Carousel is the second musical by the team of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II. The 1945 work was adapted from Ferenc Molnár's 1909 play Liliom, transplanting its Budapest setting to the Maine coastline; the story revolves around carousel barker Billy Bigelow, whose romance with millworker Julie Jordan comes at the price of both their jobs. He participates in a robbery to provide for their unborn child. A secondary plot line deals with millworker Carrie Pipperidge and her romance with ambitious fisherman Enoch Snow; the show includes the well-known songs "If I Loved You", "June Is Bustin' Out All Over" and "You'll Never Walk Alone". Richard Rodgers wrote that Carousel was his favorite of all his musicals. Following the spectacular success of the first Rodgers and Hammerstein musical, Oklahoma!, the pair sought to collaborate on another piece, knowing that any resulting work would be compared with Oklahoma!, most unfavorably. They were reluctant to seek the rights to Liliom. After acquiring the rights, the team created a work with lengthy sequences of music and made the ending more hopeful.
The musical required considerable modification during out-of-town tryouts, but once it opened on Broadway on April 19, 1945, it was an immediate hit with both critics and audiences. Carousel ran for 890 performances and duplicated its success in the West End in 1950. Though it has never achieved as much commercial success as Oklahoma!, the piece has been revived, recorded several times and was filmed in 1956. A production by Nicholas Hytner enjoyed success in 1992 in 1994 in New York and on tour. Another Broadway revival opened in 2018. In 1999, Time magazine named Carousel the best musical of the 20th century. Ferenc Molnár's Hungarian-language drama, premiered in Budapest in 1909; the audience was puzzled by the work, it lasted only thirty-odd performances before being withdrawn, the first shadow on Molnár's successful career as a playwright. Liliom was not presented again until after World War I; when it reappeared on the Budapest stage, it was a tremendous hit. Except for the ending, the plots of Liliom and Carousel are similar.
Andreas Zavocky, a carnival barker, falls in love with Julie Zeller, a servant girl, they begin living together. With both discharged from their jobs, Liliom is discontented and contemplates leaving Julie, but decides not to do so on learning that she is pregnant. A subplot involves Julie's friend Marie, who has fallen in love with Wolf Biefeld, a hotel porter—after the two marry, he becomes the owner of the hotel. Desperate to make money so that he, Julie and their child can escape to America and a better life, Liliom conspires with lowlife Ficsur to commit a robbery, but it goes badly, Liliom stabs himself, he dies, his spirit is taken to heaven's police court. As Ficsur suggested while the two waited to commit the crime, would-be robbers like them do not come before God Himself. Liliom is told by the magistrate that he may go back to Earth for one day to attempt to redeem the wrongs he has done to his family, but must first spend sixteen years in a fiery purgatory. On his return to Earth, Liliom encounters his daughter, who like her mother is now a factory worker.
Saying that he knew her father, he tries to give her a star. When Louise refuses to take it, he strikes her. Not realizing who he is, Julie finds herself unable to be angry with him. Liliom is ushered off to his fate Hell, Louise asks her mother if it is possible to feel a hard slap as if it was a kiss. Julie reminiscently tells her daughter that it is possible for that to happen. An English translation of Liliom was credited to Benjamin "Barney" Glazer, though there is a story that the actual translator, was Rodgers' first major partner Lorenz Hart; the Theatre Guild presented it in New York City in 1921, with Joseph Schildkraut as Liliom, the play was a success, running 300 performances. A 1940 revival, with Burgess Meredith and Ingrid Bergman was seen by both Rodgers. Glazer, in introducing the English translation of Liliom, wrote of the play's appeal: And where in modern dramatic literature can such pearls be matched—Julie incoherently confessing to her dead lover the love she had always been ashamed to tell.
The temptation to count the whole scintillating string is difficult to resist. In the 1920s and 1930s, Rodgers and Hammerstein both became well known for creating Broadway hits with other partners. Rodgers, with Lorenz Hart, had produced a string of over two dozen musicals, including such popular successes as Babes in Arms, The Boys from Syracuse and Pal Joey; some of Rodgers' work with Hart broke new ground in musical theatre: On Your Toes was the first use of ballet to sustain the plot, while Pal Joey flouted Broadway tradition by presenting a knave as its hero. Hammerstein had written or co-written the words
Oklahoma! is the first musical written by the team of composer Richard Rodgers and librettist Oscar Hammerstein II. The musical is based on Lynn Riggs' 1931 play, Green Grow the Lilacs. Set in farm country outside the town of Claremore, Indian Territory, in 1906, it tells the story of farm girl Laurey Williams and her courtship by two rival suitors, cowboy Curly McLain and the sinister and frightening farmhand Jud Fry. A secondary romance concerns his flirtatious fiancée, Ado Annie; the original Broadway production opened on March 31, 1943. It was a box-office smash and ran for an unprecedented 2,212 performances enjoying award-winning revivals, national tours, foreign productions and an Academy Award-winning 1955 film adaptation, it has long been a popular choice for community productions. Rodgers and Hammerstein won a special Pulitzer Prize for Oklahoma! in 1944. This musical, building on the innovations of the earlier Show Boat, epitomized the development of the "book musical", a musical play where the songs and dances are integrated into a well-made story with serious dramatic goals that are able to evoke genuine emotions other than laughter.
In addition, Oklahoma! Features motifs, that recur throughout the work to connect the music and story. A fifteen-minute "dream ballet" reflects Laurey's struggle with her feelings about two men and Jud. By the early 1940s, Rodgers and Hammerstein were each well known for creating Broadway hits with other collaborators. Rodgers, with Lorenz Hart, had produced over two dozen musicals since the 1920s, including such popular successes as Babes in Arms, The Boys from Syracuse and Pal Joey. Among other successes, Hammerstein had written the words for Rose-Marie, The Desert Song, The New Moon and Show Boat. Though less productive in the 1930s, he wrote musicals and films, sharing an Academy Award for his song with Jerome Kern, "The Last Time I Saw Paris", included in the 1941 film Lady Be Good. By the early 1940s, Hart had sunk into alcoholism and emotional turmoil, he became unreliable, prompting Rodgers to approach Hammerstein to ask if he would consider working with him. In 1931, the Theatre Guild produced Lynn Riggs's Green Grow the Lilacs, a play about settlers in Oklahoma's Indian Territory.
Though the play was not successful, ten years in 1941, Theresa Helburn, one of the Guild's producers, saw a summer-stock production supplemented with traditional folk songs and square dances and decided the play could be the basis of a musical that might revive the struggling Guild. She contacted Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, whose first successful collaboration, The Garrick Gaieties, had been produced by the Theatre Guild in 1925. Rodgers obtained the rights for himself and Hart. Rodgers had asked Oscar Hammerstein II to collaborate with Hart. During the tryouts of Rodgers and Hart's By Jupiter in 1941, Hammerstein had assured Rodgers that if Hart was unable to work, he would be willing to take his place. Coincidentally in 1942, Hammerstein had thought of musicalizing Green Grow the Lilacs, but when he had approached Jerome Kern about it, the latter declined. Hammerstein learned that Rodgers was seeking someone to write the book, he eagerly took the opportunity. Hart lost interest in the musical.
Moreover, spiraling downward, consumed by his longstanding alcoholism, Hart no longer felt like writing. He embarked on a vacation to Mexico, advising Rodgers that Hammerstein would be a good choice of a new collaborator; this partnership allowed both Rodgers and Hammerstein to follow their preferred writing methods: Hammerstein preferred to write a complete lyric before it was set to music, Rodgers preferred to set completed lyrics to music. In Rodgers' previous collaborations with Hart, Rodgers had always written the music first, since the unfocused Hart needed something on which to base his lyrics. Hammerstein's previous collaborators included composers Rudolf Friml, Herbert Stothart, Vincent Youmans, Kern, who all wrote music first, for which Hammerstein wrote lyrics; the role reversal in the Rodgers and Hammerstein partnership permitted Hammerstein to craft the lyrics into a fundamental part of the story so that the songs could amplify and intensify the story instead of diverting it. As Rodgers and Hammerstein began developing the new musical, they agreed that their musical and dramatic choices would be dictated by the source material, Green Grow the Lilacs, not by musical comedy conventions.
Musicals of that era featured big production numbers, novelty acts, show-stopping specialty dances. Between the world wars, roles in musicals were filled by actors who could sing, but Rodgers and Hammerstein chose, conversely, to cast singers who could act. Though Theresa Helburn, codirector of the Theatre Guild, suggested Shirley Temple as Laurey and Groucho Marx as Ali Hakim and Hammerstein, with director Rouben Mamoulian's support, insisted that performers more appropriate for the roles be cast; as a result, there were no stars in another unusual step. The production was choreographed by Agnes de Mille, who provided one of the show's most notable and enduring features: a 15-minute first-act ballet finale depicting Laurey's struggle to evaluate her suitors and Curly; the first ti
Show Boat is a musical in two acts, with music by Jerome Kern and book and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, based on Edna Ferber's best-selling novel of the same name. The musical follows the lives of the performers and dock workers on the Cotton Blossom, a Mississippi River show boat, over 40 years from 1887 to 1927, its themes include tragic, enduring love. The musical contributed such classic songs as "Ol' Man River", "Make Believe", "Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man"; the musical was first produced in 1927 by Florenz Ziegfeld. The premiere of Show Boat on Broadway was an important event in the history of American musical theatre, it "was a radical departure in musical storytelling, marrying spectacle with seriousness", compared with the trivial and unrealistic operettas, light musical comedies and "Follies"-type musical revues that defined Broadway in the 1890s and early 20th century. According to The Complete Book of Light Opera: Here we come to a new genre – the musical play as distinguished from musical comedy.
Now … the play was the thing, everything else was subservient to that play. Now … came complete integration of song and production numbers into a single and inextricable artistic entity; the quality of Show Boat was recognized by critics, it is revived. Awards did not exist for Broadway shows in 1927, when the show premiered, or in 1932 when its first revival was staged. Late 20th-century revivals of Show Boat have won both the Tony Award for Best Revival of a Musical and the Laurence Olivier Award for Best Musical Revival. In doing research for her proposed novel Show Boat, writer Edna Ferber spent five days on the James Adams Floating Palace Theatre in Bath, North Carolina, gathering material about a disappearing American entertainment venue, the river showboat. In a few weeks, she gained what she called a "treasure trove of show-boat material, touching, true". Ferber researched these American showboats for months prior to her stay on the Floating Palace Theatre. Jerome Kern was impressed by the novel and, hoping to adapt it as a musical, asked the critic Alexander Woollcott to introduce him to Ferber in October 1926.
Woollcott introduced them that evening during the intermission of Kern's latest musical, Criss Cross. Ferber was at first shocked. After being assured by Kern that he did not want to adapt it as the typical frivolous "girlie" show of the 1920s, she granted him and his collaborator Oscar Hammerstein II the rights to set her novel to music. After composing most of the first-act songs and Hammerstein auditioned their material for producer Florenz Ziegfeld, thinking that he was the person to create the elaborate production they felt necessary for Ferber's sprawling work. Ziegfeld was impressed with the show and agreed to produce it, writing the next day, "This is the best musical comedy I have been fortunate to get a hold of. Though Ziegfeld anticipated opening his new theatre on Sixth Avenue with Show Boat, the epic nature of the work required an unusually long gestation period and extensive changes during out-of-town tryouts. Impatient with Kern and Hammerstein and worried about the serious tone of the musical, Ziegfeld decided to open his theatre in February 1927 with Rio Rita, a musical by Kern's collaborator Guy Bolton.
When Rio Rita proved to be a success, Show Boat's Broadway opening was delayed until Rita could be moved to another theatre. Note: Although the basic plot of Show Boat has always remained the same, over the years revisions and alterations were made by the creators, over time by subsequent producers and directors; some of these revisions were for length and some for convenience, as when a different actor played a certain role and was unable to perform a specialty piece written for the role's creator. Some have been made to reflect contemporary sensitivities toward race and other social issues. Act IIn 1887, the show boat Cotton Blossom arrives at the river dock in Mississippi; the Reconstruction era had ended a decade earlier, white-dominated Southern legislatures have imposed racial segregation and Jim Crow rules. The boat's owner, Cap'n Andy Hawks, introduces his actors to the crowd on the levee. A fistfight breaks out between Steve Baker, the leading man of the troupe, Pete, a rough engineer, making passes at Steve's wife, the leading lady Julie La Verne.
Steve knocks Pete down, Pete swears revenge, suggesting he knows a dark secret about Julie. Cap'n Andy pretends to the shocked crowd that the fight was a preview of one of the melodramas to be performed; the troupe exits with the showboat band, the crowd follows. A handsome riverboat gambler, Gaylord Ravenal, appears on the levee and is taken with eighteen-year-old Magnolia Hawks, an aspiring performer and the daughter of Cap'n Andy and his wife Parthenia Ann. Magnolia is smitten with Ravenal, she seeks advice from Joe, a black dock worker aboard the boat, who has returned from buying flour for his wife Queenie, the ship's cook. He replies that there are "lots like on the river." As Magnolia goes inside the boat to tell her friend Julie about the handsome stranger, Joe mutters that she ought to ask the river for advice. He and the other dock workers reflect on the wisdom and indifference of "Ol' Man River", who doesn't seem to care what the world's troubles are, but "jes' keeps rollin' along".
Magnolia finds Julie inside and a
Oklahoma! (1955 film)
Oklahoma! is a 1955 American musical film based on the 1943 musical of the same name by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, starring Gordon MacRae, Shirley Jones, Rod Steiger, Charlotte Greenwood, Gloria Grahame, Gene Nelson, James Whitmore, Eddie Albert. The production was the only musical directed by Fred Zinnemann. Oklahoma! was the first feature film photographed in the Todd-AO 70 mm widescreen process. Set in Oklahoma Territory, it tells the story of farm girl Laurey Williams and her courtship by two rival suitors, cowboy Curly McLain and the sinister and frightening farmhand Jud Fry. A secondary romance concerns Laurey's friend, Ado Annie, cowboy Will Parker, who has an unwilling rival. A background theme is the territory's aspiration for Statehood, the local conflict between cattlemen and farmers; the film received a rave review from The New York Times, was voted a "New York Times Critics Pick". In 2007, Oklahoma! was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant".
Curly rides his horse through the cornfield. He arrives at Aunt Eller's farm. Laurey Williams is Aunt Eller's niece. Laurey feels the same way, but is loath to admit it. Curly has come to ask her to a party that night, but Laurey is offended that Curly has waited until the morning of the party to ask her. To make him jealous, she agrees to go with Jud, Aunt Eller's surly hired hand, though she is afraid of him. At the station, Aunt Eller meets roving cowboy Will Parker, who has just returned from Kansas City and is hoping to marry Ado Annie. Meanwhile, Laurey meets up with Ado Annie, with a traveling salesman named Ali Hakim. Laurey reminds her that Will is returning from Kansas City. Ado Annie is in a dilemma, unable to decide between Ali, she explains to Laurey that she can never resist a romantic man. Will is reunited with Ado Annie, meets Ali Hakim, unaware that he has been spending time with Annie, he reminds Annie her father agreed to let him marry her in exchange for $50. He has managed to earn $50 – but spent it all on presents for Annie.
She tries to resist, but Will wins her over. Several local families arrive at Aunt Eller's ranch to prepare for the party that night; when Gertie flirts with Curly, he uses the flirtation to make Laurey jealous. Laurey is hurt, but as she and the other girls freshen up for the party, she tries to convince them and herself that she doesn't care. Ado Annie's father learns Will spent all his money, when Ado Annie introduces Ali, her father forces a proposal from Ali at gunpoint - though Ali is a rover and has no desire for marriage. In the orchard, Laurey tells Curly to keep his distance, but Curly is quick to point out that she is as much to blame for the rumors as he is. Curly asks Laurey if she will go to the party with him instead, though she wants to, she is too scared of Jud's reaction to turn him down now. In anger, Curly goes to confront Jud about his feelings for Laurey. At first, things seem harmless enough. Curly teases Jud about his reputation, Jud joins in, but Jud deduces why Curly has come to see him, angrily threatens him and Laurey.
As the party draws near, Laurey is miserable. When she uses a bottle of smelling salts bought from Ali, which she was told was a magic elixir, she slips into a trance. In her dream and Curly are about to marry, but Jud crashes the wedding and kills Curly. Jud wakes Laurey. Laurey knows Curly is the right man for her, but it's too late to change her mind about going to the party with Jud. Curly, unwilling to go with another young lady to the dance, decides to take Aunt Eller. Jud has no intention of taking Laurey to the party, he attempts to sweet-talk her. But when he tries to kiss her, Laurey causes the horses to bolt; when they stop and Jud leaps down, Laurey whips up the horses and leaves Jud stranded. The party is in full swing. Aunt Eller and Mr. Skidmore, the party's host, manage to make peace. Aunt Eller leads. Will discovers Ali is engaged to Ado Annie; when Ali learns Will needs $50 to marry her, he buys the presents Will bought, some for more than twice what they're worth, allowing Will to recover the needed $50.
Ado Annie's father is forced to let Will marry his daughter. Meanwhile and Jud, who has arrived just in time, vie furiously for Laurey's hamper. Curly wins, but not before he has sold his saddle and gun. Jud tries to kill Curly with a "Little Wonder" – a kaleidoscope-like device with a dagger concealed inside it – but is foiled by Ali Hakim and Aunt Eller. Will Parker tells Annie. Jud confronts Laurey, he says. She explains what has happened. Seizing his chance, Curly proposes to her, she accepts. Ali bids leaves. Curly and Laurey are married. Gertie arrives at the wedding party, announcing she is married, her husband turns out to be Ali Hakim - Gertie's father forced Ali to marry her. But the festivities are disrupted by Jud, who sets fire to a haystack and threatens Curly with a knife. Curly jumps him, inadvertently causes Jud to fall on his own knife, killing him. A makeshift trial is held at Aunt Eller's house. Curly is found not guilty, he and Laurey depart for their honeymoon in the surrey with the fringe on top.
Interest in a film version of Okl
"OK" is an American English word denoting approval, agreement, acknowledgment, or a sign of indifference. "OK" is used as a loanword in other languages. It has been described as the most spoken or written word on the planet; the origins of the word are disputed. As an adjective, "OK" principally means "adequate" or "acceptable" as a contrast to "bad", it fulfills a similar role as an adverb. As an interjection, it can denote agreement, it can mean "assent" when it is used as a verb. "OK", as an adjective, can express acknowledgement without approval. As a versatile discourse marker or back-channeling item, it can be used with appropriate voice tone to show doubt or to seek confirmation. Many explanations for the origin of the expression have been suggested, but few have been discussed by linguists; the following proposals have found mainstream recognition. The etymology that most reference works provide today is based on a survey of the word's early history in print: a series of six articles by Allen Walker Read in the journal American Speech in 1963 and 1964.
He tracked the spread and evolution of the word in American newspapers and other written documents, throughout the rest of the world. He documented controversy surrounding OK and the history of its folk etymologies, both of which are intertwined with the history of the word itself. Read argues that, at the time of the expression's first appearance in print, a broader fad existed in the United States of "comical misspellings" and of forming and employing acronyms, themselves based on colloquial speech patterns: The abbreviation fad began in Boston in the summer of 1838... OFM, "our first men," and used expressions like NG, "no go," GT, "gone to Texas," and SP, "small potatoes." Many of the abbreviated expressions were exaggerated misspellings, a stock in trade of the humorists of the day. One predecessor of OK was OW, "oll wright." The general fad is speculated to have existed in spoken or informal written U. S. English for a decade or more before its appearance in newspapers. OK's original presentation as "all correct" was varied with spellings such as "Oll Korrect" or "Ole Kurreck".
The term appears to have achieved national prominence in 1840, when supporters of the Democratic political party claimed during the 1840 United States presidential election that it stood for "Old Kinderhook", a nickname for the Democratic president and candidate for reelection, Martin Van Buren, a native of Kinderhook, New York. "Vote for OK" was snappier than using his Dutch name. In response, Whig opponents attributed OK, in the sense of "Oll Korrect," to Andrew Jackson's bad spelling; the country-wide publicity surrounding the election appears to have been a critical event in OK's history and popularizing it across the United States. Read proposed an etymology of "OK" in "Old Kinderhook" in 1941; the evidence presented in that article was somewhat sparse, the connection to "Oll Korrect" not elucidated. Various challenges to the etymology were presented. However, Read's landmark 1963–1964 papers silenced most of the skepticism. Read's etymology gained immediate acceptance, is now offered without reservation in most dictionaries.
Read himself was open to evaluating alternative explanations: Some believe that the Boston newspaper's reference to OK may not be the earliest. Some are attracted to the claim. There is an Indian word, used as an affirmative reply to a question. Mr Read treated such doubting calmly. "Nothing is absolute," he once wrote, "nothing is forever." In "All Mixed Up", the folk singer Pete Seeger sang that "OK" was of Choctaw origin, as the dictionaries of the time tended to agree. Three major American reference works cited this etymology as the probable origin until as late as 1961; the earliest written evidence for the Choctaw origin is provided in work by the Christian missionaries Cyrus Byington and Alfred Wright in 1825. These missionaries ended many sentences in their translation of the Bible with the particle "okeh", meaning "it is so", was listed as an alternative spelling in the 1913 Webster's. Byington's Dictionary of the Choctaw Language confirms the ubiquity of the "okeh" particle, his Grammar of the Choctaw Language calls the particle -keh an "affirmative contradistinctive", with the "distinctive" o- prefix.
Subsequent Choctaw spelling books de-emphasized the spellings lists in favor of straight prose, they made use of the particle but they too never included it in the word lists or discussed it directly. The presumption was that the use of particle "oke" or "hoke" was so common and self-evident as to preclude any need for explanation or discussion for either its Choctaw or non-Choctaw readership; the Choctaw language was one of the languages spoken at this time in the South-Eastern United States by a tribe with significant contact with African slaves. The major language of trade in this area, Mobilian Jargon, was based on Choctaw-Chickasaw, two Muskogean-family languages; this language was used, for communication with the slave-owning Cherokee. For the three decades prior to the Boston abbreviation fad, the Choctaw had been in extensive negotiation with the US go
Rodgers and Hammerstein's Cinderella is a musical written for television, but played on stage, with music by Richard Rodgers and a book and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II. It is based upon the fairy tale Cinderella the French version Cendrillon, ou la Petite Pantoufle de Verre, by Charles Perrault; the story concerns a young woman forced into a life of servitude by her cruel stepmother and self-centered stepsisters, who dreams of a better life. With the help of her Fairy Godmother, Cinderella is transformed into a Princess and finds her Prince. Cinderella is the only Hammerstein musical written for television, it was broadcast live on CBS on March 31, 1957 as a vehicle for Julie Andrews, who played the title role. The broadcast was viewed by more than 100 million people, it was subsequently remade for television twice, in 1965 and 1997. The 1965 version starred Lesley Ann Warren and Stuart Damon, the 1997 one starred Brandy Norwood in the title role, with Whitney Houston as the fairy godmother.
Both remakes add songs from other Richard Rodgers musicals. The musical has been adapted for the stage in a number of versions, including a London West End pantomime adaptation, a New York City Opera production that follows the original television version and various touring productions. A 2013 adaptation on Broadway starred Laura Osnes and Santino Fontana, with a new book by Douglas Carter Beane. In the 1950s, television adaptations of musicals were common. Broadcast versions of Annie Get Your Gun, Wonderful Town, Anything Goes and Kiss Me, Kate were all seen during the decade. In 1955, NBC had broadcast starring Mary Martin, it was a hit, the network looked for more family-oriented musical projects. Richard Rodgers had supplied the Emmy Award-winning score for Victory at Sea, a documentary series about World War II. NBC approached Rodgers and Hammerstein and asked them to write an original musical expressly for television a novel idea; the team decided to adapt the fairy tale Cinderella and, new to television, they sought the advice of an industry insider, Richard Lewine.
Lewine was the Vice President in charge of color television at CBS. He told Rodgers and Hammerstein that CBS was seeking a musical project and had signed Julie Andrews, starring in My Fair Lady on Broadway. Rodgers recalled, in his autobiography: "What sold us was the chance to work with Julie." Rodgers and Hammerstein signed with CBS. Rodgers and Hammerstein retained ownership of the show and had control over casting, direction and costumes, while CBS controlled the technical aspects of the broadcast and had an option for a second broadcast. CBS announced the production on September 5, 1956. In adapting the famous fairy tale, "Rodgers and Hammerstein stayed faithful to the original Charles Perrault" version. Hammerstein was interviewed by the Saturday Review about the adaptation: "We want the kids who see it to recognize the story they know. Children can be critical on that score. But, of course, their parents will be watching too, so we have tried to humanize the characters without altering the familiar plot structure."
The musical had to fit into the 90-minute program with six commercial breaks, so it was divided into six short acts. In an interview with Time Magazine, Hammerstein said that "It took me seven months to write the book and lyrics for Cinderella". Rehearsals started on February 21, 1957. Emmy Award-winning director Ralph Nelson and choreographer Jonathan Lucas, who had choreographed for The Milton Berle Show, were both experienced with musical material on television. Rodgers' friend, Robert Russell Bennett, provided the orchestrations. Alfredo Antonini, a veteran with CBS, conducted. In early March, the company moved to CBS Television Color Studio 72, the first CBS-TV color studio in New York and the smallest color studio in the CBS empire at the time; the 56 performers, 33 musicians and 80 stagehands and crew worked crammed into the small studio together with four giant RCA TK-40A color TV cameras, a wardrobe of up to 100 costumes, over half a dozen huge set pieces, numerous props and special effects equipment.
The orchestra played in a small room with special equipment to overcome the suppressed acoustics. CBS invested in a massive marketing campaign. Ed Sullivan promoted the show, which would be seen in his usual Sunday night time slot, with an appearance by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II on the previous Sunday, it was broadcast live on March 31, 1957. In the village square, the Town Crier proclaims: "The Prince Is Giving a Ball" to celebrate Prince Christopher's 21st birthday; the ladies of the kingdom are thrilled at the prospect of meeting him. Cinderella, whose father has died, takes care of the home of her ill-tempered and selfish stepmother and stepsisters, she carries all of their shopping parcels for them, when they return home, all three order Cinderella about. Left alone in her corner near the fire, she dreams of living an exotic life as a princess or anything other than a servant. Meanwhile, the King and Queen get ready for the big celebration and the servants discuss the planning for the feast.
They hope that their son will find a suitable bride, but the Prince is a bit apprehensive about meeting all the eager women of the kingdom. The Queen is touched by overhearing the King's discussion with his son and tells him she loves him; as Cinderella's stepsisters get ready for the Ball, hoping that they will catch the Prince's eye, they laugh at Cinder