Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge
Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, located 6 miles south of Macon, United States, was established in 1989 to protect and enhance the forested wetland ecosystem of the Ocmulgee River floodplain. It opened to the public in 2000 and consists of 6,500 acres situated along the fall line separating the Piedmont and Coastal Plains; the refuge has a diversity of vegetation communities, including mixed hardwood-pine, bottomland hardwoods, tupelo gum swamp forests, tributaries, beaver swamps and oxbow lakes. The refuge is rich in wildlife diversity including white-tailed deer, wood ducks, black bears, wild turkey, a nesting pair of bald eagles and excellent wintering habitat for waterfowl. Extensive bottomland hardwoods provide critical habitat for neotropical songbirds of concern, such as Swainson's warbler, wood thrush, prothonotary warbler and yellow-billed cuckoo; the combination of warm weather and wet areas at Bond Swamp provide ideal conditions for a variety of reptile and amphibian species.
Profile of Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Big Frog Wilderness
The Big Frog Wilderness was designated in 1984 and consists of 8,082 acres. 89 acres are located in Georgia in the Chattahoochee National Forest and 7,993 acres are located in Tennessee in the Cherokee National Forest. The Wilderness is managed by the United States Forest Service in Tennessee and is part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; the highest elevation in the Big Frog Wilderness is the 4,224-foot peak of Big Frog Mountain in Tennessee. Although not a high mountain, Big Frog seems to dominate the Wilderness; the Wilderness borders the Cohutta Wilderness, located in Georgia. The Georgia portion of the Big Frog Wilderness is the smallest wilderness area in Georgia. List of U. S. Wilderness Areas Wilderness Act Wilderness.net entry for the Big Frog Wilderness Sherpa Guides entry for the Big Frog Wilderness Map of the Tennessee portion of the Big Frog Wilderness
The Cohutta Wilderness was designated in 1975, expanded in 1986, consists of 36,977 acres. 35,268 acres are located in Georgia in the Chattahoochee National Forest and 1,709 acres are located in Tennessee in the Cherokee National Forest. The Wilderness is managed by the United States Forest Service in Tennessee and is part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; the Cohutta Wilderness is the largest wilderness in Georgia. With more than 60,000 visitors each year, it is the largest, most used wilderness in the Southern Appalachians. In May, 2006, the Forest Service announced new limits on the use of the Wilderness, explaining: "Overuse from visitors is causing resource impacts that are threatening the qualities that made this area worthy of wilderness designation. Changes in the management of the Cohutta are necessary to reverse this trend to preserve the wilderness environment and provide future generations with the enjoyment of a true wilderness experience". Among the new regulations will be limits on the number of people allowed in a single group and on the use of camp fires.
The headwaters of the Conasauga River are located within the Wilderness, where the river starts as small cold stream from a spring at around 3,600 feet and flows north toward Tennessee. The Benton MacKaye Trail traverses the Wilderness; the Cohutta Wilderness borders the Big Frog Wilderness, located in Georgia and Tennessee. The name Cohutta is derived from the Cherokee word cohutta, which means "frog" or could mean "a shed roof supported on poles"; the Rough Ridge wildfire began on October 2016 with a lightning strike. Due to drought conditions the wildfire expanded to 27,870 acres; the fire management objectives were to allow the fire to burn and provide for firefighter and public safety. List of U. S. Wilderness Areas Cohutta Mountains Wilderness Act Wilderness.net entry for the Cohutta Wilderness Sherpa Guides entry for the Cohutta Wilderness Consauga River Alliance - Cohutta Wilderness
Andersonville National Historic Site
The Andersonville National Historic Site, located near Andersonville, preserves the former Camp Sumter, a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp during the final twelve months of the American Civil War. Most of the site lies in southwestern Macon County, adjacent to the east side of the town of Andersonville; as well as the former prison, the site contains the Andersonville National Cemetery and the National Prisoner of War Museum. The prison was made in February 1864 and served to April 1865; the site was commanded by Captain Henry Wirz, tried and executed after the war for war crimes. It was overcrowded to four times its capacity, with an inadequate water supply, inadequate food rations, unsanitary conditions. Of the 45,000 Union prisoners held at Camp Sumter during the war, nearly 13,000 died; the chief causes of death were scurvy and dysentery. The prison, which opened in February 1864 covered about 16.5 acres of land enclosed by a 15-foot high stockade. In June 1864, it was enlarged to 26.5 acres.
The stockade was rectangular, of dimensions 1,620 feet by 779 feet. There were two entrances on the west side of the stockade, known as "north entrance" and "south entrance". Robert H. Kellogg, sergeant major in the 16th Regiment Connecticut Volunteers, described his entry as a prisoner into the prison camp, May 2, 1864: As we entered the place, a spectacle met our eyes that froze our blood with horror, made our hearts fail within us. Before us were forms that had once been erect. Many of our men, in the heat and intensity of their feeling, exclaimed with earnestness. "Can this be hell?" "God protect us!" and all thought that he alone could bring them out alive from so terrible a place. In the center of the whole was a swamp, occupying about three or four acres of the narrowed limits, a part of this marshy place had been used by the prisoners as a sink, excrement covered the ground, the scent arising from, suffocating; the ground allotted to our ninety was near the edge of this plague-spot, how we were to live through the warm summer weather in the midst of such fearful surroundings, was more than we cared to think of just then.
Further descriptions of the camp can be found in the diary of Ransom Chadwick, a member of the 85th New York Infantry Regiment. Chadwick and his regimental mates were taken to the Andersonville Prison, arriving on April 30, 1864. An extensive and detailed diary was kept by John L. Ransom of his time as a prisoner at Andersonville. Father Peter Whelan arrived on 16 June 1864 to muster the resources of the Catholic church and help provide relief to the prisoners. At Andersonville, a light fence known as "the dead line" was erected 19 feet inside the stockade wall, it demarcated a no-man's land that kept prisoners away from the stockade wall, made of rough-hewn logs about 16 feet high and stakes driven into the ground. Anyone crossing or touching this "dead line" was shot without warning by sentries in the pigeon roosts. At this stage of the war, Andersonville Prison was undersupplied with food. By 1864, not only civilians living within the Confederacy but the soldiers of the Confederate Army itself were struggling to obtain sufficient quantities of food.
The shortage of fare was suffered by prisoners and Confederate personnel alike within the fort, but the prisoners received less than the guards, who unlike their captives did not become emaciated or suffer from scurvy. The latter was a major cause of the camp's high mortality rate, as well as dysentery and typhoid fever, which were the result of filthy living conditions and poor sanitation; when sufficient quantities of supplies were available, they were of poor quality and inadequately prepared. There were no new outfits given to prisoners, whose own clothing was falling to pieces. In some cases, garments were taken from the dead. John McElroy, a prisoner at Andersonville, recalled "Before one was cold his clothes would be appropriated and divided, I have seen many sharp fights between contesting claimants."Although the prison was surrounded by forest little wood was allowed to the prisoners for warmth or cooking. This, along with the lack of utensils, made it impossible for the prisoners to cook the meagre food rations they received, which consisted of poorly milled cornflour.
During the summer of 1864, Union prisoners suffered from hunger and disease. Within seven months, about a third had died from scurvy. In 1864, the Confederate Surgeon General asked Joseph Jones, an expert on infectious disease, to investigate the high mortality rate at the camp, he concluded that it was due to "scorbutic dysentery". In 2010, the historian Drisdelle said that hookworm disease, a condition not recognized or known during the Civil War, was the major cause of much of the fatalities amongst the prisoners; the water supply from Stockade Creek became polluted when too many Union prisoners were housed by the Confederate authorities within the prison walls. Part of the creek was used as a sink, the men were forced to wash themselves in the creek. At the time of the Civil War, the concept of a prisoner of
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, located in northern Georgia and eastern Tennessee, preserves the sites of two major battles of the American Civil War: the Battle of Chickamauga and the Chattanooga Campaign. A detailed history of the park's development was provided by the National Park Service in 1998. Starting in 1890, during the decade, the Congress of the United States authorized the establishment of the first four national military parks: Chickamauga and Chattanooga, Shiloh and Vicksburg; the first and largest of these, the one upon which the establishment and development of most other national military and historical parks was based, was authorized in 1890 at Chickamauga and Chattanooga, Tennessee. It was dedicated in September 1895, it owes its existence chiefly to the efforts of Generals Henry V. Boynton and Ferdinand Van Derveer, both veterans of the Union Army of the Cumberland, who saw the need for a federal park to preserve and commemorate these battlefields. Another early proponent and driving force behind the park's creation was Ohio General Henry M. Cist, who led the Chickamauga Memorial Society in 1888.
Another former Union officer, Charles H. Grosvenor, was chairman of the park commission from 1910 until his death in 1917. During the Park's early years, it was managed by the War Department and used for military study as well as a memorial; the National Park Service took over site management in 1933. The newly created Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park was utilized during the Spanish–American War as a major training center for troops in the southern states; the park was temporarily renamed "Camp George H. Thomas" in honor of the union army commander during the Civil War battle at the site; the park's proximity to the major rail hub at Chattanooga and its large tracts of land made it a logical marshalling area for troops being readied for service in Cuba and other points south. The military park consists of four main areas, a few small isolated reservations, around Chattanooga. Chickamauga Battlefield Missionary Ridge Lookout Mountain Battlefield and Point Park Moccasin BendAs with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the military park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966.
On February 20, 2003, Public Law No: 108-7 added Moccasin Bend as a new unit of the park. Moccasin Bend Archaeological District, designated a National Historic Landmark on September 8, 1986, is directly across the Tennessee River from Lookout Mountain, it is significant due to its archaeological resources of American Indian settlement. There are minimal visitor services at Moccasin Bend, including two hiking trails and a ten acre meadow; each of these areas is open to the public. The park anticipates further development, land restoration, visitor services in the years to come. First Battle of Chattanooga Second Battle of Chattanooga Official website Historic American Engineering Record No. TN-36, "Chattanooga National Military Park Tour Roads, Chattanooga vicinity, Hamilton County, TN" Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park Commission: Louisiana Committee Photographs and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections, LSU Libraries, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. Http://www.louisianadigitallibrary.org/cdm/search/collection/LSU_CNP
Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park
Kennesaw Battlefield Park preserves a Civil War battleground of the Atlanta Campaign, contains Kennesaw Mountain. It is located at 905 Kennesaw Mountain Drive, between Kennesaw, Georgia; the name "Kennesaw" derives from the Cherokee Indian "Gah-nee-sah" meaning "cemetery" or burial ground. The area was designated as a U. S. historic district on October 15, 1966. The Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, fought here between Generals William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union army and Joseph E. Johnston of the Confederate army, took place between June 18, 1864, July 2, 1864. Sherman's army consisted of 100,000 men, 254 cannons and 35,000 horses, while Johnston's army had only 50,000 men and 187 cannons. Much of the battle took place not on Kennesaw Mountain itself, but on a spur of Little Kennesaw Mountain known now as Pigeon Hill, the area to its south around Cheatham Hill. A total of 5,350 soldiers died during the battle. Established as Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Site on February 18, 1917, it was transferred from the War Department on August 10, 1933, redesignated a national battlefield park on June 26, 1935.
As with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. Kennesaw Mountain Battlefield Park is a 2,923-acre National Battlefield that preserves a Civil War battleground of the Atlanta Campaign. There are three battlefield areas: In front of the Visitor Center, off Burnt Hickory Road and a major site at Cheatham Hill. At the southern tip of the park, Peter Valentine Kolb's farm house, where a minor battle was fought, has been restored to its original condition; the Visitor Center contains an information desk, a theater which screens movies about the battle fought there. While walking some of the 17.3 miles of interpretive hiking trails, historic earthworks, cannon emplacements, various interpretive signs can be seen. There are three monuments representing some of the states who fought here - Illinois and Georgia. Kennesaw Mountain is 1,808 feet above sea level, it is a 664-foot gain in elevation from the Visitor Center to the mountain's summit.
The hike up is 1.4 miles on the road and 1.1-mile on the trail. Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield was authorized for protection by the U. S. War Department in 1917 and was transferred to the Department of the Interior as a unit of the National Park System in 1933; the 2,923-acre battlefield includes the site of some of the heaviest fighting of the Atlanta Campaign of the Civil War. The battlefield was set aside as an important cultural property dedicated to public inspiration and interpretation of the significant historic events that occurred here. With the expansion of urban sprawl from nearby Atlanta, concerns have been raised that the preserved areas of the park may be in danger from overuse and/or misuse. Media related to Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park at Wikimedia Commons Official NPS website: Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park from About North Georgia Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park timeline A collection of Kennesaw Mountain memorabilia Atlanta, Georgia, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary