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Birmingham Central Library

Birmingham Central Library was the main public library in Birmingham, from 1974 until 2013. For a time the largest non-national library in Europe, it closed on 29 June 2013 and was replaced by the Library of Birmingham; the building was demolished in 2016, after 41 years, as part of the redevelopment of Paradise Circus by Argent Group. Designed by architect John Madin in the brutalist style, the library was part of an ambitious development project by Birmingham City Council to create a civic centre on its new Inner Ring Road system. Two previous libraries occupied the adjacent site before Madin's library opened in 1974; the previous library, designed by John Henry Chamberlain, opened in 1883 and featured a tall clerestoried reading room. It was demolished in 1974. Despite the original vision not being implemented, the library gained architectural praise as an icon of British brutalism with its stark use of concrete, bold geometry, inverted ziggurat sculptural form and monumental scale, its style was seen at the time as a symbol of social progressivism.

Based on this, English Heritage failed twice for the building to gain listed status. However, due to strong opposition from Birmingham City Council the building gained immunity from listing until 2016. In 2010–11, Central Library was the second-most visited library in the country, with 1,197,350 visitors; the first Central Library occupied a site to west of the Town Hall. The site had been acquired from the Birmingham and Midland Institute in 1860 after the construction of their own building in 1857 on the corner of Paradise Street and Ratcliff Place; the BMI building was to include a library, but under the Public Libraries Act 1850 a referendum took place on the creation of a municipal library. After the first vote failed, a second one passed in 1860 causing the BMI and the Corporation to cooperate on the joint site. E. M. Barry was the architect for the BMI building and it was hoped he could be retained as the architect for the adjoining library, but his plans were deemed too expensive for the Corporation.

Martin & Chamberlain's plans were approved in October 1862 for a tender price of £8,600 with E. M. Barry's classical facade retained in the design; the Lending Library was opened on 6 September 1865 and the Reference Library was opened just over a year on 26 October 1866. The chief librarian at the time of opening was John Davies Mullins. Initial use of the library was so heavy that the need for an extension was agreed in 1872 but deferred until 1878. On 11 January 1879 a fire broke out behind a wooden partition serving as a temporary wall during building operations; the fire caused extensive damage, with only 1,000 volumes saved from a stock of 50,000. Plans to rebuild the library after the fire had been approved as early as May 1879; the library was rebuilt on the same site by J. H. Chamberlain in a Lombardic Renaissance style with a tall clerestoried Reading Room. At a cost of £54,975 the second Central Library opened on 1 June 1882; as the number of books increased, the Council resolved in 1938 that a new library was an "urgent necessity", but the outbreak of World War II meant that it was not until 1960, the development of a new Inner Ring Road through the site of the old library, that a general specification was agreed.

The library and the BMI building were demolished, the site is now part of the Birmingham Conservatoire and its gardens. The 1970s Central Library was constructed on a site occupied by Mason Science College and Liberal Club; the new Central Library opened on 12 January 1974. It was designed by a Birmingham-based architect, its inverted ziggurat form was a powerful example of the Brutalist style. With the Rotunda and the Alpha Tower, it became one of Birmingham's key Modernist buildings. Madin designed the Central Library as part of a large civic centre scheme on the newly created Paradise Circus site. Planned to be built alongside the library was a School of Music, Drama Centre, Athletic Institute, shops, public house, a car park with 500 spaces and a bus interchange; the collection of civic buildings were all to be connected by high level walkways and the network of galleries which bridge the roads. The School of Music and a public house were the only other buildings in the original plans to be built and the high level walkways were never completed.

The Central Library consisted of two elements: the extrovert lending library and the introvert reference library. The lending library was designed for short visits, it formed a wing to the reference library and was of three storeys with a curved façade facing the Town Hall. The reference library was an eight-storey square block designed around an open atrium above a public square, designed to be entered from four sides. Above the square floated the cantilevered floors of the library in a distinctive inverted ziggurat formation; the designers drew inspiration for the design from Antonio Sant'Elia's drawings of Casa a gradinata, Marcel Breuer's 1928 scheme for a hospital at Elberfeld, Indiana. It has been suggested that they were influenced by the similar design for Boston City Hall, but a member of Madin's design team said they had only seen this design after the library was complete; the central atrium was glazed behind deep concrete balconies. Although there was good natural light, the design was an early recognition of solar gain and

Godfrey I, Count of Verdun

Godfrey I, called the Prisoner or the Captive, sometimes the Old, was the count of Bidgau and Methingau from 959 and the count of Verdun from 963 to his death. In 969, he obtained the Margraviate of Ename. Between 974 and 998, he was the count of Hainault and Mons, he was the son of Gozlin, Count of Bidgau and Methingau, Oda of Metz. He was the brother of Archbishop of Reims, who crowned Hugh Capet the king of France, he was the founder of the House of a cadet branch of the House of Ardennes. He was always loyal to the Ottonians, he appears as the new count of Verdun in 963, though count of Bidgau and Methingau through inheritance since 959. In 974, he became count of Mons, Hainault jointly with Arnold, Count of Valenciennes, after the fall of Reginar IV. Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine, was a supporter of Reginar and defeated Godfrey and Arnold at Mons in 976, where the former was captured. After his release, he was at the side of the Emperor Otto II fighting Lothair of France at Verdun in 985, but he was again taken captive, along with his son Frederick, held several years.

He was released in 987 by Hugh Capet, whose political ally Godfrey's family was: Adalberon, Godfrey's brother, having crowned Hugh and Godfrey being an enemy of Charles of Lower Lorraine, Hugh's Carolingian rival. In 989, he was made prisoner a third time by Herbert III of Vermandois, he was liberated before 995. In 998, he lost his Hainault portion to Reginar. In 963, he married Matilda, daughter of Herman, Duke of Saxony, of the Billung family, a widow of Baldwin III of Flanders, he had the following issue: Frederick, count of Verdun Godfrey, duke of Lower Lorraine Adalberon, bishop of Verdun Herman of Ename, count of Brabant Gothelo, margrave of Antwerp, duke of Lower and also Upper Lorraine Ermengarde, married Otto of Hammerstein, count in the Wettergau Ermentrude, married Arnold de Rumigny, lord of Florennes Adela, married Count Godizo of Aspelt. Their daughter Irmgard married Berthold von Walbeck, son of Lothair I, Margrave of the Nordmark. Bradbury, Jim; the Capetians: Kings of France, 987-1328.

Hambledon Continuum. Healy, Patrick; the Chronicle of Hugh of Flavigny: Reform and the Investiture Contest in the Late Eleventh Century. Ashgate Publishing Limited. McKitterick, Rosamond; the Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians. Longman Group UK Limited. Murray, Alan V.. The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Dynastic History 1099-1125. Oxford University Press. Reuter, Timothy. Medieval Nobility: Studies on the Ruling Classes of France and Germany from the Sixth to the Twelfth Century. Elsevier Science Ltd. Tanner, Heather J.. Chibnall, Marjorie. "The Expansion of the Power and Influence of the Counts of Boulogne under Eustace II". Anglo-Norman Studies:XIV. Proceedings of the Battle Conference; the Boydell Press

Katja Kraus

Katja Kraus is a German former footballer player and official. She was the first German woman to be a board member of a Fußball-Bundesliga club, Hamburger SV. Kraus was born in Offenbach am Main, graduated in Frankfurt in politics and German literature. Kraus joined FSV Frankfurt when she was 16 years' old, played 220 games for the club as goalkeeper in the Women's Fußball-Bundesliga, setting a Women's Bundesliga record in the 1996-97 season, when she played 1314 minutes without conceding a goal, she won the German championship with FSV Frankfurt three times, in 1985–86, 1994–95 and 1997–98, the DFB cup four times, in 1989–90, 1991–92, 1994–95 and 1995–96. The first championship was before the Bundesliga had been established, the second was during the time that the Bundesliga was held as two regional leagues, the third was the first championship held as a unified Bundesliga; the three championships were the only German championships won by FSV Frankfurt. Kraus played seven times for the German national team between 25 May 1995 and 23 March 1997, was runner-up in the World Cup in 1995 and winner of the European Championship in 1995, although she did not play in the final - Manuela Goller played in goal for Germany in that match.

She was in the German squad for the Summer Olympics in 1996, but was an unused substitute for all three matches, Manuela Goller playing in goal each time. She played her last game on 28 May 1998. Kraus joined Eintracht Frankfurt as a press speaker in June 1998, after she had worked on a few PR projects for Adidas during her studies. In October 1988, she joined Sportfive as head of corporate communications, where Bernd Hoffmann was a colleague. In March 2003, she became the first German woman to hold a position on the board of a Fußball-Bundesliga club when she joined Hamburger SV, for whom she was responsible for communication and marketing. In December 2007, her contract and the contract of Bernd Hoffmann were extended to December 2011. However, these contracts were terminated in March 2011. In March 2017 she married Katrin Suder. After leaving Hamburger SV, Kraus wrote a book, Macht - Geschichten von Erfolg und Scheitern ISBN 978-3-10-038504-8 about power

Sertanense F.C.

Sertanense Futebol Clube Sertanense Foot-ball Club, is a Portuguese football club based in Sertã. Founded in 1934, it plays in the Campeonato de Portugal, holding home games at Campo de Jogos Dr. Marques dos Santos; the largest sports club of Sertã, in the Castelo Branco district, Sertanense was founded by Casimiro Farinha on February 17, 1934 resorting to football, after devoting most of its energy to sport fishing, collecting some national trophies. Twice district champion, in 1998 and 2000, it first reached the third level of national football in 2009; that summer, former Portugal U-20 goalkeeper José Bizarro – winner of the 1989 FIFA World Youth Championship – took charge of the team. In that and the previous season's domestic cup, the club faced first division club FC Porto, being ousted 0–4 on both occasions; as of 12 April 2017Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Tier 3, Segunda Divisão: 3 Tier 4, Terceira Divisão: 18 Taça de Portugal: 21 Castelo Branco District Championship: 1987–88, 1999–2000 Fourth Division: 2008–09 Official site ZeroZero team profile ForeDeJogo team profile Sertanense blog

Elberon, Iowa

Elberon is a city in Tama County, United States. The population was 196 at the 2010 census. A post office called Elberon has been in operation since 1882; the city was named after New Jersey. Elberon is located at 42°0′19″N 92°19′3″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.65 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 196 people, 74 households, 51 families living in the city; the population density was 301.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 90 housing units at an average density of 138.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.4% White, 0.5% Asian, 2.6% from other races, 0.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.6% of the population. There were 74 households of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.5% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.1% were non-families.

27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.25. The median age in the city was 38.5 years. 24.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.9 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 245 people, 87 households, 64 families living in the city; the population density was 373.6 people per square mile. There were 94 housing units at an average density of 143.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.33% White, 0.82% Native American, 2.45% from other races, 0.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.49% of the population. There were 87 households out of which 43.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.3% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.4% were non-families. 21.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.33. In the city, the population was spread out with 34.7% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 23.7% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,594, the median income for a family was $39,583. Males had a median income of $23,571 versus $21,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,440. About 10.7% of families and 15.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.2% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over