Oka River

Oka is a river in central Russia, the largest right tributary of the Volga. It flows through the regions of Oryol, Kaluga, Ryazan and Nizhny Novgorod and is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as to the town of Kaluga, its length exceeds 1,500 kilometres. The Russian capital Moscow sits on one of the Oka's tributaries—the Moskva River; the Oka river is the homeland of the Eastern Slavic Vyatichi tribe. By 5th century the land around the Oka river was inhabited by different Slavic tribes; the Baltic tribe of Galindians lived in the western part of the Oka basin. Turkic tribes inhabited the Oka area; the Oka river was inhabited by Vikings and people from Northern lands like for example Scandinavia. Artefacts of Scandinavian origin were found along the Oka - Volga route. There is no common opinion. From the Mongol conquest until about 1633, the Oka was the last line of defense against steppe raiders; the river gave its name to the Upper Oka Principalities, situated upstream from Tarusa.

In 1221 Grand Duke Yuri II of Vladimir founded Nizhny Novgorod to become one of the largest Russian cities, to protect the Oka's confluence with the Volga. The Qasim Khanate, a Muslim polity, occupied the middle reaches of the Oka in the 15th and 16th centuries. Before the construction of the railways in the mid-19th century and the building of the Moscow Canal in the 1930s, the Oka, along with its tributary Moskva, served as an important transportation route connecting Moscow with the Volga River. Due to the Oka's and Moskva's meandering courses, travel was not fast: for example, it took Cornelis de Bruijn around 10 days to sail from Moscow down these two rivers to Nizhny Novgorod in 1703. Traveling upstream may have been slower, as the boats had to be pulled by burlaks; the banks of the river are dotted with historical and cultural sites, including the medieval monasteries of Murom, the mosques and minarets of Kasimov, the fortified kremlins of Kolomna and Serpukhov, the memorial houses of Vasily Polenov and Sergey Yesenin, the excavated ruins of Old Ryazan and the Oka Shukhov Tower.

The Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve lies along the left bank of the river opposite the town of Pushchino and is known for its wisent breeding nursery. Oryol Ugra Zhizdra Upa Protva Nara Moskva Pra Osyotr Pronya Para Moksha Tyosha Klyazma Besputa Oryol Belyov Chekalin Kaluga Aleksin Tarusa Serpukhov Stupino Kashira Protvino Pushchino Kolomna Ryazan Kasimov Murom Pavlovo Navashino Gorbatov Dzerzhinsk Nizhny Novgorod The River appears as the title and main theme in a popular, nostalgia filled song of the Polish 1st Tadeusz Kościuszko Infantry Division, formed nearby in 1943; the unit fought all the way to Berlin alongside the Red Army. It was written by Leon Pasternak. Oka at GEOnet Names Server Media related to Oka River at Wikimedia Commons


Kasatka was a wild caught female orca who lived at SeaWorld San Diego She was captured off the coast of Iceland on October 26, 1978, at the age of less than two years. She was estimated to be born around late 1976, her name comes from the Russian word Kasatka, a generic name for orcas. She weighed 4,850 lb at time of death. Kasatka showed occasional aggression to humans. In 1993, she tried to bite trainer Ken Peters during a show, again in 1999. On November 30, 2006, Kasatka grabbed Peters again and dragged him underwater twice during their show. Peters survived with minor injuries. After suffering incurable pneumonia from 2008–17, Kasatka was euthanized at age 40 on August 15, 2017. Kasatka was the matriarch of the San Diego Orca Seaworld family, she was the first captive cetacean to successively receive artificial insemination, according to John Hargrove, a trainer there. She bore two daughters and two sons, resulting in 6 grandchildren and two great-grandchildren by the time of her death: Takara, female Kohana, female Adán, male Victoria, female Trua, male Sakari, female Kamea, female Kyara, female Nakai, male.

Twinning (TV series)

Twinning is a VH1 reality show that premiered on July 22, 2015. It features twelve sets of identical twins, testing their “twin-tuition” in mental and physical challenges; the show is hosted by Angie Greenup. Shawn and Claire Buitendorp were the winners of Season 1, yet there has not been official word of renewal nor cancellation, it is safe to say it is on an indefinite hiatus. During the competition, all contestants were housed in two adjacent houses, one green, one blue. One of each pair of twins lived in the green house, while the other lived in the blue house, keeping everyone separated from their twin; each week, there was a game that tested physical or mental abilities. The nature of the challenges varied each week, but required coordination between pairs of twins without direct communication. After each challenge, the highest-scoring twin pairs won the right to move between the two houses for a limited time, allowing them visit their twins; the winning twins were allowed to vote for two pairs of twins to enter the "Twin-Off".

At the end of each week, two pairs of twins were pitted against each other in a "Twin-Off". During the Twin-Off, contestants were asked questions about personal opinions or preferences without being allowed to communicate. If a pair of twins gave the same answer, they score a point, the first pair to score five points wins the Twin-Off and are allowed to remain in the competition, while the losers of the Twin-Off were eliminated. WINNER: The set of twins won the final Twin-Off and Twinning. RUNNERS-UP: The set of twins lost the final Twin-Off and was the Runner-Up team. WIN: The set of twins won the challenge. TWIN-OFF: The set of twins was voted into the Twin-Off and won. TWIN-OFF: The set of twins was voted into the Twin-Off but didn't have to compete due to a team getting sent home. ELIM: The set of twins was eliminated at the Twin-Off. ILL: The set of twins was removed from the competition due to illness. Top color is for the first contestant, bottom color is for the second contestant listed.

The column, not blue or green is the color of their team during the challenges. In episode 4, Torian & Tre pulled a prank on the houseguests by switching houses when they weren't one of the winning teams. Therefore, host Angie said. Episode 4 ended in with a fight between Ji & Le. In episode 5, Host Angie asked all the twins to gather in one house, asked them if anyone wanted Ji & Le or Kristina & Kamila to be sent home, they all agreed. The game went on with the Twin-Off between Dylan & Taylor. In Episode 5, Bennett was sent to the ER after the producers thought he needed medical attention after a severe headache and fever. Therefore, Winston voted by himself. In Episode 7, the twin-off was cancelled after Bennett was deemed too sick to continue in the competition; as a result, Winston was forced to leave the house and therefore the team was medically unable to continue. In Episode 11, Shawn & Claire won the final challenge, sending Torian & Tre and Kristina & Kamila into the semi-final Twin-Off.

After Torian & Tre defeated Kristina & Kamila, they faced Claire in the final Twin-Off. Shawn & Claire competed on Project Runway in 2017, Shawn finished in 10th place and Claire finished in 9th place. Skylar & Spencer competed on the | Sixteenth Season of Worst Cooks in America in 2018, Skylar finished in 12th place and Spencer finished in 9th place. Official Website