 p.m. to 8 p.m.. Per convention as an even-numbered Super Bowl, the Patriots as the AFC representatives had the home team designation.
Super Bowl XLVI was the sixth Super Bowl in which the two teams had competed in a previous Super Bowl matchup, as the Giants and Patriots had met in Super Bowl XLII. Both head coaches and both starting quarterbacks returned from Super Bowl XLII. Three cities presented bids for the game: On January 31, 2008, the Greater Houston Convention and Visitors Bureau announced their plans to host the game at Reliant Stadium, holding events at the surrounding Reliant Park, hoping that their city would host the championship game for the second time since Reliant Stadium opened. On February 19, 2008, the City of Indianapolis, led by Colts owner Jim Irsay and Indianapolis mayor Greg Ballard announced details about their intentions to bid for Super Bowl XLVI. Part of the agreement included a proposal to build a practice facility on the campus of Arsenal Technical High School that would be utilized by the school after the Super Bowl. On March 6, 2008, one month after hosting Super Bowl XLII at the University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, the second Super Bowl held in the Phoenix metropolitan area, the Arizona Super Bowl Host Committee led by Committee chair Mike Kennedy formally announced their intentions to bid for another one.
Glendale would win its bid for Super Bowl XLIX in February 2015. NFL franchise owners selected the Indianapolis bid at their meeting on May 2008 in Atlanta. A labor dispute had threatened the postponement or cancellation of the game during the spring and summer of 2011. Since the dispute was resolved well before the start of the regular season, no postponements were implemented, the game remained as scheduled; this was the first Super Bowl to be played in Indianapolis, only the fourth time that the Super Bowl has been played in a cold-weather city, after Detroit and Minneapolis. Downtown Indianapolis, the home of Lucas Oil Stadium, featured an outdoor Super Bowl Village and other programs at the Indiana Convention Center. Working around a series of injuries, the Giants ended with a 9–7 record during the regular season and returned to the playoffs for the first time since 2008, winning the NFC East and finishing the season as the NFC's No. 4 seed. Back to full strength, the Giants entered their week 17 matchup with the Dallas Cowboys with both teams tied for the division lead with 8–7 records.
The Giants took a 21–0 first half lead and while the Cowboys closed the gap to make the score 21–14 early in the 4th quarter, the Giants held on to defeat the Cowboys 31–14, clinching the divisional title and a playoff berth. New York's offense was led by Super Bowl XLII winning quarterback Eli Manning, in his seventh season as the team's starter. Manning set new career highs in nearly every statistical category in 2011, throwing for a franchise record 4,933 yards and 29 touchdowns, with 16 interceptions, giving him a 92.9 passer rating. His top target was receiver Victor Cruz, who caught 82 passes for a franchise record 1,536 yards and 9 touchdowns, but he had plenty of other targets, including Hakeem Nicks, Mario Manningham and tight end Jake Ballard. Although not on the field for four games due to injury, running back Ahmad Bradshaw was the team's
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia
It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia is an American sitcom that premiered on FX on August 4, 2005, moved to FXX beginning with the ninth season in 2013. It was created by Rob McElhenney, it is executive produced and written by McElhenney and Charlie Day, all of whom star alongside Kaitlin Olson and Danny DeVito. The series follows the exploits of "The Gang," a group of self-absorbed friends who run the Irish bar Paddy's Pub in South Philadelphia. On April 1, 2016, the series was renewed for a 13th and 14th season, which will tie it with The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet as the longest-running live-action sitcom in American TV history. Season 13 premiered on September 5, 2018; the series follows "The Gang," a group of five fictional misfit friends: twins Dennis and Deandra "Sweet Dee" Reynolds, their friends Charlie Kelly and Ronald "Mac" McDonald, Frank Reynolds, Dennis' and Dee's legal father. The Gang runs a dilapidated Irish bar in South Philadelphia; each member of "The Gang" shows behavior that would be considered unethical by today's standards, such as excessive drinking and traits such as dishonesty and egotism.
Episodes find them hatching elaborate schemes and conspiring against one another and others for personal gain, vengeance, or the entertainment of watching another's downfall. They habitually inflict mental and physical pain on each other and anyone who crosses their path, they regularly use blackmail to manipulate one another and others outside of the group. The Gang's unity is never solid, any of them would dump any of the others for quick profit or personal gain regardless of the consequences. Everything they do results in contention among themselves, much of the show's dialogue involves the characters arguing or yelling at one another. Despite their lack of success or achievements, they maintain high opinions of themselves and display an obsessive interest in their reputations and public images; the Gang has no sense of shame when attempting to get what they want and engage in activities that others would find humiliating, disgusting, or shocking. Some of these situations include becoming addicted to crack cocaine and pretending to be mentally challenged in order to qualify for welfare, attempted cannibalism, blackface, hiding naked inside a couch in order to eavesdrop on people, tricking a man into giving his daughter a lap dance, forcing each other to eat inedible items, huffing paint, foraging in the sewers for rings and coins, sleeping with each other's romantic interests, seducing a priest, secretly feeding someone their dead pet, plugging their open wounds with trash, grave robbing, setting a room full of people on fire and locking the door to avoid an uncomfortable Thanksgiving meal, fantasizing about killing each other, pretending to have AIDS in order to get priority access to water park rides, taking out life insurance on a suicidal person, orally siphoning gasoline, stalking their crushes.
During the Season 7 episode "The Gang Gets Trapped," in which The Gang breaks into a family's home and has to hide from them when they return, an angry monologue by Dennis captures the essence of The Gang's modus operandi: Charlie Day as Charlie Kelly – Charlie was a co-owner of Paddy's Pub, but traded his capital investment for "goods and services," half a sandwich, other undisclosed compensation. He is a childhood friend of Mac, high school friend of Dennis and Dee, he is the roommate of Frank, who may be his biological father. Charlie does most of the actual maintenance at the pub, he is unable to properly read or write, is an alcoholic substance abuser seen huffing glue or paint, as well as eating various items not meant for human consumption, such as cat food. He lives in squalor with Frank in a run-down, vermin-infested apartment and has deep-seated psychological problems, believing his dreams to be haunted by a figure known as "The Nightman," which other characters believe represents childhood molestation/rape, the perpetrator of, implied to be Charlie's Uncle Jack.
Charlie has unresolved anger issues screaming to get his point across. He has an unhealthy obsession with "The Waitress," a recurring character who finds Charlie repulsive and shows no interest in him until Season 13. Glenn Howerton as Dennis Reynolds -- Dennis is a co-owner of Dee's twin brother; the most sociopathic of the characters, Dennis is narcissistic, hypersexual and abrasive. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with a minor in psychology, it is at times hinted that Dennis may be a serial killer. In season 10, he is diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, which explains his abrupt mood changes between feeling too much or too little, fears of abandonment and unstable relationships. In the season 12 finale, he discovers he moves to North Dakota to be a father, he returns to Philadelphia in season 13. Rob McElhenney as Ronald "Mac" McDonald – Mac is a co-owner of Paddy's Pub, he is Charlie's childhood friend and Dennis's high school friend and roommate. The son of a convicted felon, in prison for much of Mac's life, he attempts to demonstrate his toughness and refers to himself as the "sheriff of Paddy's."
Insecure, Mac seeks the approval of those around him his father, his apathetic and absent mother, Dennis. He often brags about his hand-to-hand combat skills, but flees from physical confrontation. Mac is a Roman Catholic, though he of
CD Video is a format of optical media disc, introduced in 1987 that combines the technologies of standard compact disc and LaserDisc. CD-V discs are the same size as a standard 12-cm audio CD, contain up to 20 minutes' worth of CD Audio that can be played on any audio CD player, it contains up to 5 minutes of LaserDisc video information with digital CD-quality sound, which can be played back on a newer LaserDisc player capable of playing CD-V discs. One of the first LaserDisc players that can play CD-V discs is the Pioneer CLD-1010 from 1987. Though it is a CD-based format, CD Video was never given a rainbow book designation. CD Video discs have a distinctive gold color, to differentiate them from regular silver-colored audio CDs; this is a characteristic that would be replicated in HVD, a more advanced disc format. A similar version of CD Video called Video Single Disc was released, it is the same as CD Video, but it only has the analog video track, so it is in effect a small LaserDisc. CD Video was targeted toward teenagers who watched music videos on MTV.
However, few of them were familiar with LaserDiscs, far fewer owned CDV-compatible players at the time. Buying a costly new player was not an option just for the minor use of playing a single music video more accessible through a VHS videocassette, either purchased pre-recorded or recorded off a television programme with a VCR; the term "CD Video" and its logo were used on some full-size LaserDiscs with digital audio, to distinguish them from the previous LaserVision format with analog audio and to leverage the consumer recognition of the successful CD-Audio format. Though CD Video lasted only a few years in the marketplace and began disappearing by 1991, its legacy would live on with the all-digital MPEG-based Video CD format, which came out a few years in 1993. IEC 61104 - Compact disc video system - 12 cm CD-V A webpage on CD Video discs, featuring a list of NTSC CD-V releases The LaserDisc Database, including CD Video Techmoan: CD Video - when Videodiscs went gold, YouTube on 2 February 2018
Synth-pop is a subgenre of new wave music that first became prominent in the late 1970s and features the synthesizer as the dominant musical instrument. It was prefigured in the 1960s and early 1970s by the use of synthesizers in progressive rock, art rock and the "Krautrock" of bands like Kraftwerk, it arose as a distinct genre in Japan and the United Kingdom in the post-punk era as part of the new wave movement of the late 1970s to the mid-1980s. Electronic musical synthesizers that could be used in a recording studio became available in the mid-1960s, while the mid-1970s saw the rise of electronic art musicians. After the breakthrough of Gary Numan in the UK Singles Chart in 1979, large numbers of artists began to enjoy success with a synthesizer-based sound in the early 1980s. In Japan, Yellow Magic Orchestra introduced the TR-808 rhythm machine to popular music, the band would be a major influence on early British synth-pop acts; the development of inexpensive polyphonic synthesizers, the definition of MIDI and the use of dance beats, led to a more commercial and accessible sound for synth-pop.
This, its adoption by the style-conscious acts from the New Romantic movement, together with the rise of MTV, led to success for large numbers of British synth-pop acts in the US. "Synth-pop" is sometimes used interchangeably with "electropop", but "electropop" may denote a variant of synth-pop that places more emphasis on a harder, more electronic sound. In the mid to late 1980s, duos such as Erasure and Pet Shop Boys adopted a style, successful on the US dance charts, but by the end of the decade, the'new wave' synth-pop of bands such as A-ha and Alphaville was giving way to house music and techno. Interest in new wave synth-pop began to revive in the indietronica and electroclash movements in the late 1990s, in the 2000s synth-pop enjoyed a widespread revival and commercial success; the genre has received criticism for alleged lack of musicianship. Synth-pop music has established a place for the synthesizer as a major element of pop and rock music, directly influencing subsequent genres and has indirectly influenced many other genres, as well as individual recordings.
Synth-pop was defined by its primary use of synthesizers, drum machines and sequencers, sometimes using them to replace all other instruments. Borthwick and Moy have described the genre as diverse but "...characterised by a broad set of values that eschewed rock playing styles and structures", which were replaced by "synthetic textures" and "robotic rigidity" defined by the limitations of the new technology, including monophonic synthesizers. Many synth-pop musicians had limited musical skills, relying on the technology to produce or reproduce the music; the result was minimalist, with grooves that were "typically woven together from simple repeated riffs with no harmonic'progression' to speak of". Early synth-pop has been described as "eerie and vaguely menacing", using droning electronics with little change in inflection. Common lyrical themes of synth-pop songs were isolation, urban anomie, feelings of being cold and hollow. In its second phase in the 1980s, the introduction of dance beats and more conventional rock instrumentation made the music warmer and catchier and contained within the conventions of three-minute pop.
Synthesizers were used to imitate the conventional and clichéd sound of orchestras and horns. Thin, treble-dominant, synthesized melodies and simple drum programmes gave way to thick, compressed production, a more conventional drum sound. Lyrics were more optimistic, dealing with more traditional subject matter for pop music such as romance and aspiration. According to music writer Simon Reynolds, the hallmark of 1980s synth-pop was its "emotional, at times operatic singers" such as Marc Almond, Alison Moyet and Annie Lennox; because synthesizers removed the need for large groups of musicians, these singers were part of a duo where their partner played all the instrumentation. Although synth-pop in part arose from punk rock, it abandoned punk's emphasis on authenticity and pursued a deliberate artificiality, drawing on the critically derided forms such as disco and glam rock, it owed little to the foundations of early popular music in jazz, folk music or the blues, instead of looking to America, in its early stages, it consciously focused on European and Eastern European influences, which were reflected in band names like Spandau Ballet and songs like Ultravox's "Vienna".
Synth-pop saw a shift to a style more influenced by other genres, such as soul music. Electronic musical synthesizers that could be used in a recording studio became available in the mid-1960s, around the same time as rock music began to emerge as a distinct musical genre; the Mellotron, an electro-mechanical, polyphonic sample-playback keyboard was overtaken by the Moog synthesizer, created by Robert Moog in 1964, which produced electronically generated sounds. The portable Minimoog, which allowed much easier use in live performance was adopted by progressive rock musicians such as Richard Wright of Pink Floyd and Rick Wakeman of Yes. Instrumental prog rock was significant in continental Europe, allowing bands like Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream and Faust to circumvent the language barrier, their synthesizer-heavy "Kraut rock", along with the work of Brian Eno (for a time the keyboard player with Roxy M