John Robb (musician)
John David Robb is an English music journalist and singer. He runs the Louder Than War website and Louder Than Words monthly music magazine, he has written several books on music and makes media appearances as a music commentator. He is the vocalist in the punk rock band Goldblade and bassist and vocalist in post punk band The Membranes, his sister is Caroline Kende-Robb the boss of CARE in August 2018, before that she was the Executive Director of the Africa Progress Panel, a foundation chaired by Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations. Robb grew up in Anchorsholme, Blackpool, he attended Blackpool Sixth Form College an addition to the Collegiate Grammar School which Robb attended, where after reading about the emerging punk rock scene in the music press in 1976 he was inspired to start his own band. He is a supporter of Blackpool F. C. stating in January 2013, "I was born in Blackpool and supporting your local team is one of those things that gets under your skin for life."
Robb was inspired by the DIY ethic of punk to form The Membranes in 1977, the band releasing several albums in the 1980s. The band split up in 1990 with Robb forming Sensurround. In 1994 he formed Goldblade, who have released albums including 2005's Rebel Songs and 2008's Mutiny and single "City of Christmas Ghosts" featuring Poly Styrene on shared vocals. In 2013 Goldblade released the album The Terror of Modern Life via Overground Records; the Membranes reformed in 2010 appearing at the All Tomorrow's Parties Festival at the request of My Bloody Valentine and released the 7" vinyl single'If You Enter The Arena, You Got To Be Prepared To Deal with the Lions' – The single was released on Record Store Day 20 April 2012. Tim Burgess from the Charlatans released their next comeback single,'The Universe Explodes Into A Billion Photons Of Pure White Light' and the band released a new album,'Dark Matter/Dark Energy' in June 2015 on Cherry Red. In 2016 The band played concerts with a 25 piece choir in the UK and Europe and have lined up a remix album called Inner Space/Outer Space with mixes from Manic Street Preachers, Killing Joke, Mark Lanegan, Godflesh and the Makers, Einstürzende Neubauten, Clint Mansell and many others.
Their new album is due for release in May 2019 and features contributions from Chris Packham and the 20 piece BIMM choir in a double album about the beauty and violence of nature. The group believe that'every gig must be an event' and have promoted sell out shows where they explain the universe with scientists from the Higgs Boson project and a sold out gig at the top of Blackpool Tower in August. Robb produced several bands and in the mid-90s two singles by the Leicester three-piece Slinky and US punk band Done Lying Down, as well as Therapy? and Cornershop who he co-managed. Robb has appeared as a pundit on various television programmes including BBC Breakfast, Channel 4's "top 100" shows, BBC's I Love the 60s/70s/80s/90s series and Seven Ages of Rock, he has contributed to BBC 2's The Culture Show as well as several appearances on TV documentaries as well as on Channel 4 news talking about train travel, music piracy and the state of music, on BBC radio commenting on pop culture. He has been a contributor to Sky's The Pop Years and co-produced and presented a ten-part series on the history of punk rock.
He presented a twelve-part guide to the arts in North West England. He is filming a series of interviews for Lush's Gorilla channel with key cultural figures like Stewart Lee Mark Thomas Shaun Ryder Viv Albertine Caroline Lucas Youth and many others https://louderthanwar.com/watch-all-of-john-robbs-lush-interviews/ Gorilla channel. Robb's books include a biography of The Stone Roses, Stone Roses and the Resurrection of British Pop, his new book about post punk is due for release in 2019. The Stone Roses and the Resurrection of British Pop. Ebury Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0-09-187887-0 Noise Bible – Adventures on the Eighties Underground with the Membranes. Thrill City; the Soul Manual. Ultimate; the Charlatans: We Are Rock. Ebury Press. ISBN 978-0-09-186568-9 The Nineties: What The Fuck Was That All About. Ebury Press. ISBN 978-0-09-187135-2 Punk Rock: An Oral History. Ebury Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-09-190511-8 The North Will Rise Again – Manchester Music City 1976–1996. Aurum Press, 2009. ISBN 978-1-84513-534-8 Death to Trad Rock – The Post-Punk Fanzine Scene 1982–1987.
Cherry Red, 2009. ISBN 978-1-901447-36-1 The Stone Roses and the Resurrection of British Pop: The Reunion Edition. Ebury Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0-091948-58-0 Robb has worked as a journalist for many years, he published his own small town fanzine, Rox which would go on to be nationally distributed, while a member of The Membranes. He wrote for ZigZag in the 1980s, was a regular freelance contributor to Sounds in the late 1980s, as well as writing for Melody Maker, he now writes for The Sunday Times, The Observer, The Guardian, The Independent, several websites, The Big Issue and magazines in Turkey, America and Brazil. While working for Sounds, Robb was the first journalist to interview Nirvana, later coined the word'Britpop'. In 2011 Robb launched an online rock music and pop culture magazine/blog called Louder Than War, focusing on
"Parklife" is the title track from Blur's 1994 album Parklife. When released as the album's third single, "Parklife" reached number 10 on the UK Singles Chart and number 30 in Ireland; the song is noted for being Blur's only song to contain elements of spoken word in the verses, narrated by actor Phil Daniels, who appears in the song's music video. The choruses are sung by lead singer Damon Albarn; the song won British Single of the Year and British Video of the Year at the 1995 Brit Awards and was performed at the 2012 Brit Awards. The Massed Bands of the Household Division performed Parklife at the London 2012 Olympics closing ceremony; the song is one of the defining tracks of Britpop, features in the 2003 compilation album Live Forever: The Rise and Fall of Brit Pop. A number of newspaper articles about the young middle classes' adoption of Estuary English appeared during the single's chart run, including one in The Sunday Times on the day the song entered the singles chart; the song played a part in Blur's supposed feud with fellow Britpop band Oasis at the 1996 Brit Awards when the Gallagher brothers and Noel, taunted Blur by singing a drunk rendition of "Parklife" when the members of Oasis were collecting the "Best British Album" award, which both bands had been nominated for.
Despite what is believed, the song does not refer to Castle Park in Colchester, the town where the band hail from. According to Damon Albarn when introducing the song during their July 2009 Hyde Park performance, "I came up with the idea for this song in this park. I was living on Kensington Church Street, I used to come into the park at the other end, I used to, you know, watch people, pigeons...", at which moment Phil Daniels appears onstage. Daniels performed a rendition of the song at the band's headline slot at Glastonbury Festival 2009 and at the band's second Hyde Park concert in August 2012, at the 2012 Brit Awards. Daniels had been approached to recite a poem for "The Debt Collector" track. However, when no poem was chosen, it remained an instrumental piece and Parklife was selected instead as the band had lost interest and wanted a new direction; the song's music video filmed next to The Pilot pub on the Greenwich Peninsula features Phil Daniels as a smarmy double glazing salesman, with Albarn as his assistant.
Other band members appear as various characters from the song, including Dave Rowntree and Alex James as a couple, with the latter in drag. At one point, Albarn is impressed to see a man carrying a placard reading "Modern Life Is Rubbish", the title of Blur's previous album; the car used by Daniels and Albarn is a bronze-coloured Ford Granada Coupe Mk1. In one part of the video, the Granada pulls up next to an Audi Cabriolet convertible and Daniels says "It's got nothing to do with your'Vorsprung durch Technik' yer know" The driver played by Alex James, grimaces back at him. Both cars pull away at speed to reveal'Parklife' written on the tarmac; the video was reviewed on a 1995 episode of Butt-Head. The characters stated; the song started to be played at football matches in the mid-1990s becoming a "football anthem" and featuring on albums like The Best Footie Anthems in the World... Ever! and The Beautiful Game, the Official Album of Euro 1996. Thus, Nike aired; the advertisement featured many famous footballers.
The advert received acclaim and was rated the 14th best advert of all time by ITV in 2005, as the 15th best by Channel 4 in 2000. The song is played before the home matches of Chelsea F. C. at Stamford Bridge. The song's narrator Phil Daniels and Blur frontman Damon Albarn are both fans of Chelsea; this song is sung at Carrow Road the home of Norwich City F. C. with the words "All the Germans, so many Germans, they all go hand in hand, hand in hand through their Farkelife... FARKELIFE!" This is due to the fact. Billboard wrote: "Blur continues to explore its newfound interest in shameless pop, first exploited on the giddy,'New- Romantic'-sounding'Girls & Boys.' This follow-up is pure fun, as the British act pounces through bouncy melodies, woven through playful guitars and spoken-word vocals." In May 2007, NME magazine placed "Parklife" at number 41 in its list of the 50 Greatest Indie Anthems Ever."Parklife" is the best-selling single from the album, with 190,000 copies sold. All music composed by Albarn, Coxon and Rowntree.
All lyrics composed by Albarn. Note: the 7" vinyl edition was pressed for use on jukeboxes and was not issued commercially. Blur provided the single with a selection of strikingly contrasting B-sides, all pastiches of other genres of music. One of a number of occasional Blur songs written in waltz time and built on an arrangement of harpsichord and string synths, Theme from an Imaginary Film was planned but rejected for the film Decadence. Supa Shoppa was an instrumental in the style of acid jazz, recorded with percussion, synth flute and Hammond organ parts. Drowned in Sound, reviewing Blur's career, noted that it had been a "perfect live opener for the Parklife tour when cranked up." Beard parodied jazz music, was named based on the stereotype of jazz fans wearing them. An additional alternative version of To the End was added. (At the time, to boost singles' chart placings it was customary for bands to release singles in several formats with exclusive
The skinhead subculture originated among working class youths in London, England in the 1960s and soon spread to other parts of the United Kingdom, with a second working class skinhead movement emerging worldwide in the 1980s. Motivated by social alienation and working class solidarity, skinheads are defined by their close-cropped or shaven heads and working-class clothing such as Dr. Martens and steel toe work boots, high rise and varying length straight-leg jeans, button-down collar shirts slim fitting in check or plain; the movement reached a peak during the 1960s, experienced a revival in the 1980s, since has endured in multiple contexts worldwide. The rise to prominence of skinheads came in two waves, with the first wave taking place in the late 1960s and the second wave originating in the mid 1970s to early 1980s; the first skinheads were working class youths motivated by an expression of alternative values and working class pride, rejecting both the austerity and conservatism of the 1950s-early 1960s and the more middle class or bourgeois hippie movement and peace and love ethos of the mid to late 1960s.
Skinheads were instead drawn towards more working class outsider subcultures, incorporating elements of mod fashion and black Jamaican music and fashion from Jamaican rude boys. In the earlier stages of the movement, a considerable overlap existed between early skinhead subculture, mod subculture, the rude boy subculture found among Jamaican British and Jamaican immigrant youth, as these three groups interacted and fraternized with each other within the same working class and poor neighborhoods in Britain; as skinheads adopted elements of mod subculture and Jamaican British and Jamaican immigrant rude boy subculture, both first and second generation skins were influenced by the heavy, repetitive rhythms of dub and ska, as well as rocksteady, reggae and African-American soul music. Members of the second generation in the 1980s were ex-punks. Skinhead subculture has remained connected with and has overlapped with punk subculture since. 1980s skins were aligned with first wave punk, working class Oi! and street punk, reggae, 2 Tone ska, ska punk, dub and anarcho-punks, hardcore punk.
Contemporary skinhead fashions range from clean-cut 1960s mod-influenced styles to less-strict punk- and hardcore-influenced styles. During the early 1980s, political affiliations grew in significance and split the subculture, distancing the far right and far left strands, although many skins describe themselves as apolitical; as a pro-working class movement, highly regionalized and excluded by society's moral norms, skinhead culture sometimes attracted some violent and hard-line political elements and was tainted in the mid-1980s by the tabloid hysteria of fringe and violent racial elements representing extreme racism. From the 1990s, Neo-Nazi youths in the former nation of East Germany, Finland and Eastern European countries such as Russia adopted the style. However, many skinheads remain influenced by dissident left-wing and center-left type politics or otherwise independent politics that have been part of the movement since the beginning in the U. K. and the U. S. while others continue to embrace the subculture as an apolitical working class movement.
In the late 1950s the post-war economic boom led to an increase in disposable income among many young people. Some of those youths spent that income on new fashions popularised by American soul groups, British R&B bands, certain film actors, Carnaby Street clothing merchants; these youths became known as mods, a youth subculture noted for its consumerism and devotion to fashion and scooters. Working class mods chose practical clothing styles that suited their lifestyle and employment circumstances: work boots or army boots, straight-leg jeans or Sta-Prest trousers, button-down shirts and braces; when possible, these working class mods spent their money on suits and other sharp outfits to wear at dancehalls, where they enjoyed soul, ska and rocksteady music. Around 1966, a schism developed between the peacock mods, who were less violent and always wore the latest expensive clothes, the hard mods, who were identified by their shorter hair and more working class image. Hardcore mods became known as skinheads by about 1968.
Their short hair may have come about for practical reasons, since long hair could be a liability in industrial jobs and streetfights. Skinheads may have cut their hair short in defiance of the more middle class hippie culture. In addition to retaining many mod influences, early skinheads were interested in Jamaican rude boy styles and culture the music: ska and early reggae. Skinhead culture became so popular by 1969 that the rock band Slade temporarily adopted the look as a marketing strategy; the subculture gained wider notice because of a series of violent and sexually explicit novels by Richard Allen, notably Skinhead and Skinhead Escapes. Due to largescale British migration to Perth, Western Australia, many British youths in that city joined skinhead/sharpies gangs in the late 1960s and developed their own Australian style. By the early 1970s, the skinhead subculture started to fade from popular culture, some o
Aussie Aussie Aussie, Oi Oi Oi
"Aussie Aussie Aussie, Oi Oi Oi" is a cheer or chant performed at Australian sport events. It is a variation of the Oggy Oggy Oggy chant used by both association football and rugby union fans in Great Britain from the 1960s onwards, it is performed by a crowd uniting to support a sports team or athlete. The alternate is for an individual to chant the line "Aussie, Aussie!" and the crowd to respond with "Oi! Oi! Oi!". A variation of this is for an individual to chant, "Aussie!", with the crowd responding, "Oi!", along the lines of, "Aussie, Aussie!", "Oi, Oi, Oi!"' "Aussie!", "Oi!", "Aussie", Oi!", "Aussie, Aussie!", "Oi, Oi, Oi!". The full version of the chant, as heard prior to a free outdoor concert at the time of the Sydney 2000 Olympics and quoted by Luba Vangelova of CNNSI, is as follows: Individual: "Aussie, Aussie!" Crowd: "Oi! Oi! Oi!" Individual: "Aussie, Aussie!" Crowd: "Oi! Oi! Oi!" Individual: "Aussie!" Crowd: "Oi!" Individual: "Aussie!" Crowd: "Oi!" Individual: "Aussie, Aussie!" Crowd: "Oi! Oi!
Oi!"The chant was used during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games, being heard at many public entertainment venues and on public transport. The chant came to be heard at international sporting events where an Australian team was competing. A chant of similar form, "Oggy Oggy Oggy", has been used for decades by football crowds in Britain. Members of the British Royal Navy claim to have used the Oggy Oggy Oggy chant, or a version of it, since the Second World War. Englishman Ron Knox claims to have used the "Oggy" chant while playing for the Box Hill Rugby Club in Melbourne in the late 1960s. Various conflicting stories of how it was introduced from Britain to Australia can be found. According to Stephen Alomes, a professor of Australian studies at Deakin University, the chant represents "enthusiasm for the tribe" and a "celebration of'us'", but at the extreme may act as a symbol of aggressive nationalism and xenophobia. In 2012, after Foxtel offered a $10,000 prize in a competition for coming up with a new phrase to cheer on athletes, Germaine Greer argued: "The cry is catchy.
Any crowd can pick it up and it cuts through the surrounding white noise like a military tattoo. It is as jingoistic to reject it because it was British as it would be to prize it for the same reason... There will be no silencing Australian fans at the Olympics and they won't be bullied by Foxtel, either." At the closing ceremony of the Sydney 2000 Olympics, the IOC President, Juan Antonio Samaranch reflected the spirit of the whole affair when, during his formal speech, he said, "What can I say? Maybe, with my Spanish accent, Aussie! Aussie! Aussie!". The response to these words came from all around the stadium, "Oi! Oi! Oi!". In 2004, a Melbourne couple, inspired by a Dick Smith campaign supporting Australian-made products, following publicity surrounding the ownership of the trademark for the Australian-developed Ugg boots being owned by a United States company, registered the phrase as an official trademark in an effort to protect it from overseas exploitation. At the conclusion of winning the main event of the 2005 World Series of Poker, Australian supporters of winner Joe Hachem chanted this victoriously during the primetime viewing of the poker event on ESPN.
At the conclusion of the Prize giving ceremony for the 2008 Super 14 final at AMI Stadium in Christchurch, New Zealand, the winning team, the Crusaders, chanted "Robbie Robbie Robbie Oi Oi Oi" to farewell their Coach Robbie Deans, leaving to coach the Australian national team, the Wallabies. It is a popular chant during Australian Cricket Team's matches; the chant is a fixture at men's basketball games at Saint Mary's College of California, a school that has featured Australian players in the 21st century. Oggy Oggy Oggy Aussie 2000 Summer Olympics Oi
Canadian English is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada. According to the 2011 census, English was the first language of 19 million Canadians, or 57% of the population. A larger number, 28 million people, reported using English as their dominant language. 82% of Canadians outside the province of Quebec reported speaking English natively, but within Quebec the figure was just 7.7% as most of its residents are native speakers of Quebec French. Canadian English contains major elements of both British English and American English, as well as many uniquely Canadian characteristics. While, broadly speaking, Canadian English tends to be closest to American English in terms of linguistic distance, the precise influence of American English, British English and other sources on Canadian English varieties has been the ongoing focus of systematic studies since the 1950s. Phonologically and American English are classified together as North American English, emphasizing the fact that the vast majority of outsiders other native English speakers, cannot distinguish the typical accents of the two countries by sound alone.
There are minor disagreements over the degree to which Canadians and Americans themselves can differentiate their own two accents, there is evidence that some Western American English is undergoing a vowel shift coinciding with the one first reported in mainland Canadian English in the early 1990s. The term "Canadian English" is first attested in a speech by the Reverend A. Constable Geikie in an address to the Canadian Institute in 1857. Geikie, a Scottish-born Canadian, reflected the Anglocentric attitude that would be prevalent in Canada for the next hundred years when he referred to the language as "a corrupt dialect", in comparison with what he considered the proper English spoken by immigrants from Britain. Canadian English is the product of five waves of immigration and settlement over a period of more than two centuries; the first large wave of permanent English-speaking settlement in Canada, linguistically the most important, was the influx of Loyalists fleeing the American Revolution, chiefly from the Mid-Atlantic States – as such, Canadian English is believed by some scholars to have derived from northern American English.
Canadian English has been developing features of its own since the early 19th century. The second wave from Britain and Ireland was encouraged to settle in Canada after the War of 1812 by the governors of Canada, who were worried about American dominance and influence among its citizens. Further waves of immigration from around the globe peaked in 1910, 1960 and at the present time had a lesser influence, but they did make Canada a multicultural country, ready to accept linguistic change from around the world during the current period of globalization; the languages of Aboriginal peoples in Canada started to influence European languages used in Canada before widespread settlement took place, the French of Lower Canada provided vocabulary, with words such as toque and portage, to the English of Upper Canada. Studies on earlier forms of English in Canada are rare, yet connections with other work to historical linguistics can be forged. An overview of diachronic work on Canadian English, or diachronically-relevant work, is Dollinger.
Until the 2000s all commentators on the history of CanE have argued from the "language-external" history, i.e. social and political history. An exception has been in the area of lexis, where Avis et al's Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles, offered real-time historical data through its quotations. Historical linguists have started to study earlier Canadian English on historical linguistic data. DCHP-1 is now available in open access. Most notably, Dollinger pioneered the historical corpus linguistic approach for English in Canada with CONTE and offers a developmental scenario for 18th- and 19th-century Ontario. Reuter, with a 19th-century newspaper corpus from Ontario, has confirmed the scenario laid out in Dollinger. Canadian English included a class-based sociolect known as Canadian dainty. Treated as a marker of upper-class prestige in the 19th century and the early part of the 20th, Canadian dainty was marked by the use of some features of British English pronunciation, resulting in an accent similar to the Mid-Atlantic accent known in the United States.
This accent faded in prominence following World War II, when it became stigmatized as pretentious, is now never heard in contemporary Canadian life outside of archival recordings used in film, television or radio documentaries. Canadian spelling of the English language combines American conventions. Words such as realize and paralyze are spelled with -ize or -yze rather than -ise or -yse. French-derived words that in American English end with -or and -er, such as color or center retain British spellings. While the United States uses the Anglo-French spelling defense and offense, most Canadians use the British spellings defence and offence; some nouns, as in British English, take -ice while matching verbs take -ise – for example and licence are nouns while practise and license are the re
The working class comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour in manual-labour occupations and industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, most pink-collar jobs. Members of the working class rely for their income upon their earnings from wage labour. In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is used interchangeably with the term proletariat and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production; as with many terms describing social class, working class is defined and used in many different ways. The most general definition, used by Marxists and many socialists, is that the working class includes all those who have nothing to sell but their labour power and skills. In that sense it includes both white and blue-collar workers and mental workers of all types, excluding only individuals who derive their income from business ownership and the labour of others.
When used non-academically in the United States, however, it refers to a section of society dependent on physical labour when compensated with an hourly wage. For certain types of science, as well as less scientific or journalistic political analysis, for example, the working class is loosely defined as those without college degrees. Working-class occupations are categorized into four groups: unskilled labourers, artisans and factory workers. A common alternative, sometimes used in sociology, is to define class by income levels; when this approach is used, the working class can be contrasted with a so-called middle class on the basis of differential terms of access to economic resources, cultural interests, other goods and services. The cut-off between working class and middle class here might mean the line where a population has discretionary income, rather than sustenance; some researchers have suggested that working-class status should be defined subjectively as self-identification with the working-class group.
This subjective approach allows people, rather than researchers. In feudal Europe, the working class as such did not exist in large numbers. Instead, most people were part of the labouring class, a group made up of different professions and occupations. A lawyer and peasant were all considered to be part of the same social unit, a third estate of people who were neither aristocrats nor church officials. Similar hierarchies existed outside Europe in other pre-industrial societies; the social position of these labouring classes was viewed as ordained by natural law and common religious belief. This social position was contested by peasants, for example during the German Peasants' War. In the late 18th century, under the influence of the Enlightenment, European society was in a state of change, this change could not be reconciled with the idea of a changeless god-created social order. Wealthy members of these societies created ideologies which blamed many of the problems of working-class people on their morals and ethics.
In The Making of the English Working Class, E. P. Thompson argues that the English working class was present at its own creation, seeks to describe the transformation of pre-modern labouring classes into a modern, politically self-conscious, working class. Starting around 1917, a number of countries became ruled ostensibly in the interests of the working class; some historians have noted that a key change in these Soviet-style societies has been a massive a new type of proletarianization effected by the administratively achieved forced displacement of peasants and rural workers. Since four major industrial states have turned towards semi-market-based governance, one state has turned inwards into an increasing cycle of poverty and brutalization. Other states of this sort have either collapsed, or never achieved significant levels of industrialization or large working classes. Since 1960, large-scale proletarianization and enclosure of commons has occurred in the third world, generating new working classes.
Additionally, countries such as India have been undergoing social change, expanding the size of the urban working class. Karl Marx defined the working class or proletariat as individuals who sell their labour power for wages and who do not own the means of production, he argued. He asserted that the working class physically build bridges, craft furniture, grow food, nurse children, but do not own land, or factories. A sub-section of the proletariat, the lumpenproletariat, are the poor and unemployed, such as day labourers and homeless people. Marx considered them to be devoid of class consciousness. In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that it was the destiny of the working class to displace the capitalist system, with the dictatorship of the proletariat, abolishing the social relationshi
Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, they produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; the term "punk rock" was first used by certain American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and subsequent acts perceived as stylistic inheritors. Between 1974 and 1976 the movement now called. By late 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned in London, the Saints in Brisbane were recognized as forming its vanguard; as 1977 approached, punk became a major and controversial cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
In 1977 the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk, street punk and anarcho-punk became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, indie pop, alternative rock, noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged in the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, The Offspring, Blink-182; the first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of stuff was innovative and exciting. What happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away.
Soon you had endless solos. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock'n' roll." John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Technical accessibility and a Do. UK pub rock from 1972-1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Pub rock introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.
Musical virtuosity was looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band"; the title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977"; the previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".
While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult".