Lake Chelan is a narrow, 50.5-mile long lake in Chelan County, north-central Washington state, U. S. Before 1927, it was the largest natural lake in the state by any measure. Upon the completion of Lake Chelan Dam in 1927, the elevation of the lake was increased by 21 feet to its present maximum-capacity elevation of 1,100 feet. Two communities lie on the southern end of the lake, a third sits at the far north end, providing a gateway to the North Cascades National Park; the name Chelan is a Salish Indigenous word, "Tsi - Laan," meaning'Deep Water'. On an annual basis, an average of 2,200 cubic feet per second flow into the lake. Seventy-five percent of the water that flows into the lake comes from two tributaries; the Stehekin River alone contributes 65% of all water to Lake Chelan, averaging 1,401 cu ft/s annually. The other major tributary, Railroad Creek, averages 202 cu ft/s annually; the remaining water is added via a number of smaller tributaries as well as direct rain and snowfall. With a maximum depth of 1,486 feet, Lake Chelan is the third deepest lake in the United States, the 26th deepest in the world.
At its deepest, the lake bottom is 388 feet below sea level. The total watershed of the lake is a modest 924 square miles More than 90% of the watershed is forested land; the remainder of the basin is composed of agriculture. Lake Chelan is composed of two basins; the lower basin, Wapato, is shallower and a fourth the total length of the lake. The upper basin, extends for the remainder of the length of the lake; the two basins are separated by a sill rising to within 122 feet of the surface, at a point known as the narrows, at which the lake is only 0.35 miles wide. The two basins were created by two independent glaciers that met and formed the sill when they retreated. First, the Chelan glacier came down from the Stehekin valley and scoured the valley as far as the Columbia River; the Okanogan lobe came up the Chelan Valley as far as Wapato Point. As the Okanogan lobe retreated, it left huge amounts of debris in the valley scoured by the Chelan glacier; the lower basin, Wapato, is the shallower of the two, with a maximum depth of only 400 feet.
About 600 feet of glacial sediment and rockslide deposits rest between bedrock. This section of the lake is 12 miles long, has an average depth of 190 feet. Due to the modest size of this basin, water resides in this basin for only 0.8 years, compared to 10 for Lucerne Basin. Lucerne basin, 38 miles long with an average depth of 1,148 feet, is by far the larger of the two basins, it is in this part of the lake. Lucerne basin contains 92% of the water in Lake Chelan and 74% of the surface area, leaving Wapato with only 8% of the total volume of water and 26% of the surface area; the upper basin of Lake Chelan is surrounded by mountainous terrain, resulting in few beaches along the shoreline. 50 miles of the shoreline of this basin are in National Forest lands, 12 miles in National Park lands. The climate of Lake Chelan's watershed is varied. From the southern end of the lake in the rain shadow of the Cascade Range, to the northern tip of the lake located in the eastern Cascades, the climate of Lake Chelan's watershed is as diverse as the lake is long.
The south end's weather is notably dry, with Chelan averaging only 11.4 inches of rain per year, along with 21.8 inches of snow. Stehekin receives an average of 35.5 inches of rain per year, 122.5 inches of snow. Other than precipitation trends, the climates are remarkably similar. Both locations average around 60 °F for a high, 40 °F for a low throughout the course of the year. Due to the isolated nature of Lake Chelan at its northern reaches, there is not a large population that resides along the shore. Chelan, which had 3,918 residents at the 2010 census, is the only incorporated city situated along the lake shore; the city is located at the southern terminus of the lake, adjacent to the Lake Chelan Dam and the Chelan River outflow. The census-designated place of Manson, which had 1,418 residents in 2010, is located at the southern end of the lake; the unincorporated community of Stehekin, with 75 residents, is located at the northern terminus of the lake, adjacent to the Stehekin River inflow.
At the mouth of the Railroad Creek sits Lucerne, a small community of private cabins served by commercial boats. Lucerne is the primary gateway to the community of Holden Village, a Lutheran retreat center located 11 miles inland from the lake. With 50 long-term residents, Holden includes one of the few remaining public K-12 two-room schools in the contiguous United States. Fishing is a popular recreating activity on Lake Chelan; the following fish are or were native to the lake: Bull Trout, Westslope cutthroat trout, Largescale sucker, Longnose sucker, Bridgelip sucker, Northern pikeminnow, Redside shiner, Mountain whitefish, Pygmy whitefish. In addition to these native species, six species have been introduced to the lake for sport fishing purposes: Yellowstone cutthroat trout, Rainbow trout, Brook trout, Chinook salmon, Lake trout) There is one state record fish, pulled from Lake Chelan. In 2013, a 35.63-pound Lake Trout was caught. At the north end of the lake, surrounding the town of Stehekin, is Lake Chelan National Recreation Area.
Surrounding much of the lake on either side is Wenatchee National Forest
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations, the Research and Development branch. Managing 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency, outside the U. S. Department of the Interior; the concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875. In 1876, Congress formed the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Franklin B. Hough was appointed the head of the office. In 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves," managed by the Department of the Interior.
In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry. The Transfer Act of 1905 transferred the management of forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the United States Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Significant federal legislation affecting the Forest Service includes the Weeks Act of 1911, the Multiple Use – Sustained Yield Act of 1960, P. L. 86-517. L. 88-577. L. 94-588. L. 91-190. L. 95-313. L. 95-307. In February 2009, the Government Accountability Office evaluated whether the Forest Service should be moved from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, which includes the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, managing some 438,000,000 acres of public land; as of 2009, the Forest Service has a total budget authority of $5.5 billion, of which 42% is spent fighting fires.
The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters, 737 law enforcement personnel, 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is "To sustain the health and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations." Its motto is "Caring for the land and serving people." As the lead federal agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nation's forest and aquatic ecosystems. The agency's ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current and future needs. Through implementation of land and resource management plans, the agency ensures sustainable ecosystems by restoring and maintaining species diversity and ecological productivity that helps provide recreation, timber, fish, wildlife and aesthetic values for current and future generations of people.
The everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, providing recreation. The work includes managing 193,000,000 acres of national forest and grasslands, including 59,000,000 acres of roadless areas. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007; the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry. Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions; the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointee of the President confirmed by the Senate; the Chief's staff provides broad policy and direction for the agency, works with the Administration to develop a budget to submit to Congress, provides information to Congress on accomplishments, monitors activities of the agency.
There are five deputy chiefs for the following areas: National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five research stations, the Forest Products Laboratory, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Puerto Rico. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief. Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States. There are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908; the system provides places for long-term science and management studies in major vegetation types of the 195 million acres of public land administered by the Forest Service. Individual sites range from 47 to 22,500 ha in size. Operations of Experimental Forests and Ranges are directed by local research teams for the individual sites, by Research Stations for the regions in which they are located, at the level of the Forest Service.
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Omak is a city located in the foothills of the Okanogan Highlands in north-central Washington, United States. With an estimated 4,854 residents as of 2015, distributed over a land area of 3.43 square miles, Omak is the largest municipality of Okanogan County and the largest municipality in Central Washington north of Wenatchee. The Greater Omak Area of around 8,229 inhabitants as of the 2010 census is the largest urban cluster in the Okanogan Country region, encompassing most of its twin city of Okanogan; the population has increased since the 1910 census, reporting 520 residents just prior to incorporation in 1911. The land, now Omak had been inhabited by various Native American tribes before the arrival of non-indigenous settlers in the early 19th century; the city began to develop after the completion of the Okanogan Irrigation Project affecting the Grand Coulee Dam and other nearby electric facilities. The housing and municipal infrastructure, along with regional infrastructure connecting the new town to other municipalities, were built in 1908 supported by the local agricultural industry.
The name Omak comes from the Okanagan placename, or the Salishan term Omache—which is said to mean "good medicine" or "plenty", referring to its favorable climate, with an annual high of around 88 °F. Omak acts as the gateway to the Okanogan National Forest and consists of a central business district and residential neighborhoods. Omak is a code city governed by a seven-member council and the state's 4th district. Omak's economy is dominated by the primary industries of agriculture and forestry, although economic diversification has occurred with sawmills and recreational tourism. Nearby recreational destinations include walking trails, state parks and national forests, such as Conconully State Park, Bridgeport State Park and Osoyoos Lake State Park; the city is home to a weekly newspaper, the Omak–Okanogan County Chronicle, a Wenatchee Valley College campus. Standards for education in Omak are higher than the state's average, though drugs and alcohol remain a problem among students. U. S. Route 97 passes through the town, while Washington State Route 155, as well as Washington State Route 215, connects the city to Okanogan and Nespelem, respectively.
By road, Omak is located 235 miles from Seattle, Washington, 140 miles from Spokane, Washington and 125 miles from Kelowna, British Columbia. The Okanogan Valley was the traditional homeland of the Syilx Native Americans, whose territory extended north into what is now British Columbia; the Syilx acquired horses in the mid-18th century. They first met non-native missionaries in the early 19th century; the Syilx participated in trade fairs held at the mouth of the Fraser River. Trading networks strengthened after the acquisition of horses in the mid-18th century. In 1811, Fort Okanogan was built by the Pacific Fur Company at the confluence of the Okanogan and Columbia Rivers; the fort's ownership passed to the North West Company the Hudson's Bay Company. Fort Colvile, near Kettle Falls, was another important fur trading outpost; the Okanogan River was used by fur brigades traveling between Fort Kamloops. In the late 1850s this route became known as the Okanagan Trail and was used as an inland route to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
In the 1850s, European-Americans settled in the area, now Omak and built houses and inaugurated mining and agricultural activities. As more white settlers arrived, a dispute about land ownership arose between them and the Native Americans. In response, a treaty stating that an Indian reservation would be formed on some of the disputed land while the European-Americans would own the remaining land was signed; the Indian land was reduced to about 5,000,000 acres. Colville Indian Reservation was developed around 1872 during the Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant. In 1887, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, a federally recognized tribe, was formed by executive order from 12 individual bands as per the General Allotment Act of 1887; the federal government decided to move Colville Indian Reservation's location west of Columbia River, reducing its area to 2,800,000 acres. It would continue to be reduced for the next 60 years. Nearby Alma was platted as an unincorporated community around 1886.
Alma was renamed Pogue in honor of orchardist J. I. Pogue, was renamed Okanogan—the present name. J. I. Pogue was upset that his name was replaced, requested that surveyor, civil engineer and settler Ben Ross establish another town 4 miles to the north. Born in Bureau County, Ross worked for the Great Northern Railroad shortly before moving to Okanogan County, he decided to found a new community at Pogue's proposed location during 1907. It was named Omak for the Salishan word Omache—said to mean "good medicine" or "plenty"—and referring to the town's favorable climate. Ross sold various items on the present townsite, trying to have his town recognized, built a cabin in 1907 to provide shelter for his daughter and grandchildren—becoming one of the first white men to settle the area; the town began to develop after the completion of the Okanogan Irrigation Project, designed to facilitate farming. At this time, many farmers came to Omak looking for homes. Fruits including apples, peaches and watermelons were cultivated after 1910.
Omak served as a census-designated place in 1910, incorporated as a city on February 11, 1911. Omak and Okanogan have shared a rivalry in high school sports
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
Wenatchee is a city located in north-central Washington and is the largest city and county seat of Chelan County, United States. The population within the city limits in 2010 was 31,925. In 2014, the Office of Financial Management estimated the population at 33,070. Located at the confluence of the Columbia and Wenatchee rivers near the eastern foothills of the Cascade Range, Wenatchee lies on the western side of the Columbia River, across from the city of East Wenatchee; the Columbia River forms the boundary between Douglas County. Wenatchee is the principal city of the Wenatchee–East Wenatchee, Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Chelan and Douglas counties. However, the "Wenatchee Valley Area" refers to the land between Rocky Reach and Rock Island Dam on both banks of the Columbia, which includes East Wenatchee, Rock Island, Malaga; the city was named for the nearby Wenatchi Indian tribe. The name is a Sahaptin word that means "river which comes from canyons" or "robe of the rainbow".
Awenatchela means "people at the source ". The city of Wenatchee shares its name with the Wenatchee River, Lake Wenatchee and the Wenatchee National Forest. Wenatchee is referred to as the "Apple Capital of the World" due to the valley's many orchards; the city is sometimes referred to as the "Buckle of the Power Belt of the Great Northwest". The "Power Belt of the Great Northwest" is a metaphor for the series of hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Rock Island Dam is located nearest to the middle of this "belt", so was labeled the "Buckle"; this saying is printed at the top of every issue of Wenatchee's newspaper, the Wenatchee World, but is no longer in common use elsewhere. Archeological digs in nearby East Wenatchee have uncovered Clovis stone and bone tools dating back more than 11,000 years, indicating that people migrating during the last Ice Age spent time in the Wenatchee area; the Columbia River and nearby mountains and sagebrush steppes provided an ample supply of food. Clovis points are on display at the Wenatchee Valley Museum & Cultural Center and research findings are available through the Wenatchee World.
Several indigenous villages existed in the area prior to and during Anglo American exploration. The village Nikwikwi'estku was a fishing and gathering camp located in present day downtown Wenatchee. In 1811, North West Company surveyor David Thompson encountered a group of Native American horsemen at Wenatchee and was invited into a village with huts, the largest measuring 209 feet long. Fur traders document friendly relations through the mid 19th century during the smallpox epidemic of 1817 and food shortages in 1841. During the Yakima War in 1856, US Army Colonel Wright intervened on a possible alliance between Yakama and Wenatchi tribes by removing the Wenatchi to Kittitas; the resulting march was estimated to extend five miles long. A contigent stayed behind to fish at Wenatchapam Fishery in preparation for winter. In 1863, Father Respari, a Catholic priest, began his missionary work with the Indians, he was followed some 20 years by Father De Grassi, who built a log cabin on the Wenatchee River near the present town of Cashmere.
Throughout the 19th century, other white settlers came to homestead the land. Wenatchee was platted in September 1888 and incorporated as a city on January 7, 1893; the 1900 U. S. Census counted 451 residents; the Great Northern Railway completed its railroad line between St. Paul and Seattle in 1893, its route through the Wenatchee Valley was significant to the development of this region. The railroad not only provided passenger travel to and from Wenatchee, but it provided for freight service for shipments of wheat and other products to out-of-state markets. By the early 20th century, the Wenatchee Commercial Club, now the Wenatchee Valley Chamber of Commerce, was advertising the region as the "Home of the World's Best Apples." The tree fruit industry provided the economic backbone for the region for a century and still is an important source of revenue. On May 22, 1910, the Wenatchee free speech fight occurred when members of the Industrial Workers of the World were arrested for speaking in the street in front of the local hall of the Socialist Party of America.
The town had freed imprisoned IWW members by June. Again, the men were all released; the Wenatchee Valley boasts one of only two aluminum smelters remaining in the Northwestern United States, at the Alcoa plant in Malaga. The plant announced in November 2015 that it would be shutting down operations on January 5, 2016. Other growing areas of the regional economy are information technology. On October 5, 1931, Clyde Pangborn and his copilot Hugh Herndon landed their airplane, named the Miss Veedol, in the hills of East Wenatchee, thus became the first aviators to fly nonstop across the Pacific Ocean; the 41-hour flight from Sabishiro Beach, Aomori Prefecture, won them the Harmon Trophy for the greatest achievement in flight of 1931. Miss Veedol's propeller is on display at the Wenatchee Valley Cultural Center. In 1936, with the completion of Rock Island Dam, Wenatchee was protected from the summer flooding of the Columbia River, the first of 14 hydroelectric projects on the Columbia began generating electric power.
The reservoirs thus generated made it possible to irrigate hundreds of thousands of acres of farmland in the Columbia Basin. In 1975, Stemilt Growers moved its headquarters from nearby Stemilt Hill to Wenatchee. T
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east and Utah to the south, Washington and Oregon to the west. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of 1.7 million and an area of 83,569 square miles, Idaho is the 14th largest, the 12th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The state's capital and largest city is Boise. Idaho prior to European settlement was inhabited by Native American peoples, some of whom still live in the area. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U. S. and the United Kingdom. It became U. S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory. Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state.
Forming part of the Pacific Northwest, Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. In the state's north, the isolated Idaho Panhandle is linked with Eastern Washington, with which it shares the Pacific Time Zone – the rest of the state uses the Mountain Time Zone; the state's south includes the Snake River Plain, while the south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous, contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains; the United States Forest Service holds about 38 % of the most of any state. Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, mining and tourism. A number of science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, the state contains the Idaho National Laboratory, the country's largest Department of Energy facility. Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield; the official state nickname is the "Gem State".
The name's origin remains a mystery. In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho", which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains". Willing claimed he had invented the name. Congress decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs". However, the name "Idaho" did not fall into obscurity; the same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, launched on the Columbia River in 1860, it is unclear after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, part of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.
Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how". A 1956 Idaho history textbook says:"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation; the word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down"; the second is "dah", the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark does in the English language; the Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain. An alternative etymology attributes the name to the Plains Apache word "ídaahę́", used in reference to The Comanche. Idaho borders six U. S. states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west and Utah are to the south, Montana and Wyoming are to the east.
Idaho shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres, the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with scenic areas; the state has snow-capped mountain ranges, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of the Snake River rush through the deepest gorge in the United States. Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than Niagara Falls; the major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River, the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Clearwater River, the Salmon River. Other significant rivers include the Coeur d'Alene River, the Spokane River, the Boise River, the Payette River; the Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat.
The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon. Idaho's highest point is 12,662 ft, in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho's lowest poi