Holmes County, Ohio
Holmes County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,366, its county seat is Millersburg. The county was formed in 1824 from portions of Coshocton and Wayne counties and organized the following year, it was named after Andrew Holmes, an officer killed in the War of 1812. Holmes County, about 42% Amish in 2010, is home to the second largest Amish community in the world, that draws many visitors to the county. Holmes County was formed on January 20, 1824 from portions of Coshocton and Wayne counties, it was named after Andrew Holmes, an officer in the War of 1812. In 1863, during the Civil War, numerous small anti-draft riots took place in the German-speaking areas. Holmes County at the time was a Democratic stronghold, dominated by its Pennsylvania Dutch settlers, along with many recent German immigrants. With the passage of the Conscription Act in March 1863, Holmes County politicians denounced both Congress and President Lincoln as despotic, saying that forced military service was little different than slavery.
Conscription had been common in their former German homelands, it was one of the reasons they had moved to America. Violent protests broke out in June, they continued until the Union Army marched into the county and declared martial law. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 424 square miles, of which 423 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles is water. Wayne County Stark County Tuscarawas County Coshocton County Knox County Ashland County As of the census of 2000, there were 38,943 people, 11,337 households, 9,194 families residing in the county; the population density was 92 people per square mile. There were 12,280 housing units at an average density of 29 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 99.03% White, 0.33% Black or African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.13% from other races, 0.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.75% of the population. 56.1% spoke English, 20.1% Pennsylvania German, 15.8% German and 7.1% "Dutch, i.e. Pennsylvania Dutch."
As their first language. There were 11,337 households out of which 44.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.50% were married couples living together, 6.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.90% were non-families. 16.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.35 and the average family size was 3.82. Religious breakdown for those who gave a religion was 89.79% Evangelical Protestant, 8.04% Mainline Protestant and 2.16% Catholic. There were 140 Amish congregations with 17,654 adherents. There were Mennonite congregations. There was one Catholic congregation. In the county, the population was spread out with 35.60% under the age of 18, 10.40% from 18 to 24, 25.70% from 25 to 44, 17.80% from 45 to 64, 10.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 99.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.50 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $36,944, the median income for a family was $40,230. Males had a median income of $28,490 versus $20,602 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,197. About 10.50% of families and 12.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.40% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over. Holmes County has a high number of residents who do not speak English at home. According to the 2000 census 36% of the population speak either Pennsylvania German or German at home, a further 7% speak "Dutch", i.e. Pennsylvania Dutch. 42.92% of the total population and 50.28% of the children in 5-17 age range uses German/Pennsylvania German or "Dutch" at home. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 42,366 people, 12,554 households, 10,035 families residing in the county; the population density was 100.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,666 housing units at an average density of 32.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.7% white, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 0.5% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 37.8% were German, 10.8% were American, 6.6% were Irish, 6.3% were English. Of the 12,554 households, 42.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.7% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.1% were non-families, 17.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 3.31 and the average family size was 3.80. The median age was 29.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $43,533 and the median income for a family was $49,133. Males had a median income of $36,644 versus $24,317 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,009. About 10.5% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.9% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over. The Amish community in Holmes County established in 1808, had a 17,654 adherents in 2010, or 41.7% of the county's population.
Prior to 1944, Holmes County was Democratic Party stronghold in presidential elections, with every Democratic presidential candidate from 1872 to 1940 aside from Al Smith in 1928 managing to win the county. The county has since become a
Ohio State Route 264
State Route 264 is a state highway located in Hamilton County, Ohio. The route runs 16.58 miles between US 50 in Cleves to intersections with Central Avenue in Downtown Cincinnati The route runs through southern Hamilton County and serves western Cincinnati suburbs. It acts as an alternate route to US 50 which runs along the Ohio River serving other villages including North Bend and Addyston, as well as the western neighborhoods of Cincinnati. SR 264 begins at a signalized intersection in downtown Cleves at US 50, it heads up a slight incline. Upon leaving the village limits, the road name becomes Bridgetown Road and heads east along ridges through Miami and Green Townships. In the unincorporated community of Bridgetown, the route turns right onto Glenway Avenue. After bypassing the village of Cheviot, the route enters the city limits of Cincinnati the Westwood neighborhood. After heading southeast and due east through West and East Price Hill, the road begins a steep descent into Lower Price Hill.
SR 264 turns right at the bottom of the hill onto State Avenue heading south towards the Ohio River. After passing through a complex interchange with the Waldvogel Viaduct, the road comes to a T-intersection with US 50. SR 264 turns becomes concurrent with US 50 onto the Sixth Street Expressway; the multilane elevated expressway runs east through southern Queensgate passing a number of interchanges before cutting away from US 50 at a complex interchange involving I-71, I-75 and US 50. Eastbound SR 264 heads south one block onto Fifth Street in Downtown Cincinnati while westbound travelers must use SR 264-D, an extension of Sixth Street from Downtown to the Expressway. Both SR 264 and SR 264-D have their eastern termini at Central Avenue in Cincinnati adjacent to the Duke Energy Convention Center. Central Avenue in this area carries U. S. Routes 27, 42, 52, 127. In addition, the two intersections serve as the western and southern termini of U. S. Route SR 3 respectively; the entire route is in Hamilton County
U.S. Route 6 in Ohio
U. S. Route 6 is a part of the United States Numbered Highway System that runs from Bishop, California to Provincetown, Massachusetts. US 6 is the second longest federal highway in the United States, second only to U. S. Route 20. In Ohio, the road runs west-east from the Indiana state line near Edgerton to the Pennsylvania state line near Andover; the 248.002 miles that lie in Ohio are maintained by the Ohio Department of Transportation. US 6 serves the major cities of Sandusky and Cleveland; the highway is called the Grand Army of the Republic Highway to honor the Union forces of the American Civil War. The alternate name was designated in 1953. US 6 ran from Massachusetts to Pennsylvania, it was extended through Ohio to Colorado in June 1931. The route of US 6 has remained unchanged since 1931. US 6 traverses the far northern portion of Ohio; the highway travels through farm and field country until it reaches Sandusky. After Sandusky, US 6 travels along the coast of Lake Erie until Cleveland. From Cleveland to the Pennsylvania state line, Route 6 passes through wooded land.
US 6 crosses into Williams County, Ohio, at the Indiana state line between Butler and Edgerton, Ohio. The highway goes east from the border, passing through the small town of Edgerton, where it has a brief concurrency with Ohio State Route 49. Continuing east through farm country, US 6 passes through Ridgeville Corners, until reaching Napoleon in Henry County, where it intersects US 24, starting a 4.6-mile long concurrency. East of Napoleon, US 6 passes through McClure. 15 miles east of McClure, Route 6 passes south of the college town of Bowling Green, intersecting with Interstate 75. Along this 15-mile stretch, the road crosses into Wood County. Just east of Bowling Green, US 6 has a 1-mile long overlap with Ohio State Route 199. US 6 continues through rural country. Here, the highway intersects U. S. Route 23 at the Wood-Sandusky county line. In Sandusky County, US 6 passes through the small towns of Rollersville and Helena before reaching the city of Fremont. In Fremont, US 6 overlaps with Ohio State Route 53 for 4.1 miles, US 20 for 3.9 miles, Ohio State Route 19 for 2.6 miles.
Route 6 skirts the northern city limits of Fremont before turning northeast just east of Fremont. 3 miles from Fremont, US 6 crosses under I-80/I-90, but there is not an interchange between the highways. 11 miles northeast of the interstate, US 6 crosses into Erie County. Just into Erie County, US 6 overlaps Ohio State Route 269 for 0.6 miles intersects Ohio State Route 2 1.8 miles east of the SR 269 concurrency. Just east of this intersection, US 6 enters the city of Sandusky. US 6 passes through a residential part of Sandusky. Locally, the highway is known as Tiffin Avenue, West Washington Street, Warren Street, Cleveland Road West. Cedar Point is accessed from US 6. Southeast of Sandusky, US 6 passes the Griffing Sandusky Airport near Fairview Lanes; as US 6 continues east through Erie County, it passes through the city of Huron, the communities of Mitiwanga and Beulah Beach, the city of Vermilion before crossing into Lorain County. East of Vermilion, in Lorain County, US 6 enters the city of Lorain, the last major city before the highway reaches Cleveland.
In Lorain, Route 6 stays close to the Lake Erie shoreline and crosses the Black River on the Charles Berry Bridge, the second-largest bascule bridge in the world. East of Lorain, US 6 passes through Sheffield Lake and Avon Lake before crossing into Cuyahoga County. After passing through Bay Village, US 6 enters the suburbs of Cleveland. In Rocky River, US 6 starts concurrencies with Ohio State Route 2 and U. S. Route 20. An alternate route of US 6 starts in Rocky River and winds along Detroit Avenue for 7.3 miles to its eastern terminus just west of the Cuyahoga River in the Ohio City neighborhood. US 6 enters the city of Cleveland during its overlap with SR 2 and US 20. US 6, along with US 20, splits from SR 2 just before it crosses the Cuyahoga River on the Main Avenue Bridge. Route 6 meets up with Ohio State Route 3 and U. S. Route 42 at West 25th Street, the four highways cross the Cuyahoga River on the Veterans Memorial Bridge. At the east end of the bridge, US 6 passes through Public Square.
Here, the concurrencies with US 20, US 42, SR 3 end. U. S. Route 322 starts a concurrency with US 6 in Public Square that ends 0.5 mi east of the plaza East of Public Square, US 6 has an interchange with Interstate 90. 4.5 miles east of this intersection, US 6 starts another concurrency with US 20 in East Cleveland that lasts for 4.2 miles. After splitting from US 20, US 6 runs concurrent with Ohio State Route 84 for 2.1 miles before entering Lake County. The 10.23 miles that lie within Lake County pass through many small residential developments in Willoughby Hills and Kirtland before crossing into Geauga County. In Geauga County, US 6 passes through the city of Chardon, where it has a brief overlap with Ohio State Route 44. In Chardon, US 6 turns northeast to serve Hambden Township and Montville Township before crossing into Ashtabula County. In Ashtabula County, US 6 travels straight east through the townships of Hartsgrove, New Lyme, Cherry Valley, as well as the village of Andover before turning north with Ohio State Route 7.
7.5 miles north of Andover, US 6 breaks its concurrency with SR 7, turns east, enters Pennsylvania in Crawford County, just north of the Pymatuning Reservoir. US 6 was one of the original routes created when the United States Numbered Highway System was formed. US 6 was only routed from Provincetown, Massachusetts to Brewster, New York. Soon after, it was routed to Pennsylvania and was alternatively named the Roosevel
Cleveland is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 385,525, making it the 51st-largest city in the United States, the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U. S. with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States; the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie 60 miles west of the Ohio-Pennsylvania state border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, it became a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services and biomedicals. Cleveland is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cleveland residents are called "Clevelanders".
The city has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City". Cleveland was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city, they named it "Cleaveland" after General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio; the first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes trade; the area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, via the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836. In 1836, the city located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854; the city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business. Cleveland emerged in the early 20th century as an important American manufacturing center, its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.
S. Other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker; because of its significant growth, Cleveland was known as the "Sixth City" of the US during this period. By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nation's fifth-largest city; the city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders, its industrial jobs had attracted waves of European immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as both black and white migrants from the rural South. In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937; the exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.
Following World War II, Cleveland continued to enjoy a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s; as a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed "City of Champions" in sports at this time. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population. Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra; the city's population reached its peak of 914,808, in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. By the 1960s, the economy slowed, residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following the subsidized highways. In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans worked in numerous cities to gain constitutional rights and relief from racial discrimination.
As change lagged despite federal laws to enforce rights and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland and numerous other industrial cities. In Cleveland, the Hough Riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966; the Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes. Industrial restructuring in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous
A concurrency in a road network is an instance of one physical roadway bearing two or more different route numbers. When two roadways share the same right-of-way, it is sometimes called commons. Other terminology for a concurrency includes overlap, duplex, multiplex, dual routing or triple routing. Concurrent numbering can become common in jurisdictions that allow it. Where multiple routes must pass between a single mountain crossing or over a bridge, or through a major city, it is economically and advantageous for them all to be accommodated on a single physical roadway. In some jurisdictions, concurrent numbering is avoided by posting only one route number on highway signs. Most concurrencies are a combination of two route numbers on the same physical roadway; this is practically advantageous as well as economically advantageous. Some countries allow for concurrencies to occur, others do not allow it to happen. In those nations which do permit concurrencies, it can become common. In these countries, there are a variety of concurrences.
An example of this is the concurrency of Interstate 70 and I-76 on the Pennsylvania Turnpike in western Pennsylvania. I-70 merges with the Pennsylvania Turnpike so the route number can continue east into Maryland. A triple Interstate concurrency is found in Wisconsin along the five-mile section of I-41, I-43, I-894 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; the concurrency of I-41 and I-43 on this roadway is an example of a wrong-way concurrency. The longest Interstate highway concurrency is I-90 for 265 miles across Indiana and Ohio. There are examples of eight-way concurrencies: I-465 around Indianapolis and Georgia State Route 10 Loop around downtown Athens, Georgia. Portions of the 53-mile I-465 overlap with I-74, US Highway 31, US 36, US 40, US 52, US 421, State Road 37 and SR 67—a total of eight other routes. Seven of the eight other designations overlap between exits 46 and 47 to create an eight-way concurrency. In the United States, concurrencies are marked by placing signs for both routes on the same or adjacent posts.
The federal Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices prescribes that when mounting these adjacent signs together that the numbers will be arranged vertically or horizontally in order of precedence. The order to be used is Interstate Highways, U. S. Highways, state highways, county roads, within each class by increasing numerical value. Several states do not have any concurrencies, instead ending routes on each side of one. There are several circumstances. One example occurs along the Oklahoma–Arkansas state line. At the northern end of this border Oklahoma State Highway 20 runs concurrently with Arkansas Highway 43 and the two highways run north–south along the boundary. Concurrencies are found in Canada. British Columbia Highway 5 continues east for 12 kilometres concurrently with Highway 1 and Highway 97, through Kamloops; this stretch of road, which carries Highway 97 south and Highway 5 north on the same lanes, is the only wrong-way concurrency in British Columbia. In Ontario, the Queen Elizabeth Way and Highway 403 run concurrently between Burlington and Oakville, forming the province's only concurrency between two 400-series highways.
The concurrency was not in the original plan which intended for both the QEW and Highway 403 to run parallel to each other, as the Hamilton–Brantford and Mississauga sections of Highway 403 were planned to be linked up along the corridor now occupied by Highway 407. It was planned for the Mississauga section of Highway 403 would be renumbered as Highway 410 but this never came to pass. Highway 403 was signed concurrently along the Queen Elizabeth Way in 2002, remedying the discontinuity to avoid confusing drivers that wanted to travel between the two segments without using the toll Highway 407. Nonetheless, many surface street signs referring to that section of freeway with the QEW/Highway 403 concurrency still only use the highway's original designation of QEW, although the MTO has updated route markers on the QEW to reflect the concurrency. In the United Kingdom, routes do not run concurrently with others. Where this would occur, the roadway takes the number of only one of the routes, while the other routes are considered to have a gap and are signed in brackets.
An example is the meeting of the M60 and the M62 northwest of Manchester: the motorways coincide for the seven miles between junctions 12 and 18 but the motorway between those points is only designated as the M60. European route numbers as designated by UNECE may have concurrencies, but since the E-route numbers are unsigned and unused in the UK, the existence of these concurrencies is purely theoretical. In Sweden and Denmark, the most important highways use only the European route numbers that have cardinal directions. In Sweden the E6 and E20 run concurrently for 280 kilometres. In Denmark the E47 and E55 run concurrently for 157 kilometres. There are more shorter concurrencies. There are two stretches in Sweden
Parma is a city in Cuyahoga County, United States, located on the southern edge of Cleveland. As of the 2010 census it is the seventh largest city in the state of Ohio and the second largest city in Cuyahoga County after Cleveland. In 1806, the area that would become Parma and Parma Heights was surveyed by Abraham Tappan, a surveyor for the Connecticut Land Company, was known as Township 6 - Range 13; this designation gave the town its first identity in the Western Reserve. Soon after, Township 6 - Range 13 was referred to as "Greenbriar," for the rambling bush that grew there. Benajah Fay, his wife Ruth Wilcox Fay, their ten children, arrivals from Lewis County, New York, were the first settlers in 1816, it was that Greenbriar, under a newly organized government seat under Brooklyn Township, began attending to its own governmental needs. Self-government started to gain in popularity by the time the new Greenbriar settlement contained twenty householders. However, prior to the establishment of the new township, the name Greenbriar was replaced by the name Parma.
This was due to Dr. David Long who had returned from Italy and "impressed with the grandeur and beauty...was reminded of Parma, Italy and...persuaded the early townspeople that the territory deserved a better name than Greenbriar."Thus, on March 7, 1826, a resolution was passed ordering the construction of the new township. It stated, "On the petition of sundry inhabitants for a new township to be organized and erected comprising No. 6 in the 13th Range. Ordered that said Township No. 6 in the 13th Range be set off and erected into a new Township by the name of Parma, to be bounded by the original lines of said Township." On the same day, a public notice was issued to qualified electors by the County Commissioners. They met at the house of Samuel Freeman on April 3, 1826 to elect township officers according to the law, it was that the first eleven officers were elected to lead the new government. During this time, Parma Township remained agricultural; the first schoolhouse was a log structure built on the hill at the northern corner of what is now Parma Heights Cemetery.
A memorial plate on a stone marks the spot. In 1827, the township was divided into road districts; the Broadview Road of today was known as Town Line Road as well as Independence Road. Ridge Road was known as Center Road as it cut through the center of town. York Road was known as York Street as arrivals from the state of New York settled there. Pearl Road had many names which included Medina Wooster Pike, Wooster Pike, the Cleveland Columbus Road, the Brighton and Parma Plank Road. A stone house, built in 1849 and known as the Henninger House, was occupied by several generations of Henningers and is still standing today; the house rests on one of the higher points in Cuyahoga County, which provided visibility for the entire northeastern part of Parma Township. This was the same site where the Erie Indians, centuries before, stood to read and send fire signals as well as pray to their spirits. By 1850, the US census listed Parma Township's population at 1,329. However, the rising population of the township had slowed over the decades.
The Civil War affected Parma much as it did other villages in the nation. Three out of four homes sent sons, or sometimes both, to fight in the war. By 1910, the population of the township had increased to 1,631. In 1911, Parma Heights, due to the temperance mood of the day, separated itself from the Parma Township after by a vote of 42 to 32 and was incorporated as a village comprising 4.13 square miles. "A main reason for establishing the village of Parma Heights was to get a town marshal... There is one saloon in the territory...some pretty rough crowds Sundays have disturbed the quiet of the neighborhood...wanted it closed on Sundays. To do this they wished a town marshal, they couldn't have a town marshal without becoming a village, so they became one." By 1920, the US census showed Parma Township had a population of just 2,345, but the following decade proved to be a time of significant growth and development for Parma. It was in the 1920s. On December 15, 1924, Parma was incorporated as a village.
The largest and fastest growing development of that time was H. A. Stahl's Ridgewood Gardens development, which started in 1919, continued through the 1920s, into the 1930s. A resident of Shaker Heights, Ohio's first Garden City, H. A. Stahl developed Ridgewood as an ambitious "model village" project patterned along the lines of and rivaling the earlier Shaker Heights project with "churches, motion picture theater, community house, other features forming a part of all well-developed residence communities.". Ridgewood was designed and marketed as a Garden City on 1,000 acres of land to accommodate about 40,000 residents "325 feet above Lake Erie, in the healthiest section of the South Side, free from the smoke of industries, or the congestion and noises of sections nearer the Public Square." On January 1, 1931, Parma became a city with a population of 13,899. Whereas the incorporation of the village of Parma was met with much optimism, the newly established city of Parma faced the uncertainty of the Great Depression which had entirely stopped its growth.
Money was scarce, tax income was limited, some began to talk of annexation of both the city and school district to Cleveland. Both annexation issues, were soundly defeated as Parma voters overwhelmingly voted against them and silenced proponents of annexation. Not long after this, Parma was once again solvent due in large part to the newly created Gallagher Act and the determination of Parma's Auditor, Sam Nowlin. By 1941, a building boom ap
Ohio's 3rd congressional district
Ohio's 3rd congressional district is located in Franklin County and includes most of the city of Columbus. The current district lines were drawn following the redistricting based on the 2000 census; the district is contiguous. In some portions, it is but not quite, split in two by the neighboring 12th and 15th districts, it was one of several districts challenged in a 2018 lawsuit seeking to overturn Ohio's congressional map due to alleged unconstitutional gerrymandering. According to the lawsuit, "District 3 is shaped like a snowflake and fractures Franklin County and the city of Columbus."It is represented by Democrat Joyce Beatty. The following chart shows historic election results. Bold type indicates victor. Italic type indicates incumbent. *In 1951, after Breen's resignation for ill health, Schenck was elected in a special election to complete Breen's term. In 2002, when then-U. S. Rep. Tony P. Hall decided to accept an appointment as a U. N. ambassador, Richard Alan Carne took his place as the Democratic nominee for the congressional seat.
Carne lost the race to former Dayton mayor Michael R. Turner. On August 13, 2006, Democratic candidate Stephanie Studebaker—, the party's nominee to run against the incumbent Republican— was arrested, alongside her husband, on charges of domestic violence. Two days she withdrew from the race, leaving the Ohio Democratic Party without a candidate in the district. A Special primary election to select a new Democratic candidate was held on 15 September 2006. Richard Chema won that election with nearly 75% of the vote, but lost to Republican Michael R. Turner in the general election. Ohio's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present