Alexey Pavlovich Okladnikov was a Soviet archaeologist and ethnographer, an expert in the ancient cultures of Siberia and the Pacific Basin. He was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1968. The childhood of the scientist has passed in Biryulka village in Siberia, in 1938-1961, Okladnikov worked in the Leningrad Division of the Archeology Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Since 1961 Head of the Division of Human Research of the Economics Institute, since 1966 Director of the Institute of History and Philosophy, Siberian Division of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Since 1962, Professor and Head, Department of History, of Novosibirsk State University and his works include research on ancient history of Siberia, Far East and Middle East. He identified numerous cultures of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron Ages in Siberia, a. P. Okladnikov taught field studies in Siberia, the Far East, Central Asia and Mongolia. In 1971, he supervised excavations at Zashiversk and the relocation of the historic Spaso-Zashiverskaya Church to Novosibirsk, where it is now displayed.
He is the author of the Summary on the History of Ancient Society and the Ancient Culture of Paleolitic and Neolithic Art, the History of Siberia, the Far East, the museum of Khabarovsk is named the Okladnikov Museum in his honour. Древний Зашиверск, Москва,1977 Okladnikov, Alexei Art of the Amur, Ancient Art of the Russian Far East, New York,1982 Faddey Islands South Turkmenistan Complex Archaeological Expedition
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology is a research institute based in Leipzig, founded in 1997. It is part of the Max Planck Society network, the institute comprises five departments and several Junior Scientist Groups, and currently employs about three hundred and thirty people. The former Department of Linguistics, which ran from 1998 to 2015, was closed in May 2015, upon the retirement of its director, well-known scientists currently based at the institute include Svante Pääbo, Michael Tomasello, Christophe Boesch, Jean-Jacques Hublin and Richard McElreath. In July 2006, the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and 454 Life Sciences announced that they would be sequencing the Neanderthal genome. Results of the study were published in the May 2010 journal Science detailing an initial draft of the Neanderthal genome based on the analysis of four base pairs of Neanderthal DNA. It was thought that a comparison of the Neanderthal genome and human genome would expand our understanding of Neanderthals, as well as the evolution of humans, DNA researcher Svante Pääbo tested more than 70 Neanderthal specimens and found only one that had enough DNA to sample.
Preliminary DNA sequencing from a 38, 000-year-old bone fragment from a femur found in 1980 at Vindija Cave in Croatia shows that Neanderthals and it is believed that the two species shared a common ancestor about 500,000 years ago. Nature has calculated the species diverged about 516,000 years ago, from DNA records, scientists hope to confirm or deny the theory that there was interbreeding between the species. In 2005, the World Atlas of Language Structures, a project of the institutes former Department of Linguistics, was published. The Atlas consists of over 140 maps, each displaying a particular language feature – for example order of adjective, in 2008 the Atlas was published online and the underlying database made freely available. Researchers at the institute have developed a computer model analyzing early toddler conversations to predict the structure of conversations and they showed that toddlers develop their own individual rules for speaking with slots into which they could put certain kinds of words.
The rules inferred from toddler speech were better predictors of subsequent speech than traditional grammars, homepage of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Denisova Cave is a cave in the Bashelaksky Range of the Altai mountains, Russia. The cave is of great paleoarchaeological and paleontological interest, bone fragments of the Denisova hominin, sometimes called the X woman originate from the cave, including artifacts dated to around 40,000 BP. The cave is located in a thought to have been inhabited concurrently in the past by Neanderthals. A bone needle dated to 50,000 years ago was discovered at the site in 2016 and is described as the most ancient needle known. Located in Altai Krai, at the border of the Altai Republic, the cave is near the village of Chorny Anui, and some 150 km south of Barnaul, the nearest major city. The cave, which is approximately 28 m above the bank of the Anuy River, has formed in upper Silurian limestone. It contains a chamber with a floor of 9 m x 11 m with side galleries. It has been described as both as a karst cave and as a sandstone cave, Cave sediments are rich with remnants of animals, including extinct ones.
Remains of 27 species of large and medium-sized mammals have been found, pollen in the sediments of cave is used for palaeoclimatological research. In the 18th century, the cave was inhabited by a hermit, Dionisij, in the 1970s, Soviet scientists discovered paleoarcheological remains in the cave that led to further explorations. So far,22 strata have been identified, with artifacts that cover the time from Dionisij back to about 125. The dating of the strata was accomplished by the use of thermoluminescence dating of sediments, or, in some cases, among the archeological artifacts are Mousterian- and Levallois-style tools attributed to Neanderthals. A7 cm sewing needle made from bone, estimated to be around 50,000 years-old, was found in Denisova Cave. The average annual temperature of the remains at 0 °C. Scientists from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of Novosibirsk have investigated the cave, among the artifacts which had been left about 30,000 to 48,000 years ago, bones were identified.
Further analysis revealed the Denisovans were related to the Neanderthals and interbred with the ancestors of modern Melanesians, in 2011, a toe bone was discovered in the cave, in layer 11, and therefore contemporary with the finger bone. Preliminary characterization of the bones mitochondrial DNA suggests it belonged to a Neanderthal, analysis confirmed the toe bone as coming from a Neanderthal. They found that one sample, DC1227, carried human traits, so far, the fossils of five distinct individuals from Denisova Cave have been identified through their DNA
Jasperoid is a rare, peculiar type of metasomatic alteration and occurs in two main forms, sulfidic jasperoids and hematitic jasperoids. True jasperoids are different from jaspillite, which is a form of metamorphosed sedimentary rock. Sulfidic jasperoids are examples of silica-sulfide metasomatism of dolostones, and are found in Nevada. They are hard, dense purple-black rocks with content of pyrite. The bodies in Nevada are quite thin and stratabound, hematitic jasperoids are examples of advanced silica-hematite alteration, and are known only from the Proterozoic rocks of the Glengarry Basin in Australia. These jasperoids are hard, purple to dark purple rocks composed primarily of amethyst quartz and fine disseminated hematite, while contentious, these jasperoids are thought to form by extreme alteration of wall rocks within a shear zone, and may occur in sediments, andesites and basalts. These bodies are often discordant to stratigraphy and are quite podiform in nature, the bodies in the Glengarry Basin are up to 120 m thick and over 3 km in length.
These jasperoids are an important source of gold ore within the region, some hematitic jasperoids may be sourced from metamorphosed and altered jaspillite, and are located above areas identified as submarine basalt vents. These, may represent a type of chert or spilite. These are subordinate in volume to the forms and are usually quite thin. The formation of hematitic jasperoids is considered to be the product of highly oxidised metasomatism of the rocks to a shear zone. Relict volcaniclastic textures in some jasperoids indicate that aluminosilicates have been replaced pervasively by silica + hematite, true jasperoid is found in dolomitic formations in Nevada, USA, and within dolomitic limestone sequences in Iran and Turkey
Neanderthals, or more rarely Neandertals, were a species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo that became extinct about 40,000 years ago. Neanderthals and modern humans share 99. 7% of their DNA and are closely related. Neanderthals left bones and stone tools in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central, from the 1950s to the early 1980s, Neanderthals were widely considered a subspecies of Homo sapiens and a minority of scholars still hold this view. Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe, the earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 160,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorhams Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar, male Neanderthals had cranial capacities averaging 1600 cm3, females 1300 cm3, extending to 1736 cm3 in Amud 1. This is notably larger than the 1250–1400 cm3 typical of modern humans, males stood 164–168 cm and females 152–156 cm tall. Recent studies show that a few Neanderthals began mating with ancestors of modern humans long before the out of Africa migration of present day non-Africans.
Claims that Neanderthals deliberately buried their dead, and if they did, the debate on deliberate Neanderthal burials has been active since the 1908 discovery of the well-preserved Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 skeleton in a small hole in a cave in southwestern France. In 2013, scientists sequenced the genome of a Neanderthal for the first time. The genome was extracted from the bone of a 50. In 2016, elaborate constructions of rings of broken stalagmites made by early Neanderthals around 176,000 years ago were discovered 336 m inside Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France and this would have required a more advanced social structure than previously known for Neanderthals. Thal is a spelling of the German word Tal, which means valley. Nevertheless, Kings name had priority over the proposal put forward in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel, the practice of referring to the Neanderthals and a Neanderthal emerged in the popular literature of the 1920s. The German pronunciation of Neanderthaler or Neandertaler is in the International Phonetic Alphabet, in British English, Neanderthal is pronounced with the /t/ as in German, but different vowels.
In laymans American English, Neanderthal is pronounced with a /θ/ and /ɔ/ instead of the longer British /aː/, during the early 20th century the prevailing view was heavily influenced by Arthur Keith and Marcellin Boule, who wrote the first scientific description of a nearly complete Neanderthal skeleton. During the 1930s scholars Ernst Mayr, George Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky reinterpreted the existing fossil record, Neanderthal man was classified as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis - an early subspecies contrasted with what was now called Homo sapiens sapiens. The obviously unbroken succession of fossil sites of both subspecies in Europe was considered evidence that there was a slow and gradual evolutionary transition from Neanderthals to modern humans, contextual interpretations of similar excavation sites in Asia lead to the hypothesis of multiregional origin of modern man in the 1980s. Current scientific ideas hold that both evolved from a common African ancestor, Homo erectus
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian,419.2 million years ago, to the beginning of the Carboniferous,358.9 Mya. It is named after Devon, where rocks from this period were first studied, the first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land, forming extensive forests which covered the continents, by the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, and by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods became well-established, Fish reached substantial diversity during this time, leading the Devonian to often be dubbed the Age of Fish. The first ray-finned and lobe-finned bony fish appeared, while the placodermi began dominating almost every aquatic environment. The ancestors of all four-limbed vertebrates began adapting to walking on land, as their strong pectoral, in the oceans, primitive sharks became more numerous than in the Silurian and Late Ordovician.
The first ammonites, species of molluscs, trilobites, the mollusk-like brachiopods and the great coral reefs, were still common. The Late Devonian extinction which started about 375 million years ago severely affected marine life, killing off all placodermi, and all trilobites, save for a few species of the order Proetida. The palaeogeography was dominated by the supercontinent of Gondwana to the south, the continent of Siberia to the north, while the rock beds that define the start and end of the Devonian period are well identified, the exact dates are uncertain. According to the International Commission on Stratigraphy, the Devonian extends from the end of the Silurian 419.2 Mya, another common term is Age of the Fishes, referring to the evolution of several major groups of fish that took place during the period. Older literature on the Anglo-Welsh basin divides it into the Downtonian, Dittonian and Farlovian stages, in the Late Devonian, by contrast, arid conditions were less prevalent across the world and temperate climates were more common.
The Devonian Period is formally broken into Early and Late subdivisions, the rocks corresponding to those epochs are referred to as belonging to the Lower and Upper parts of the Devonian System. Early Devonian The Early Devonian lasted from 419.2 ±2.8 to 393.3 ±2.5 and began with the Lochkovian stage, which lasted until the Pragian. It spanned from 410.8 ±2.8 to 407.6 ±2.5, and was followed by the Emsian, which lasted until the Middle Devonian began,393. 3±2.7 million years ago. Middle Devonian The Middle Devonian comprised two subdivisions, first the Eifelian, which gave way to the Givetian 387. 7±2.7 million years ago. Late Devonian Finally, the Late Devonian started with the Frasnian,382.7 ±2.8 to 372.2 ±2.5, during which the first forests took shape on land. The first tetrapods appeared in the record in the ensuing Famennian subdivision. This lasted until the end of the Devonian,358. 9±2.5 million years ago, the Devonian was a relatively warm period, and probably lacked any glaciers
Homo erectus is an extinct species of hominid that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch. Its earliest fossil evidence dates to 1.9 million years ago and extends to 70,000 years ago, or, possibly, as recently as 35,000 years ago. It is generally thought that H. erectus originated in Africa and spread from there, migrating throughout Eurasia as far as Georgia, Sri Lanka, China, a new debate appeared in 2013, with the documentation of the Dmanisi skulls.58 million years ago. From there it migrated, in part, by 2, the fossil record shows that its development from about 1.8 mya to one mya was widely distributed, in Africa, the Transcaucasus, and in Vietnam and India. The second hypothesis is that H. erectus evolved in Eurasia and they occupied the Dmanisi site from 1.85 million to 1.77 million years ago, which was about the same time or slightly before their earliest evidence in Africa. There are several proposed explanations of the dispersal of H. erectus georgicus—including whether or not Africa is the source), the Dutch anatomist Eugène Dubois was fascinated by Darwins theory of evolution especially as it applied to humankind.
In 1886, he set out for Asia—which was the region accepted as the cradle of evolution despite Darwins theory of African origin. In 1891, his team discovered a human fossil on the island of Java, the Java fossil from Indonesia aroused much public interest. It was dubbed by the press as Java Man, but few scientists accepted Dubois argument that his fossil was the transitional form—the so-called missing link—between apes. Java Man is now classified as Homo erectus, most of the spectacular discoveries of H. erectus next took place at the Zhoukoudian Project, now known as the Peking Man Site, in Zhoukoudian, China. This site was first discovered by Johan Gunnar Andersson in 1921 and was first excavated in 1921, canadian anatomist Davidson Blacks initial description of a lower molar as belonging to a previously unknown species prompted widely publicized interest. Extensive excavations followed, which altogether uncovered 200 human fossils from more than 40 individuals including five nearly complete skullcaps, german anatomist Franz Weidenreich provided much of the detailed description of this material in several monographs published in the journal Palaeontologica Sinica.
Throughout much of the 20th century, anthropologists debated the role of H. erectus in human evolution, early in the century, due in part to the discoveries at Java and Zhoukoudian, it was widely accepted that modern humans first evolved in Asia. From the 1950s forward, numerous finds in East Africa confirmed the hypothesis of an African genesis and it is now generally accepted that H. erectus descended from either, 1) the earliest hominin genera, or 2) the earliest Homo-species. East Africa provided sympatric coexistence for H. erectus and H, in the 1950s, archaeologists John T. Robinson and Robert Broom named Telanthropus capensis, Robinson had discovered a jaw fragment in 1949 in Swartkrans, South Africa. Later, Simonetta proposed to re-designate it to Homo erectus, in 1961, Yves Coppens discovered a skull of Tchadanthropus uxoris, the earliest fossil human discovered in north Africa. It was reported that the fossil had been so eroded by sand that it mimicked the appearance of an australopith.
Although at first considered to be a specimen of H. habilis, T. uxoris is no longer considered a valid taxon, and has been subsumed into H. erectus
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
An escarpment is a steep slope or long cliff that forms as an effect of faulting or erosion and separates two relatively level areas of differing elevations. Usually escarpment is used interchangeably with scarp, but some sources differentiate the two terms, where escarpment refers to the margin between two landforms, while scarp is synonymous with a cliff or steep slope. The surface of the slope is called a scarp face. This is a ridge which has a gentle slope on one side. Scarps are generally formed by one of two processes, either by differential erosion of rocks, or by vertical movement of the Earths crust along a geologic fault. Most commonly, an escarpment is a transition from one series of rocks to another series of a different age. Escarpments are formed by faults. When a fault displaces the ground surface so that one side is higher than the other and this can occur in dip-slip faults, or when a strike-slip fault brings a piece of high ground adjacent to an area of lower ground. More loosely, the term describes the zone between coastal lowlands and continental plateaus which have a marked, abrupt change in elevation caused by coastal erosion at the base of the plateau.
Earth is not the planet where escarpments occur. They are believed to occur on other planets when the crust contracts, on other Solar System bodies such as Mercury and the Moon, the Latin term rupes is used for an escarpment. When sedimentary beds are tilted and exposed to the surface, escarpments erode gradually and over geological time. The mélange tendencies of escarpments results in varying contacts between a multitude of rock types and these varying levels of erosion can lead to strange features forming in the exposed rock. Kinver Edge The Lincoln Edge Stanage Edge Wenlock Edge France La Côte dOr is famous for its wines and has given its name to a département, le Pays de Bray, a clay vale enclosed by chalk escarpments
The argali, or the mountain sheep is a wild sheep that roams the highlands of Central Asia. It is the largest species of wild sheep, the North American bighorn sheep may approach comparable weights but is normally considerably outsized by the argali. Argali stand 85 to 135 cm high at the shoulder and measure 136 to 200 cm long from the head to the base of the tail. The female, or ewe is the sex by a considerable margin, sometimes weighing less than half as much as the male. The ewes can weigh from 43.2 to 100 kg and the rams typically from 97 to 328 kg, with a maximum reported mass of 356 kg. The Pamir argali, O. a. polii, is the largest race on average, regularly measuring more than 180 cm long without the tail, the argali has relatively the shortest tail of any wild goat-antelope or sheep, with reported tail lengths of 9. 5–17 cm. The general coloration varies between each animal, from a yellow to a reddish-brown to a dark grey-brown. Argali or nyan from the Himalayas are usually dark, whereas those from Russian ranges are often relatively pale.
In summertime, the coat is often spotted with a salt-and-pepper pattern. The back is darker than the sides, which gradually lighten in color, the face and the buttocks are yellowish-white. The male has a neck ruff and a dorsal crest and is usually slightly darker in color than the female. Males have two large horns, some measuring 190 cm in total length and weighing up to 23 kg. Males use their horns for competing with one another, females carry horns, but they are much smaller, usually measuring less than 50 cm in total length. Argali range from central Kazakhstan in the west to the Shanxi Province in China in the east and they are a species of mountainous areas, living from elevations of 300 to 5,800 m. In areas where they are hunted, they are more likely to be found in forested areas. In parts of China and Russia where they compete for resources with numerous domestic stock, argali more regularly take up residence in precipitous, Argali may search for regions in the mountains where snow cover is not heavy during the winter, following winds that blow snow off the earth.
Rams are generally found at elevations more regularly than females. Argalis live in herds numbering between two and 150 animals, segregated by sex, except during breeding season
The Altai-Sayan region is an area of central Asia proximate to the Altai Mountains and the Sayan Mountains, near to where Russia, China and Kazakhstan come together. This region is one of the centers of temperate plant diversity. Its biological, historical and religious diversity is unique,3,726 species of vascular plants are registered in the region including 700 threatened or rare species,317 of which are endemic, fauna consists of 680 species, 6% of which are endemic. Its ecosystem is comparatively unchanged since the last ice age, and it is the host of endangered species include the saiga, nerpa. It is the focus of ongoing international and regional environmental conservation initiatives, the area is culturally diverse, with four language groups and more than 20 indigenous ethnic groups practicing traditional land use systems. There are a variety of religions including Christianity, the region covers more than one million square kilometers, and has a population of between 5 and 6 million inhabitants.
The Altai-Sayan ecoregions contain and share a name with the Altai Mountains, the Altai Mountains are a mountain range in East-Central Asia, where Russia, China and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters. The Sayan Mountains lie between northwestern Mongolia and southern Siberia, the Altai-Sayan has a total area of 1,065,000 square kilometers. Its area belongs to the territory of Russia, Kazakhstan, at the far north of the Altai-Sayan region, near its boundary, is the Russian city of Krasnoyarsk. Other towns in the region include Kyzyl in Russia, as well as Ulaangom, the Russian town of Gorno-Altaysk lies within the region near its western boundary, and the Russian city of Irkutsk lies just outside the region to its east. The Altai-Sayan regions total population is estimated as about 5.5 million, contained within this ecoregion is the Great Lakes Hollow, a large semi-arid depression, bounded by the Altai in the West, Khangai in the East and Tannu-Ola Mountains in the North.
This contains six major lakes, the saline lakes Uvs Nuur, Khyargas Nuur and Dörgön Nuur, the ancient history of the region is so unique that many historians and archaeologists call it “the cradle of civilization”. The ancient historic monuments are integrated into the landscape in such a way that it forms a harmonious. Thousands of petroglyphs, cave paintings, antique burial mounds, steles and other ancient monuments are found in the area, some even as ancient as the Egyptian pyramids. Altai-Sayan is home to the Denisova cave, famous for the 2010 discovery of 50, 000-year-old fossils of a new kind of human, since then, Neanderthal bones, and tools crafted by Homo sapiens have been found in the cave. This makes it the place where all three hominins have been known to live. Conditions in the Altai-Sayan are stable, so ancient humans may have taken refuge there during glacial interchanges, malaya Syya in Khakassia, another ancient archeological site in the region, has been dated to 35,000 BCE.
Recent genetic studies have shown that the indigenous peoples of the Americas are partially derived from southern Altaians
The woolly rhinoceros is an extinct species of rhinoceros that was common throughout Europe and northern Asia during the Pleistocene epoch and survived the last glacial period. The genus name Coelodonta means cavity tooth, the woolly rhinoceros was a member of the Pleistocene megafauna. As the last and most derived member of the Pleistocene rhinoceros lineage, stocky limbs and thick woolly pelage made it well suited to the steppe-tundra environment prevalent across the Palearctic ecozone during the Pleistocene glaciations. Like the vast majority of rhinoceroses, the plan of the woolly rhinoceros adhered to a conservative morphology. A study of 40, 000- to 70, 000-year-old DNA samples showed its closest extant relative is the Sumatran rhinoceros, the appearance of woolly rhinos is known from mummified individuals from Siberia as well as cave paintings. An adult woolly rhinoceros was typically around 3 to 3.8 metres in length, with a weight of around 1. The woolly rhinoceros could grow to be 2 m tall, the size was thus comparable to, or slightly larger than.
Two horns on the skull were made of keratin, the horn being 61 cm in length, with a smaller horn between its eyes. It had thick, long fur, small ears, thick legs, Cave paintings suggest a wide dark band between the front and hind legs, but the feature is not universal, and the identification of pictured rhinoceroses as woolly rhinoceros is uncertain. Its shape was only from prehistoric cave drawings until a completely preserved specimen was discovered in a tar pit in Starunia. The specimen, a female, is now on display in the Polish Academy of Sciences Museum of Natural History in Kraków. Several frozen specimens have found in Siberia, the latest in 2007. The woolly rhinoceros used its horns for defensive purposes and to attract mates, during Greenland Stadial 2 the North Sea retreated northward, as sea levels were up to 125 metres lower than today. The woolly rhinoceros roamed the exposed Doggerland and much of Northern Europe and was common in the cold, arid desert that is southern England and its geographical range expanded and contracted with the alternating cold and warm cycles, forcing populations to migrate as glaciers receded.
The woolly rhinoceros co-existed with woolly mammoths and several other larger mammals of the Pleistocene megafauna. A close relative, had a southern range. It is believed they migrated there to northern Asia and Europe when the Ice Age began. Females gave birth to one or two calves, controversy has long surrounded the precise dietary preference of Coelodonta as past investigations have found both grazing and browsing modes of life to be plausible