Andrew Lumisden

Andrew Lumisden, Lumsden or Lumiden FRSE FSA was a Scottish Jacobite. He was Personal Secretary to Bonnie Prince Charlie during his exile in Rome, he was a joint founder of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1783. He was the only son of William Lumisden, a law agent in Edinburgh, his wife, Mary Bruce, daughter of Robert Bruce, an Edinburgh merchant, he was educated at the High School in Edinburgh studied law at the University of Edinburgh, which he followed until the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745. On the recommendation of Dr Alexander Cunningham, a younger son of Sir William Cunningham of Caprington, Lumisden became private secretary to Prince Charles Edward shortly after his arrival in Edinburgh, he accompanied the prince throughout the campaign, was present at the battle of Culloden. On the eve of the battle the prince's aide-de-camp wrote to Ewen MacPherson of Cluny, asking him to take particular care of Lumisden and Thomas Sheridan, "as they carry the sinews of war". After the battle Lumisden obeyed the order to rendezvous at Fort Ruthven, where a message from Charles Edward on 17 April warned all to look after their own safety.

He was included in the Act of Attainder, after staying in Highland fastnesses for four months, went to Edinburgh disguised in a black wig, as the liveried groom of a lady who rode pillion behind him on a horse. After lurking in concealment in his father's house till October, he accompanied to London, as a poor teacher, the king's messenger, in Scotland citing witnesses for the treason trials. At the end of 1745 Lumisden embarked at the Towers Stairs for Rouen. Here he lived in poverty, until in May 1749 he obtained the first grant of an allowance made by the French court to the Spanish exiles, he went via Paris to Rome, where early in 1757 he was appointed salaried under-secretary to the Chevalier de St. George. In September 1762 he became sole secretary, he held the post till the death of the chevalier in January 1766. In 1758–9 Lumisden undertook a secret mission to France, but otherwise his duties consisted in answering requests for honours, or appeals for help from supporters of the Stuart cause.

He was continued in office by Charles Edward, who made use of him much as a factotum. In December 1768, he was dismissed by Charles for refusing to allow him to attend an oratorio while drunk. Not long afterwards he declined an invitation to return. In the spring of 1769 Lumisden set out for Paris, now having an income from his father's estate, he became a writer. Around 12 June 1770, he met Charles Burney, recommended to him as a potential shrewd tip and information provider for his musical state of art trip throughout Europe between 1770 and 1772, he continued for a period to make Paris his base. In 1783 Lumisden was a joint founder of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, he appears to have lived at Thistle Court in the New Town. Lumisden died in Edinburgh on 25 December 1801. In 1797 Lumisden published Remarks on the Antiquities of Rome and its Environs, reprinted in 1812, he compiled a pedigree of his family, published in James Maidment's Analecta Scotica, vol. ii. Lumisden's sister, was the wife of Sir Robert Strange.

Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Lumisden, Andrew". Dictionary of National Biography. 34. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Trichosporon asteroides

Trichosporon asteroides is an asexual Basidiomycetous fungus first described from human skin but is now isolated from blood and urine. T. asteroides is a hyphal fungus with a characteristically yeast-like appearance due to the presence of slimy arthroconidia. Infections by this species respond to treatment with azoles and amphotericin B. Trichosporon asteroides was isolated from lesion of male chin skin by Rinchin in Berne in 1926 and named in the genus, Parendomyces. T. asteroides was reevaluated by Masao Ota and transferred to the genus Trichosporon as T. asteroides. Ota noted that its hyphae were more sparsely branched than other species in Trichosporon, it lacked the ability to ferment glucose, maltose and fructose. Molecular phylogenetic study has since supported the placement of T. asteroides in the genus Trichsporon. T. asteroides was determined to be conspecific with Fissuricella filamenta on the basis of DNA/DNA reassociation. Modern classifications support the affiliation of this species with the order Tremellales in the phylum Basidiomycota.

T. asteroides grows in a range of media including in the presence of the antifungal agent, cycloheximide. Colonies of T. asteroides grown on Sabouraud agar appear white in colour with a brain-like texture, reaching a diameter of 10 mm after 10 days growth at 25 °C. Colonies have radially furrowed outer zone and matt appearance, not powdery like the related species, T. asahii. Antibodies produced by infected patients can be used to differentiate T. asahii and T. asteroides in disease. Weak growth is absent at higher temperatures. T. asteroides can be distinguish with other relative species in the genus Trichosporon by its ability to utilize D-galactose, L-rhamnose, erythritol and L-arabinitol. T. asteroides does not ferment glucose, sucrose or fructose, this is the common feature to all the species in Trichosporon. T. asteroides causes trichosporonosis, which responsible for deep-seated, mucosa-associated and systematic infections including blood. This species is one of the three most common Trichosporon species isolated in clinical settings.

The fungus is sometimes recovered from specimens of blood and aspiration fluid, vaginal mucosa, male perigenital skin area, catheters. The first record of this agent in a systemic infection involved a bloodstream infection; some main types of latent infection can be raised are fungemia, urinary tract infections, endocarditis, esophagitis, brain abscess, splenic abscess, uterine infections. Allergies and systemic infections can be caused by this fungus in immunosuppressed people. T. asteroides was implicated in a case of kerion celsi, a rare inflammatory scalp infection seen in children. This fungus is encountered in zoonotic infections and has never been shown to cause disease un insects. However, T. asteroides was isolated from the multifocal, irregularly raised skin lesions on a female Bottle-Nosed Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, in Japan. In the absence of cultures and molecular biological analysis, the agent was suspected to be Paracoccidioides ceti, a worldwide causative agent of Paracoccidioidomycosis in dolphins.

Azole antifungals are used as a front-line therapy in trichosporonosis. Resistance to amphotericin, flucytosine and itraconazole have been described. Echinocandins, as a group, are ineffective against Trichosporon species. Triazoles show better in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity than amphotericin B, while voriconazole has excellent in vitro activity against Trichosporon asteroides. Combination therapy regimens such as voriconazole and amphotericin B are effective in serious infections. Fluconazole has been used in subcutaneous and deep infections