United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nations 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations. Managing approximately 25% of federal lands, it is the major national land agency that is outside the U. S. Department of the Interior. The concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, in 1876, Congress created the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Hough was appointed the head of the office, in 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry. The Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the domain as forest reserves. In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry, gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt.
As of 2009, the Forest Service has a budget authority of $5.5 billion. The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters,737 law enforcement personnel, and 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is To sustain the health and its motto is Caring for the land and serving people. As the lead agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nations forest, rangeland. The agencys ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current, the everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, and providing recreation.5 billion trees per year. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007, the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry.
Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions, the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee who oversees the entire agency. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, there are five deputy chiefs for the following areas, National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, and Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five stations, the Forest Products Laboratory. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief, Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, and Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States, there are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908, many sites are more than 50 years old
The trail is about 2,200 miles long, though the exact length changes over time as parts are modified or rerouted. More than 2 million people are said to do at least one day-hike on the each year. The idea of the Appalachian Trail came about in 1921, the trail itself was completed in 1937 after more than a decade of work, although improvements and changes continue. It is maintained by 31 trail clubs and multiple partnerships, and managed by the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, the majority of the trail is in forest or wild lands, although some portions traverse towns and farms. The trail conservancy claims that the Appalachian Trail is the longest hiking-only trail in the world. It passes through 14 states, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. Many books, memoirs and fan organizations are dedicated to these pursuits, other separate extensions continue the southern end of the Appalachian range in Alabama and continue south into Florida, creating what is known as the Eastern Continental Trail.
The Appalachian Trail, the Continental Divide Trail, and the Pacific Crest Trail form what is known as the Triple Crown of Hiking in the United States. The trail was conceived by Benton MacKaye, a forester who wrote his original plan—called An Appalachian Trail, macKayes idea detailed a grand trail that would connect a series of farms and wilderness work/study camps for city-dwellers. The idea was adopted by the new Palisades Interstate Park Trail Conference as their main project. On October 7,1923, the first section of the trail, from Bear Mountain west through Harriman State Park to Arden, MacKaye called for a two-day Appalachian Trail conference to be held in March 1925 in Washington, D. C. This meeting inspired the formation of the Appalachian Trail Conference, a retired judge named Arthur Perkins and his younger associate Myron Avery took up the cause. Andersons efforts helped spark renewed interest in the trail, and Avery was able to bring other states on board, upon taking over the ATC, Avery adopted the more practical goal of building a simple hiking trail.
He and MacKaye clashed over the ATCs response to a commercial development along the trails path, MacKaye left the organization. Avery reigned as Chairman of the ATC from 1932 to 1952, Avery became the first to walk the trail end-to-end, though not as a thru-hike, in 1936. In August 1937, the trail was completed to Sugarloaf Mountain in Maine, the ATCs trail crews and volunteer trail-maintaining clubs have relocated or rehabilitated miles of trail since that time. The completed thru-hike was much recorded and accepted by the Appalachian Long Distance Hikers Association, in 1948, Earl Shaffer of York, brought a great deal of attention to the project by publicizing the first claimed thru-hike. The claim was criticized for the hikes omission of significant portions due to short-cuts
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States. The 981-mile river flows through or along the border of six states, through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes many of the states of the southeastern U. S. It is the source of drinking water for three million people and it is named in Iroquoian or Seneca, Ohi, yó, lit. Good River or Shawnee and Spelewathiipi, the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major transportation, in 1669, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle led a French expedition to the Ohio River, becoming the first Europeans to see it. After European-American settlement, the served as a border between present-day Kentucky and Indian Territories. It was a transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S.
In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated and its current gentle, waters clear, and bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted. During the 19th century, the river was the boundary of the Northwest Territory. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement. The Ohio River is a transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical. It is inhabited by fauna and flora of both climates, in winter, it regularly freezes over at Pittsburgh but rarely further south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohios confluence with the Mississippi, Paducah was founded there because it is the northernmost ice-free reach of the Ohio. The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers at Point State Park in Pittsburgh, from there, it flows northwest through Allegheny and Beaver counties, before making an abrupt turn to the south-southwest at the West Virginia–Ohio–Pennsylvania triple-state line.
From there, it forms the border between West Virginia and Ohio, upstream of Wheeling, West Virginia, the river follows a roughly southwest and west-northwest course until Cincinnati, before bending to a west-southwest course for most of its length. The course forms the borders of West Virginia and Kentucky. The Ohio drains parts of 15 states in four regions, northeast New York, a small area of the southern border along the headwaters of the Allegheny. Pennsylvania, a corridor from the corner to north central border
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is an agency of the federal government within the U. S. Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish and natural habitats. The mission of the agency is working with others to conserve and enhance fish, wildlife and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people. The leader of the FWS is the director of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Daniel M. Ashe, of Maryland, bavin National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory Landscape Conservation Cooperatives The vast majority of fish and wildlife habitat is on non-federal lands. The FWS employs approximately 9,000 people and is organized into an administrative office, eight regional offices. Spencer Fullerton Baird was appointed its first commissioner, in 1903, the Fish Commission was reorganized as the United States Bureau of Fisheries. In 1885–1886, the Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy was established within the United States Department of Agriculture, in 1896 it became the Division of Biological Survey.
Its early work focused on the effect of birds in controlling pests and mapping the geographical distribution of plants. Clinton Hart Merriam headed the Bureau for 25 years and became a figure for improving the scientific understanding of birds. Under Darlings guidance, the Bureau began a legacy of protecting vital natural habitat throughout the country. The USFWS was finally created in 1940, when the Bureaus of Fisheries, these exceptions often only apply to Native Americans that are registered with the federal government and are enrolled with a federally recognized tribe. Therefore, many people that wish to practice their religion continue to face persecution. This has become a source of conflict between many tribes and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the USFWS began to incorporate the research of scientists into conservation decisions. Additionally, other natural resource agencies within the United States government, such as the USDA, have taken steps to be inclusive of tribes, native people.
This has marked a transition to a relationship of more cooperation rather than the tension between tribes and government agencies seen historically, these agencies work closely with tribal governments to ensure the best conservation decisions are made and that tribes retain their sovereignty
National Trails System
The 1968 Act created two national scenic trails, the Appalachian and the Pacific Crest, and requested that an additional fourteen trail routes be studied for possible inclusion. In 1978, as a result of the study of trails that were most significant for their associations, a fourth category of trail was added. Since 1968, over forty trail routes have been studied for inclusion in the system, of these studied trails, twenty-one have been established as part of the system. These National Trails are more than just for hiking, many are open for horseback riding. As Congressionally established long-distance trails, each one is administered by an agency, either the Bureau of Land Management, United States Forest Service. Two of the trails are administered by the BLM and the NPS. Occasionally, these agencies acquire lands to protect key sites, National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails do not require Congressional action, but are recognized by actions of the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture.
All of the National Trails are supported by private organizations that work with the various federal agencies under the Partnership for the National Trails System. The Act is codified as 16 U. S. C, however, it has been amended numerous times since its passage, most recently on October 18,2004. National Scenic Trails are established to access to spectacular natural beauty. The National Scenic Trail system provides access to the crest of the Appalachian Mountains in the east, on the Appalachian Trail, there are eleven trails designated in the United States. National Historic Trails are designated to protect the remains of significant overland or water routes to reflect the history of the nation and they commemorate the forced displacement and hardships of the Native Americans, on the Trail of Tears. Most of them are scenic routes instead of non-motorized trails, the act established a category of trails known as connecting and side trails. Timms Hill Trail Anvik Connector The first National Geologic Trail was established by the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009, ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail Timeline of environmental events National Park Service U. S
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park located in the District of Columbia and the states of Maryland and West Virginia. The park was established in 1961 as a National Monument by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to preserve the remains of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. The canal and towpath trail extends along the Potomac River from Georgetown, Washington, D. C. to Cumberland, Maryland, in 2013, the path was designated as the first section of U. S. Construction on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal began in 1828 and ended in 1850 when the canal reached Cumberland, far short of its destination of Pittsburgh. Even though the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad beat the canal to Cumberland by eight years, only in the mid-1870s did larger locomotives and the adoption of air brakes allow the railroad to set rates lower than the canal, sealing its fate. The C&O Canal operated from 1831 to 1924 and served primarily to coal from the Allegheny Mountains to Washington D. C.
The canal was closed in 1924, in due to several severe floods that devastated the canals financial condition. In 1938, the canal was obtained from the B&O Railroad by the United States in exchange for a loan from the federal Reconstruction Finance Corporation. The government planned to restore it as a recreation area, additionally, it was viewed as a project for employment for the jobless during the Great Depression. By 1940, the first 22 miles of the canal were repaired and rewatered, from Georgetown to Violettes lock, the first Canal Clipper boat, giving mule driven rides, began in 1941. It was replaced by the John Quincy Adams in the 1960s, the project was halted when the United States entered World War II and resources were needed elsewhere. In 1941, Harry Athey suggested to President Franklin Roosevelt that the canal could be converted into a highway or a bomb shelter with its roof for landing airplanes. The whole idea was deemed due to the rivers periodic flooding. In 1942, freshets destroyed the rewatered sections of the canal, since this transformed the canal into a concern of national security, in 1942, the War Production Board approved the work.
By 1943, Congress had funded the work, repairs were done, the Congress expressed interest in developing the canal and towpath as a parkway. Around 1945, the Corps wanted to remove Dam #8, which would destroy any hope of rewatering the canal above Dam #5, the idea of turning the canal over to automobiles was opposed by some, including United States Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglas. In March 1954, Douglas led an eight-day hike of the towpath from Cumberland to D. C, although 58 people participated in one part of the hike or another, only nine men, including Douglas, hiked the full 184.5 miles. Following this hike, Justice Douglas formed a committee, to be known as the C&O Canal Association in 1957, serving as the chairman of this group, his commitment to the park proved successful
Williamstown, West Virginia
Williamstown is a city in Wood County, West Virginia, United States, along the Ohio River. It is part of the Parkersburg-Marietta-Vienna metropolitan area, the population was 2,908 at the 2010 census. The Fenton Art Glass Company is located in the city, Williamstown was named for Isaac Williams, who settled here in 1787. Williams had served under General Braddock as a ranger and spy and his home was on 400 acres on the Ohio River opposite the mouth of the Muskingum River, site of Marietta, which was founded about a year after he arrived. Other local namesakes include Williams Creek and Williams District, the settlement was known as Williamsport to Ohio River travelers until 1822 when the present name was formalized. Located at Williamstown is the Tomlinson Mansion, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974, located near Williamstown is the Henderson Hall Historic District. Williamstown is located at 39°23′58″N 81°27′2″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.79 square miles, of which 1.38 square miles is land and 0.41 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 2,908 people,1,254 households, the population density was 2,107.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,352 housing units at a density of 979.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97. 7% White,0. 2% African American,0. 5% Native American,0. 3% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,0. 4% from other races, and 0. 8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 7% of the population,29. 6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14. 2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the family size was 2.84. The median age in the city was 44 years. 21. 8% of residents were under the age of 18,6. 3% were between the ages of 18 and 24,23. 3% were from 25 to 44,30. 5% were from 45 to 64, and 18. 2% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 46. 9% male and 53. 1% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 2,996 people,1,251 households, and 876 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,233.5 people per square mile, there were 1,330 housing units at an average density of 991.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98. 26% White,0. 20% African American,0. 30% Native American,0. 47% Asian,0. 03% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 67% of the population. 27. 2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.90
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. The National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing almost 190 million acres of land and these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the ranges of the Western United States. Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands, the U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, and around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two different types of forests within the National Forest system. Those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were primarily acquired by the government since 1891. The land had long been in the domain and sometimes repeatedly logged since colonial times.
These are mostly lands that were kept in the domain, with the exception of inholdings. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection, unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, and in many cases encouraged. National Forests are categorized by the U. S. as IUCN Category VI protected areas, the first-designated wilderness areas, and some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, and natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands, many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park is located at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers in and around Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. The park includes land in Jefferson County, West Virginia, Washington County and Loudoun County, the park is managed by the National Park Service, an agency of the U. S. Department of the Interior. Originally designated as a National Monument in 1944, the park was declared a National Historical Park by the U. S. Congress in 1963. The park includes the town of Harpers Ferry, notable as a center of 19th century industry. Due to a mixture of events and ample recreational opportunities, all within 50 miles of Washington. The Parks Superintendent is presently Tyrone Brandyburg, native American history in the region dates back to at least 8,000 years ago. One of these European immigrants, Robert Harper, obtained a patent for the land from the Virginia legislature in 1751, note that prior to 1863, West Virginia was still a part of Virginia. The town was known as Shenandoah Falls at Mr.
Harpers Ferry due to the ferry business Robert Harper managed and operated. Today, the house built by Robert Harper is the oldest remaining structure in the lower part of the park. Though it is believed that George Washington visited the area earlier, his trip to the confluence in 1785. Later, Washington began the construction of the federal Harpers Ferry Armory on the site, meriwether Lewis, under government contract, procured most of the weaponry and associated hardware that would be needed for the Lewis and Clark Expedition at the armory in Harpers Ferry. Blacksmiths built an iron boat frame for the expedition. Between the years 1820 to 1840, John H. Hall worked to perfect the manufacturing of parts at the armory. Subsequently, the development of the bullet to replace the round lead slug was achieved by James H. Burton. Employing at times up to 400 workers, the armory produced over half a million muskets, abolitionist John Brown led an armed group in the capture of the armory in 1859. Brown had hoped he would be able to arm the slaves and lead them against U. S. forces in a rebellion to overthrow slavery.
After his capture in the armory by a group of Marines, Brown was hanged, predicting in his last words that civil war was looming on the horizon, a prediction that came true less than two years later. The most important building remaining from John Browns raid is the firehouse, the American Civil War found Harpers Ferry right on the boundary between the Union and Confederate forces
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, an island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, an island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge. Example and its causeway, or the various Dutch delta islands, there are two main types of islands in the sea and oceanic. The word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland, Old English ieg is actually a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, and related to Latin aqua. There is a difference between islands and continents in terms of geology, continents sit on continental lithosphere which is part of tectonic plates floating high on Earths mantle. Oceanic crust is part of tectonic plates, but it is denser than continental lithosphere, Islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust or geologically they are part of some continent sitting on continental lithosphere.
This holds true for Australia, which sits on its own continental lithosphere, continental islands are bodies of land that lie on the continental shelf of a continent. A special type of island is the microcontinental island, which is created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, the Kerguelen Islands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable, oceanic islands are islands that do not sit on continental shelves. The vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean, the few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface. Examples are Saint Peter and Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean, one type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc.
These islands arise from volcanoes where the subduction of one plate under another is occurring, examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, and most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean. The only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles, another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs where an oceanic rift reaches the surface. There are two examples, which is the second largest volcanic island, and Jan Mayen. A third type of oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the tectonic plate above it