Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying and other types of cooking. It is used in food preparation and flavouring not involving heat, such as salad dressings and bread dips, in this sense might be more termed edible oil. Cooking oil is a liquid at room temperature, although some oils that contain saturated fat, such as coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil are solid. There is a wide variety of cooking oils from plant sources such as olive oil, palm oil, soybean oil, canola oil, corn oil, peanut oil and other vegetable oils, as well as animal-based oils like butter and lard. Oil can be flavoured with aromatic foodstuffs such as chillies or garlic. A guideline for the appropriate amount of fat—a component of daily food consumption—is established by government agencies. > While consumption of small amounts of saturated fats is common in diets, meta-analyses found a significant correlation between high consumption of saturated fats and blood LDL concentration, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.
Other meta-analyses based on cohort studies and on controlled, randomized trials found a positive, or neutral, effect from consuming polyunsaturated fats instead of saturated fats. Mayo Clinic has highlighted certain oils that are high in saturated fats, including coconut, palm oil and palm kernel oil; those having lower amounts of saturated fats and higher levels of unsaturated fats like olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil and cottonseed oils are healthier. The US National Heart and Blood Institute urged saturated fats be replaced with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, listing olive and canola oils as sources of healthier monounsaturated oils while soybean and sunflower oils as good sources of polyunsaturated fats. One study showed that consumption of non-hydrogenated unsaturated oils like soybean and sunflower is preferable to the consumption of palm oil for lowering the risk of heart disease. Peanut oil, cashew oil and other nut-based oils may present a hazard to persons with a nut allergy.
Unlike other dietary fats, trans fats are not essential, they do not promote good health. The consumption of trans fats increases one's risk of coronary heart disease by raising levels of "bad" LDL cholesterol and lowering levels of "good" HDL cholesterol. Trans fats from hydrogenated oils are more harmful than occurring oils. Several large studies indicate a link between the consumption of high amounts of trans fat and coronary heart disease, some other diseases; the United States Food and Drug Administration, the National Heart and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association all have recommended limiting the intake of trans fats. In the US, trans fats are no longer "generally recognized as safe," and cannot be added to foods, including cooking oils, without special permission. Heating an oil changes its characteristics. Oils that are healthy at room temperature can become unhealthy when heated above certain temperatures, so when choosing a cooking oil, it is important to match the oil's heat tolerance with the temperature which will be used.
Deep-fat frying temperatures are in the range of 170–190 °C, less lower temperatures ≥ 130 °C are used. Palm oil contains more saturated fats than canola oil, corn oil, linseed oil, soybean oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil. Therefore, palm oil can withstand deep frying at higher temperatures and is resistant to oxidation compared to high-polyunsaturated vegetable oils. Since about 1900, palm oil has been incorporated into food by the global commercial food industry because it remains stable in deep frying, or in baking at high temperatures, for its high levels of natural antioxidants, though the refined palm oil used in industrial food has lost most of its carotenoid content; the following oils are suitable for high-temperature frying due to their high smoke point above 230 °C: Avocado oil Mustard oil Palm oil Peanut oil Rice bran oil Safflower oil Semi-refined sesame oil Semi-refined sunflower oilLess aggressive frying temperatures are used. A quality frying oil has a bland flavor, at least 200 °C smoke and 315 °C flash points, with maximums of 0.1% free fatty acids and 3% linolenic acid.
Those oils with higher linolenic fractions are avoided due to polymerization or gumming marked by increases in viscosity with age. Olive oil has been used as a frying oil for thousands of years. Olive oil All oils degrade in response to heat and oxygen. To delay the onset of rancidity, a blanket of an inert gas nitrogen, is applied to the vapor space in the storage container after production – a process called tank blanketing. In a cool, dry place, oils have greater stability, but may thicken, although they will soon return to liquid form if they are left at room temperature. To minimize the degrading effects of heat and light, oils should be removed from cold storage just long enough for use. Refined oils high in monounsaturated fats, such as macadamia oil, keep up to a year, while those high in polyunsaturated fats, such as soybean oil, keep about six months. Rancidity tests have shown that the shelf life of walnut oil is about 3 months, a period shorter than the best before date shown on labels.
By contrast, oils high in saturated fats, such as avocado oil, have long shelf lives and can be safely stored at room temperature, as the low polyunsaturated fat content facilitates stability. Cooking oils are composed of various fractions of fatty acids. For the purpose of frying food, o
The langues d'oïl are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, the Channel Islands. These belong to the larger Gallo-Romance languages, which include the historical languages of east-central France and western Switzerland, southern France, portions of northern Italy, the Val d'Aran in Spain. Linguists divide the Romance languages of France, of Medieval France, into three geographical subgroups: the first two are Langues d'oïl and occitan, both named after their words for'yes', the third is Franco-Provençal. Langue d'oïl, Oïl dialects and Oïl languages designate the ancient northern Gallo-Romance languages as well as their modern-day descendants, they share many linguistic features, a prominent one being the word oïl for yes.. The most spoken modern Oïl language is French. There are three uses of the term oïl: Langue d'oïl Oïl dialects Oïl languages In the singular, Langue d'oïl refers to the mutually intelligible linguistic variants of lingua romana spoken since the 9th century in northern France and southern Belgium, since the 10th century in the Channel Islands, between the 11th and 14th centuries in England.
Langue d'oïl, the term itself, has been used in the singular since the 12th century to denote this ancient linguistic grouping as a whole. With these qualifiers, langue d'oïl sometimes is used to mean the same as Old French. In the plural, Oïl dialects refer to the varieties of the ancient langue d'oïl. In the plural, Oïl languages refer to those modern-day descendants that evolved separately from the varieties of the ancient langue d'oïl. Langues d'oïl today may apply either: to all the modern-day languages of this family except the French language. "Oïl dialects" or "French dialects" are used to refer to the Oïl languages except French—as some extant Oïl languages are close to modern French. Because the term dialect is sometimes considered pejorative, the trend today among French linguists is to refer to these languages as langues d'oïl rather than dialects. Five zones of Oïl dialects have been proposed: Picard Walloon Lorrain Northern Norman: including Anglo-Norman. Gallo originated from the oïl speech of people from northern regions: Anjou.
See Marches of Neustria Named after the former provinces of Poitou and Saintonge Poitevin Saintongeais For the history of phonology, orthography and morphology, see History of the French language and the relevant individual Oïl language articles. Each of the Oïl languages has developed in its own way from the common ancestor, division of the development into periods varies according to the individual histories. Modern linguistics uses the following terms: 9th–13th centuries Old French Old Norman etc French Middle French for the period 14th–15th centuries 16th century: français renaissance 17th to 18th century: français classique In the 9th century, romana lingua was the first of the Romance languages to be recognized by its speakers as a distinct language because it was the most different from Latin compared with the other Romance languages. Many of the developments that we now consider typical of Walloon appeared between the 8th and 12th centuries. Walloon "had a defined identity from the beginning of the thirteenth century".
In any case, linguistic texts from the time do not mention the language though they mention others in the Oïl family, such as Picard and Lorrain. During the 15th century, scribes in the region called the language "Roman" when they needed to distinguish it, it is not until the beginning of the 16th century that we find the first occurrence of the word "Walloon" in the same linguistic sense that we use it today. By late- or post-Roman times Vulgar Latin within France had developed two distinctive terms for signifying assent: hoc ille and hoc, which became oïl and oc, respectively. Subsequent development changed "oïl" into "oui", as in modern French; the term langue d'oïl itself was first used in the 12th century, referring to the Old French linguistic grouping noted above. In the 14th century, the Italian poet Dante mentioned the yes distinctions in his De vulgari eloquentia, he wrote in Medieval Latin: "nam alii oc, alii si, alii vero dicunt oil" —thereby distinguishing at least three classes of Romance languages: oc languages.
Other Romance languages derive their word for "yes" from the classical Latin sic, "thus", such as the Italian sì, Spanish and Catalan sí, Portuguese sim
Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any of various substances comprising base oils enhanced with additives antiwear additive plus detergents, dispersants and, for multi-grade oils viscosity index improvers. Motor oil is used for lubrication of internal combustion engines; the main function of motor oil is to reduce friction and wear on moving parts and to clean the engine from sludge and varnish. It neutralizes acids that originate from fuel and from oxidation of the lubricant, improves sealing of piston rings, cools the engine by carrying heat away from moving parts. In addition to the basic constituents noted in the preceding paragraph all lubricating oils contain corrosion and oxidation inhibitors. Motor oil may be composed of only a lubricant base stock in the case of non-detergent oil, or a lubricant base stock plus additives to improve the oil's detergency, extreme pressure performance, ability to inhibit corrosion of engine parts. Motor oils today are blended using base oils composed of petroleum-based hydrocarbons, that means organic compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen, or polyalphaolefins or their mixtures in various proportions, sometimes with up to 20% by weight of esters for better dissolution of additives.
On September 6, 1866 American John Ellis founded the Continuous Oil Refining Company. While studying the possible healing powers of crude oil, Dr. Ellis was disappointed to find no real medicinal value, but was intrigued by its potential lubricating properties, he abandoned the medical practice to devote his time to the development of an all-petroleum, high viscosity lubricant for steam engines – using inefficient combinations of petroleum and animal and vegetable fats. He made his breakthrough when he developed an oil that worked in high temperatures; this meant corroded cylinders or leaking seals. Motor oil is a lubricant used in internal combustion engines, which power cars, lawnmowers, engine-generators, many other machines. In engines, there are parts which move against each other, the friction wastes otherwise useful power by converting the kinetic energy to heat, it wears away those parts, which could lead to lower efficiency and degradation of the engine. This increases fuel consumption, decreases power output, can lead to engine failure.
Lubricating oil creates a separating film between surfaces of adjacent moving parts to minimize direct contact between them, decreasing heat caused by friction and reducing wear, thus protecting the engine. In use, motor oil transfers heat through conduction. In an engine with a recirculating oil pump, this heat is transferred by means of air flow over the exterior surface of the, airflow through an oil cooler and through oil gases evacuated by the Positive Crankcase Ventilation system. While modern recirculating pumps are provided in passenger cars and other engines similar or larger in size, total loss oiling is a design option that remains popular in small and miniature engines. In petrol engines, the top piston ring can expose the motor oil to temperatures of 160 °C. In diesel engines the top ring can expose the oil to temperatures over 315 °C. Motor oils with higher viscosity indices thin less at these higher temperatures. Coating metal parts with oil keeps them from being exposed to oxygen, inhibiting oxidation at elevated operating temperatures preventing rust or corrosion.
Corrosion inhibitors may be added to the motor oil. Many motor oils have detergents and dispersants added to help keep the engine clean and minimize oil sludge build-up; the oil is able to trap soot from combustion in itself, rather than leaving it deposited on the internal surfaces. It is a combination of this, some singeing that turns used oil black after some running. Rubbing of metal engine parts produces some microscopic metallic particles from the wearing of the surfaces; such particles could circulate in the grind against moving parts, causing wear. Because particles accumulate in the oil, it is circulated through an oil filter to remove harmful particles. An oil pump, a vane or gear pump powered by the engine, pumps the oil throughout the engine, including the oil filter. Oil filters can be a full bypass type. In the crankcase of a vehicle engine, motor oil lubricates rotating or sliding surfaces between the crankshaft journal bearings, rods connecting the pistons to the crankshaft; the oil collects in sump, at the bottom of the crankcase.
In some small engines such as lawn mower engines, dippers on the bottoms of connecting rods dip into the oil at the bottom and splash it around the crankcase as needed to lubricate parts inside. In modern vehicle engines, the oil pump takes oil from the oil pan and sends it through the oil filter into oil galleries, from which the oil lubricates the main bearings holding the crankshaft up at the main journals and camshaft bearings operating the valves. In typical modern vehicles, oil pressure-fed from the oil galleries to the main bearings enters holes in the main journals of the crankshaft. From these holes in the main journals, the oil moves through passageways inside the crankshaft to exit holes in the rod journals to lubricate the rod bearings and connecting rods; some simpler designs relied on these moving parts to splash and lubricate the contacting surfaces between the piston rings and interior surfaces of the cylinders. However, in modern designs, there are passageways through the rods which carry oil from the rod bearings to the rod-piston connections and lubricate the contacting su
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance, a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic and lipophilic. Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are flammable and surface active; the general definition of oil includes classes of chemical compounds that may be otherwise unrelated in structure and uses. Oils may be animal, vegetable, or petrochemical in origin, may be volatile or non-volatile, they are used for food, medical purposes and the manufacture of many types of paints and other materials. Specially prepared oils are used in some religious rituals as purifying agents. First attested in English 1176, the word oil comes from Old French oile, from Latin oleum, which in turn comes from the Greek ἔλαιον, "olive oil, oil" and that from ἐλαία, "olive tree", "olive fruit"; the earliest attested forms of the word are the Mycenaean Greek, e-ra-wo and, e-rai-wo, written in the Linear B syllabic script. Organic oils are produced in remarkable diversity by plants and other organisms through natural metabolic processes.
Lipid is the scientific term for the fatty acids and similar chemicals found in the oils produced by living things, while oil refers to an overall mixture of chemicals. Organic oils may contain chemicals other than lipids, including proteins and alkaloids. Lipids can be classified by the way that they are made by an organism, their chemical structure and their limited solubility in water compared to oils, they have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are lacking in oxygen compared to other organic compounds and minerals. Crude oil, or petroleum, its refined components, collectively termed petrochemicals, are crucial resources in the modern economy. Crude oil originates from ancient fossilized organic materials, such as zooplankton and algae, which geochemical processes convert into oil; the name "mineral oil" is a misnomer, in that minerals are not the source of the oil—ancient plants and animals are. Mineral oil is organic. However, it is classified as "mineral oil" instead of as "organic oil" because its organic origin is remote, because it is obtained in the vicinity of rocks, underground traps, sands.
Mineral oil refers to several specific distillates of crude oil. Several edible vegetable and animal oils, fats, are used for various purposes in cooking and food preparation. In particular, many foods are fried in oil much hotter than boiling water. Oils are used for flavoring and for modifying the texture of foods. Cooking oils are derived either from animal fat, as butter and other types, or plant oils from the olive, maize and many other species. Oils are applied to hair to give it a lustrous look, to prevent tangles and roughness and to stabilize the hair to promote growth. See hair conditioner. Oil has been used throughout history as a religious medium, it is considered a spiritually purifying agent and is used for anointing purposes. As a particular example, holy anointing oil has been an important ritual liquid for Judaism and Christianity. Color pigments are suspended in oil, making it suitable as a supporting medium for paints; the oldest known extant oil paintings date from 650 AD. Oils are used for instance in electric transformers.
Heat transfer oils are used both as coolants, for heating and in other applications of heat transfer. Given that they are non-polar, oils do not adhere to other substances; this makes them useful as lubricants for various engineering purposes. Mineral oils are more used as machine lubricants than biological oils are. Whale oil is preferred for lubricating clocks, because it does not evaporate, leaving dust, although its use was banned in the USA in 1980, it is a long-running myth that spermaceti from whales has still been used in NASA projects such as the Hubble Telescope and the Voyager probe because of its low freezing temperature. Spermaceti is not an oil, but a mixture of wax esters, there is no evidence that NASA has used whale oil; some oils burn in liquid or aerosol form, generating light, heat which can be used directly or converted into other forms of energy such as electricity or mechanical work. To obtain many fuel oils, crude oil is pumped from the ground and is shipped via oil tanker or a pipeline to an oil refinery.
There, it is converted from crude oil to diesel fuel, fuel oils, jet fuel, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas. A 42-US-gallon barrel of crude oil produces 10 US gallons of diesel, 4 US gallons of jet fuel, 19 US gallons of gasoline, 7 US gallons of other products, 3 US gallons split between heavy fuel oil and liquified petroleum gases, 2 US gallons of heating oil; the total production of a barrel of crude into various products results in an increase to 45 US gallons. Not all oils used as fuels are mineral oils, see biodiesel and vegetable oil fuel. In the 18th and 19th cent
Midnight Oil are an Australian rock band composed of Peter Garrett, Rob Hirst, Jim Moginie, Martin Rotsey and Bones Hillman. The group was formed in Sydney in 1972 by Hirst and original bassist Andrew James as Farm: they enlisted Garrett the following year, changed their name in 1976, hired Rotsey a year later. Peter Gifford served as bass player from 1980–1987. Midnight Oil issued their self-titled debut album in 1978, gained a cult following in their homeland despite a lack of mainstream media acceptance; the band achieved greater popularity throughout in Australasia with the release of 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 – which spawned the singles "Power and the Passion" and "US Forces" – and began to attract an audience in the United States. They achieved their first Australian number one album in 1984 with Red Sails in the Sunset, topped their native country's singles chart for six weeks with the EP Species Deceases; the group garnered worldwide attention with Dust. Its singles "The Dead Heart" and "Beds Are Burning" illuminated the plight of indigenous Australians, with the latter charting at number one in multiple countries.
Midnight Oil had continued global success with Blue Sky Mining and Earth and Sun and Moon – each buoyed by an international hit single in "Blue Sky Mine" and "Truganini" – and remained a formidable album chart presence in Australia until their 2002 disbandment. The group held concerts sporadically during the remainder of the 2000s, announced a full-scale reformation in 2016; the band's music broaches political subjects, they have lent their support to multiple left-wing causes. They have won eleven Australian Recording Industry Association Awards, were inducted into the ARIA Hall of Fame in 2006. Midnight Oil's legacy has grown since the late 1970s, with the outfit being cited as an influence, their songs covered, by numerous popular artists. Aside from their studio output, the group are celebrated for their energetic live performances, which showcase the frenetic dancing of Garrett. Guardian writer Andrew Street described Midnight Oil as "one of Australia's most beloved bands". While studying at Australian National University in Canberra, vocalist Peter Garrett answered an advertisement for a spot in Farm, by 1975 the band had started touring the east coast of Australia.
By late 1976 Garrett had moved to Sydney to complete his law degree, Farm changed its name to Midnight Oil by drawing the name out of a hat. Important to their development was manager Gary Morris, who negotiated favourable contracts with tour promoters and record companies and frustrated rock journalists. Guitarist Martin Rotsey joined in 1977 and Midnight Oil, with Morris, established their own record label, which released their debut eponymous album in November 1978, their first single "Run by Night" followed in December. Founding bass-guitarist James, forced to leave due to illness in 1980, was replaced by Peter Gifford. Gifford was himself replaced by Bones Hillman in 1987. Through a long and distinguished career, the band became known for its driving hard-rock sound, intense live performances and political activism in aid of anti-nuclear and indigenous causes; the following Midnight Oil albums peaked in the Australian Top Ten: 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 Red Sails in the Sunset Species Deceases Diesel and Dust Blue Sky Mining Scream in Blue Earth and Sun and Moon Breathe 20,000 Watt R.
S. L. Redneck Wonderland The Real Thing Capricornia Flat ChatAustralian Top Ten singles were: "Power and the Passion" "The Dead Heart" "Beds Are Burning" "Blue Sky Mine"Aside from chart success, the Australasian Performing Right Association in 2001 listed both "Power and the Passion" and "Beds Are Burning" in the Top 30 best Australian songs of all time, a chart in which Midnight Oil are the only artists to feature twice. In December 2002 Garrett announced that he would seek to further his political career and Midnight Oil disbanded, but they would reform for two warm-up shows in Canberra leading up to their performance at one of the "Sound Relief" charity concerts, in honour of the victims of the 2009 "Black Saturday" fires in Victoria and floods in Queensland. In 2010 their album Diesel and Dust ranked no. 1 in the book The 100 Best Australian Albums by Toby Creswell, Craig Mathieson and John O'Donnell. In 1971, drummer Rob Hirst, bass guitarist Andrew James, keyboard player/lead guitarist Jim Moginie were performing together.
They adopted the name "Farm" in 1972, played covers of Cream, Creedence Clearwater Revival and Led Zeppelin songs. They placed an advert for a band member and Peter Garrett became their new vocalist and synthesizer player, began introducing progressive rock elements of Focus, Jethro Tull and Yes, as well as their own material. Garrett was studying at Australian National University in Canberra, so Farm was only a part-time band, they played for the northern Sydney surfing community, by 1975 the band was touring the east coast. In late 1976, Garrett moved to Sydney to complete his Law degree. Farm became a full-time group and changed its name to "Midnight Oil" by drawing a name out of a hat, leaving behind "Television," "Sparta," and "Southern Cross." Midnight Oil came from the Jimi Hendrix song, "Burning of the Midnight Lamp." After changing its name to Midnight Oil, the group began to develop an aggressive, punk-hard rock sound for their pub rock audiences. Guitarist Martin Rotsey joined in 1977 and Midnight Oil, with their manager Gary Morris, established their own record label Powderworks.
In June 1978 they entered the Alberts Studio in Sydney wit
Oil! is a novel by Upton Sinclair, first published in 1926–27 and told as a third-person narrative, with only the opening pages written in the first person. The book was written in the context of the Harding administration's Teapot Dome Scandal and takes place in Southern California, it is a political satire skewering the human foibles of all its characters. The main character is son of an oil tycoon. Bunny's sympathetic feelings toward oilfield workers and socialists provoke arguments with his father throughout the story; the novel served as a loose inspiration for the 2007 film There Will Be Blood. James Arnold Ross: is a self-made oil millionaire. James Arnold "Bunny" Ross Jr.: the protagonist, is the only son of a self-made oil millionaire. Paul Watkins: a farmer's son who runs away from home, is tutored by a free thinker, becomes an advocate for the rights of laborers. After spending time in Siberia after World War I, he sympathizes with Bolshevism and becomes a Communist. Vernon Roscoe: Dad's business partner, arguably the novel's antagonist.
He is a greedy business man who helps bribe the government to acquire the land in Teapot Dome to drill oil. He works to crush the unions that oppose him by bribing the authorities to throw its members into jail. Alberta "Bertie" Ross: Bunny's older sister. An aspiring socialite. Aunt Emma: Bunny's aunt, widow of J. Arnold Ross' brother, she lives with the family. Ruth Watkins: Paul's younger sister, Bunny's age. Eli Watkins: Paul's brother, who becomes an evangelical preacher. James Arnold "Dad" Ross and his son, James Jr. are introduced as they drive through southern California to meet with the Watkins family, who are leasing out some oil property they own. They find out that the family is deadlocked about how the proceeds should be divided. While Dad and Bunny go quail hunting on the Watkins' goat ranch, they find oil. At Bunny's urging, Dad tries to prevent the elder Watkins from beating his daughter Ruth; the plan backfires when Eli, Ruth's brother, interjects himself into the discussion and claims that he has received the revelation.
As drilling begins at the Watkins ranch, Bunny begins to realize his father's business methods are not ethical. After a worker is killed in an accident and an oil well is destroyed in a blowout, Dad's workforce goes on strike. Bunny is torn between loyalty to Dad and his friendship to Ruth and her rebellious brother Paul, who support the workers. Paul is drafted into World War I and, when the conflict is over, remains in Siberia to fight the rising Bolsheviks. Back home, Bunny enrolls in college, he becomes involved with socialism through a classmate, Rachel Menzies. Paul tells of his travels, explaining he has become a communist. Bunny accompanies Dad to the seaside mansion of his business associate Vernon Roscoe. Dad and Roscoe flee the country to avoid being subpoenaed by Congress in the Teapot Dome scandal. Before Dad goes away, Bunny proposes parting ways with his father and earning his own way in the world. Overseas, Dad meets and marries Mrs. Olivier, a widow and Spiritualist, but soon passes away from pneumonia.
Bunny decides to dedicate his life and inheritance to social justice while Roscoe moves to get control of the bulk of Dad's estate. Bunny and his sister Bertie are swindled out of most of their inheritance by Roscoe and Mrs. Olivier. Bunny marries Rachel and they dedicate themselves to establishing a socialist institution of learning; the book is loosely based on the life of Edward L. Doheny, the strategic alliance Union-Independent Producers Agency, a consortium created in 1910 to bring oil via pipeline from Kern County to the Pacific Coast facilities of Union Oil Company at Port Harford. Numerous parallels exist between the opening setting of the novel, Beach City, the city of Huntington Beach. Huntington Beach was called "Pacific City", for which Beach City is a play off of both names; the novel states that the area had street names like "Telegraph" and "Beach City Blvd". Telegraph Road would be the last street crossed before getting off the highway onto Beach Blvd in the town of Buena Park to travel south to Huntington Beach.
James Arnold Ross and Bunny stay in a hotel at the intersection of Beach City Blvd and Coast Drive, similar to Beach Blvd and what would develop into Pacific Coast Highway, where a hotel and water resort once resided in the early 1900s. In the novel, Beach City is covered in cabbage fields. Huntington Beach was covered in beet and celery fields. In the novel, the primary oil field found is on "Prospect Hill"; the first confirmed. The character of Eli Watkins is loosely based on the famous evangelist Aimee McPherson. Oil! was banned in Boston for its motel sex scene. Sinclair's publisher printed 150 copies of a "fig-leaf edition" with the offending nine pages blacked out. Sinclair hoped to bring an obscenity case to trial, he did not do so. The 2007 feature film There Will Be Blood, directed by Paul Thomas Anderson, is inspired by the novel, but the story is too different to be considered an adaptation. Unlike the novel, There Will Be Blood focused on
Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. In general terms, fuel oil is any liquid fuel, burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power, except oils having a flash point of 42 °C and oils burned in cotton or wool-wick burners. Fuel oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains alkanes and aromatics; the term fuel oil is used in a stricter sense to refer only to the heaviest commercial fuel that can be obtained from crude oil, i.e. heavier than gasoline and naphtha. Small molecules like those in propane, gasoline for cars, jet fuel have low boiling points, they are removed at the start of the fractional distillation process. Heavier petroleum products like diesel fuel and lubricating oil are much less volatile and distill out more while bunker oil is the bottom of the barrel. Oil has many uses. A small amount of electricity is produced by diesel, but it is more polluting and more expensive than natural gas.
It is used as a backup fuel for peaking power plants in case the supply of natural gas is interrupted or as the main fuel for small electrical generators. In Europe, the use of diesel is restricted to cars, SUVs, trucks and buses; the market for home heating using fuel oil, called heating oil, has decreased due to the widespread penetration of natural gas as well as heat pumps. However, it is common in some areas, such as the Northeastern United States. Residual fuel oil is less useful because it is so viscous that it has to be heated with a special heating system before use and it may contain high amounts of pollutants sulfur, which forms sulfur dioxide upon combustion. However, its undesirable properties make it cheap. In fact, it is the cheapest liquid fuel available. Since it requires heating before use, residual fuel oil cannot be used in road vehicles, boats or small ships, as the heating equipment takes up valuable space and makes the vehicle heavier. Heating the oil is a delicate procedure, impractical on small, fast moving vehicles.
However, power plants and large ships are able to use residual fuel oil. Use of residual fuel oil was more common in the past, it powered boilers, railroad steam locomotives, steamships. Locomotives, have become powered by diesel or electric power; some industrial boilers still so do some old buildings, including in New York City. In 2011 The City estimated that the 1% of its buildings that burned fuel oils No. 4 and No. 6 were responsible for 86% of the soot pollution generated by all buildings in the city. New York made the phase out of these fuel grades part of its environmental plan, PlaNYC, because of concerns for the health effects caused by fine particulates, all buildings using fuel oil No. 6 had been converted to less polluting fuel by the end of 2015. Residual fuel's use in electrical generation has decreased. In 1973, residual fuel oil produced 16.8% of the electricity in the US. By 1983, it had fallen to 6.2%, as of 2005, electricity production from all forms of petroleum, including diesel and residual fuel, is only 3% of total production.
The decline is the result of price competition with natural gas and environmental restrictions on emissions. For power plants, the costs of heating the oil, extra pollution control and additional maintenance required after burning it outweigh the low cost of the fuel. Burning fuel oil residual fuel oil, produces uniformly higher carbon dioxide emissions than natural gas. Heavy fuel oils continue to be used in the boiler "lighting up" facility in many coal-fired power plants; this use is analogous to using kindling to start a fire. Without performing this act it is difficult to begin the large-scale combustion process; the chief drawback to residual fuel oil is its high initial viscosity in the case of No. 6 oil, which requires a engineered system for storage and burning. Though it is still lighter than water it is much heavier and more viscous than No. 2 oil, kerosene, or gasoline. No. 6 oil must, in fact, be stored at around 38 °C heated to 65–120 °C before it can be pumped, in cooler temperatures it can congeal into a tarry semisolid.
The flash point of most blends of No. 6 oil is, about 65 °C. Attempting to pump high-viscosity oil at low temperatures was a frequent cause of damage to fuel lines and related equipment which were designed for lighter fuels. For comparison, BS 2869 Class G heavy fuel oil behaves in similar fashion, requiring storage at 40 °C, pumping at around 50 °C and finalising for burning at around 90–120 °C. Most of the facilities which burned No. 6 or other residual oils were industrial plants and similar facilities constructed in the early or mid 20th century, or which had switched from coal to oil fuel during the same time period. In either case, residual oil was seen as a good prospect because it was cheap and available. Most o