Pomerania is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland. The name derives from the Slavic po more, meaning "by the sea" or "on the sea". Pomerania stretches from the Recknitz and Trebel rivers in the west to the Vistula river in the east; the largest Pomeranian islands are Usedom/Uznam and Wolin. The largest Pomeranian city is Gdańsk, or, when using a narrower definition of the region, Szczecin. Outside its urban areas, Pomerania is characterized by farmland, dotted with numerous lakes and towns; the region was affected by post–World War I and II border and population shifts, with most of its pre-war inhabitants leaving or being expelled after 1945. Pomerania is the area along the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea between the rivers Recknitz and Trebel in the west and Vistula in the east, it reached as far south as the Noteć river, but since the 13th century its southern boundary has been placed further north. Most of the region is coastal lowland, being part of the Central European Plain, but its southern, hilly parts belong to the Baltic Ridge, a belt of terminal moraines formed during the Pleistocene.
Within this ridge, a chain of moraine-dammed lakes constitutes the Pomeranian Lake District. The soil is rather poor, sometimes sandy or marshy; the western coastline is jagged, with many peninsulas and islands enclosing numerous bays and lagoons. The eastern coastline is smooth. Łebsko and several other lakes were bays, but have been cut off from the sea. The easternmost coastline along the Gdańsk Bay and Vistula Lagoon, has the Hel Peninsula and the Vistula peninsula jutting out into the Baltic; the Pomeranian region has the following administrative divisions: Hither Pomerania in northeastern Germany, stretching from the Recknitz river to the Oder–Neisse line. This region is part of the federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; the southernmost part of historical Vorpommern is now in Brandenburg, while its historical eastern parts are now in Poland. Vorpommern comprises the historical regions inhabited by Slavic tribes Rugians and Volinians, otherwise the Principality of Rügen and the County of Gützkow.
The West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland, stretching from the Oder–Neisse line to the Wieprza river, encompassing most of historical Pomerania in the narrow sense. The Pomeranian Voivodeship, with similar borders to Pomerelia, stretching from the Wieprza river to the Vistula delta in the vicinity of Gdańsk; the northern half of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, comprising most of Chełmno Land. The bulk of Farther Pomerania is included within the modern West Pomeranian Voivodeship, but its easternmost parts now constitute the northwest of Pomeranian Voivodeship. Farther Pomerania in turn comprises several other historical subregions, most notably the Principality of Cammin, the County of Naugard, the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp, the Lauenburg and Bütow Land. Parts of Pomerania and surrounding regions have constituted a euroregion since 1995; the Pomerania euroregion comprises Hither Pomerania and Uckermark in Germany, West Pomerania in Poland, Scania in Sweden. "Pomerania" and its cognates in other languages are derived from Old Slavic po, meaning "by/next to/along", more, meaning "sea", thus "Pomerania" means "seacoast" or "land by the sea", referring to its proximity to the Baltic Sea.
Pomerania was first mentioned in an imperial document of 1046, referring to a Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum. Pomerania is mentioned in the chronicles of Adam of Bremen and Gallus Anonymous; the term "West Pomerania" is ambiguous, since it may refer to either Hither Pomerania or to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. The term "East Pomerania" may carry different meanings, referring either to Farther Pomerania, or to Pomerelia or the Pomeranian Voivodeship. Settlement in the area called Pomerania for the last 1,000 years started by the end of the Vistula Glacial Stage, some 13,000 years ago. Archeological traces have been found of various cultures during the Stone and Bronze Age, Baltic peoples, Germanic peoples and Veneti during the Iron Age and, in the Dark Ages, Slavic tribes and Vikings. Starting in the 10th century, early Polish dukes on several occasions subdued parts of the region from the southeast, while the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark augmented their territory from the west and north. In the 12th century, narrow Pomerania became Christian under saint Otto of Bamberg.
Since the Griffin Duchy of Pomerania stayed with the Holy Roman Empire and the Principality of Rugia with Denmark, while Pomerelia, under the ruling of Samborides, was a part of Poland. Pomerania, during its alliance in the Holy Roman Empire, shared borders with Slavic state Oldenburg, as well as Poland and Brandenburg; the Teutonic Knights succeeded in integrating Pomerelia into their monastic state in the early 14th century. Meanwhile, the Ostsiedlung started to turn Slavic narrow Pomerania into an German-settled area. In 1325 the line of the pri
Pomeranian Voivodeship, Pomorskie Region, or Pomerania Province, is a voivodeship, or province, in north-western Poland. The provincial capital is Gdańsk; the voivodeship was established on January 1, 1999, out of the former voivodeships of Gdańsk, Elbląg and Słupsk, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. It is bordered by West Pomeranian Voivodeship to the west, Greater Poland and Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeships to the south, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship to the east, the Baltic Sea to the north, it shares a short land border with Russia, on the Vistula Spit. The voivodeship comprises most of Pomerelia, as well as an area east of the Vistula River; the western part of the province, around Słupsk, belonged to Farther Pomerania, while Pomerelia and the eastern bank of the Vistula belonged to the historical region of Prussia. The central parts of the province are known as Kashubia, named after the Kashubian minority. A province of rich cultural heritage; the Tricity urban area, consisting of Gdańsk, Gdynia and Sopot, is one of the main cultural and educational centres of Poland.
Gdańsk and Gdynia are two of the major Polish seaports, the first erected by Mieszko I of Poland in the Middle Ages, the latter built in the interwar period. Amongst the most recognisable landmarks of the region are the historic city centre of Gdańsk filled with Gothic and Baroque masterpieces, the Museum of the National Anthem in Będomin, located at the birthplace of Józef Wybicki and politician, author of the national anthem of Poland, the largest medieval churches of Poland and the Malbork Castle; the voivodeship includes the narrow Hel Peninsula and the Polish half of the Vistula Spit. Other tourist destinations include Wejherowo, Jurata, Łeba, Władysławowo, Krynica Morska, Jastarnia, Kuźnica, Bytów and many fishing ports and lighthouses; the name Pomerania derives from the Slavic po more, meaning "by the sea" or "on the sea". The voivodeship contains 42 towns; these are listed below in descending order of population. Pomeranian Voivodeship is divided into 20 counties: 4 city counties, 16 land counties.
These are further divided into 123 gminas. The counties are listed below in order of decreasing population. SKM Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport Obwodnica Trójmiejska Autostrada A1 Pomorska Kolej Metropolitalna Protected areas in Pomeranian Voivodeship include two National Parks and nine Landscape Parks; these are listed below. Słowiński National Park Tuchola Forest National Park Coastal Landscape Park Iława Lake District Landscape Park Kashubian Landscape Park Słupia Valley Landscape Park Tricity Landscape Park Tuchola Landscape Park Vistula Spit Landscape Park Wdydze Landscape Park Zaborski Landscape Park Information about Pomeranian Voivodeship - official website Economy brochure The Pomorskie Voivodeship; the Greatest Tourist Attractions - Brochure Pomerania Development Agency Co
Western Pomerania called Cispomerania or Hither Pomerania, is the western extremity of the historic region of the Duchy Province of Pomerania, nowadays divided between the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Poland. The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means "land by the sea"; the adjective for the region is Pomeranian, inhabitants are called Pomeranians. Forming part of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, Western Pomerania's boundaries have changed through the centuries and it belonged to countries such as Poland, Sweden and Prussia. Before 1945, it embraced the whole area of Pomerania west of the Oder River. Today the cities of Szczecin, Świnoujście and Police are part of Poland, with the remainder of the region staying part of Germany. German Vorpommern now forms about one-third of the present-day north-eastern state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. German Western Pomerania had a population of about 470,000 in 2012 - while the Polish districts of the region had a population of about 520,000 in 2012.
So overall, about 1 million people live in the historical region of Western Pomerania today, while the Szczecin agglomeration reaches further. Towns on the German side include Damgarten, Anklam, Demmin, Grimmen, Ueckermünde and Barth; the German prefix Vor- denotes a location closer to the speaker, is the equivalent of "Hither" in English and Citerior/Cis- in Latin. The name "Hither Pomerania" has been used, but in modern English the German region is more called "Western Pomerania" or by its native name; the local dialect term is Low German: Vörpommern. The toponym Pomerania comes from Slavic po more; the Polish name for this region is Pomorze Przednie or Przedpomorze – corresponding to German Vorpommern – though from the Polish capital's point of view the region is more distant than the rest of Pomerania. Poland has both a historic and geographic term Western Pomerania as well as a province called West Pomerania, which comprises the western half of the Polish part of Pomerania; the major feature of Western Pomerania is its long Baltic Sea and lagoons coastline.
Typical is a distinct "double coast", whereby offshore islands separate lagoons from the open sea, forming a unique landscape. The islands Rügen and Usedom are located in Western Pomerania The largest town in Western Pomerania is Szczecin on the Polish side and Stralsund on the German side. Today it is still an important town economically; the towns of Stralsund and Greifswald together, after Rostock, are the second largest centres of population in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In addition the region has the highest population density of the four planning regions in the state. Western Pomerania has two national parks: Jasmund National Park West Pomeranian Lagoon Area National ParkAnother region in Western Pomerania under extensive conservation protection is the Peene Valley. Vorpommern today is understood as comprising the islands of Rügen and Usedom and the nearby mainland matching the administrative districts of Vorpommern-Rügen and Vorpommern-Greifswald, though those districts' boundaries with Mecklenburg proper do not match the pre-1945 demarcation.
The region is mentioned in the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state constitution as one of the two constituating regions of the state with the right to form a Landschaftsverband, an administrative entity subordinate only to the state level. Consideration was given during an unsuccessful district reform project in 1994 to restoring the old boundary, but this was not implemented; the Ribnitz and Fischland area of Vorpommern-Rügen were part of Mecklenburg. The old western boundary line is preserved in the division between the two Protestant church bodies of the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Mecklenburg and the Pomeranian Evangelical Church. Major cities and towns in Vorpommern include Stralsund, Bergen auf Rügen, Anklam, Wolgast and Barth. Heringsdorf is a semi-urban center. With Polish entry into the European Union and the opening of borders, Stettin has resumed its place as a dominant city for southern and eastern parts of the region. You can sort the table of the 20 largest towns by clicking one of the upper columns.
Popular tourist resorts can be found all along the Baltic beaches of the Fischland-Darß-Zingst peninsula and the islands of Hiddensee, Rügen and Usedom. The old Haneseatic towns are popular tourist destinations due to their brick gothic medieval architecture, downtown Stralsund is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Stralsund and Wolgast have a shipyard industry, the Volkswerft in Stralsund and the Peenewerft in Wolgast produce large ships, while the HanseYacht shipyard in Greifswald is specialized in building yachts. In Mukran near Sassnitz on Rügen, there is an international ferry terminal linking Western Pomerania to Sweden, Denmark and other oversee countries. An industrial complex northeast of Lubmin near Greifswald includes a shut-down nuclear power plant, being deconstructed, the Nord Stream gas pipeline which come ashore at this site. In Gr
A powiat is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture in other countries. The term "powiat" is most translated into English as "county" or "district". A powiat is part of the voivodeship or province. A powiat is subdivided into gminas. Major towns and cities, function as separate counties in their own right, without subdivision into gminas, they are termed "city counties" and have the same status as former county boroughs in the UK. The other type of powiats are termed "land counties"; as of 2018, there were 380 powiat-level entities: 314 land counties, 66 city counties. For a complete alphabetical listing, see "List of Polish counties". For tables of counties by voivodeship, see the articles on the individual voivodeships; the history of Polish powiats goes back to the second half of the 14th century. They remained the basic unit of territorial organization in Poland in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, until the latter's partitioning in 1795.
In the 19th century, the powiats continued to function in the part of Poland, incorporated into the Russian Empire —the equivalent of the Russian "uyezd" and the Ukrainian "povit"—and, in the German-governed Grand Duchy of Poznań, as the Polish equivalent of the German "Kreis". After Poland regained independence in 1918, the powiats were again the second-level territorial units. Powiats were abolished in 1975 in favor of a larger number of voivodeships, but were reintroduced on 1 January 1999; this reform created 16 larger voivodeships. Legislative power within a powiat is vested in an elected council, while local executive power is vested in an executive board headed by the starosta, elected by the council; the administrative offices headed by the starosta are called the starostwo. However, in city counties these institutions do not exist separately – their powers and functions are exercised by the city council, the directly elected mayor, the city offices. In some cases a powiat has its seat outside its own territory.
For example, Poznań County has its offices in Poznań, although Poznań is itself a city county, is therefore not part of Poznań County. Powiats have limited powers, since many local and regional matters are dealt with either at gmina or voivodeship level; some of the main areas in which the powiat authorities have decision-making powers and competences include: education at high-school level healthcare public transport maintenance of certain designated roads land surveying issuing of work permits to foreigners vehicle registration. The Polish the name of a county, in the administrative sense, consists of the word powiat followed by a masculine-gender adjective. In most cases, this is the adjective formed from the name of the town or city where the county has its seat, thus the county with its seat at the town of Kutno is named powiat kutnowski. If the name of the seat comprises a noun followed by an adjective, as in Maków Mazowiecki, the adjective will be formed from the noun only. There are a few counties whose names are derived from the names of two towns, from the name of a city and a geographical adjective, or a mountain range.
There is more than one way to render such names into English. A common method is to translate the names as "", as in the examples above, thus in most cases the English name for a powiat consists of the name of the city or town, its seat, followed by the word County. Note that different counties sometimes have the same name in Polish, since the names of different towns may have the same derived adjective. For example, the counties with their seats at Grodzisk Wielkopolski and Grodzisk Mazowiecki are both called powiat grodziski, those with seats at Brzeg and Brzesko are both called powiat brzeski. In English this ambiguity either does not occur or can be avoided by using the complete name of the seat. Bankauskaite, V. et al. Patterns of decentralization across European health systems, in R. B. Saltman, V. Bankauskaite and K. Vrangbæk, "Decentralization in health care", London: Open University Press/McGraw-Hill. County. Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Uyezd
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern known by its anglicized name Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, is a state of Germany. Of the country's 16 states, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern ranks 14th in population, 6th in area, 16th in population density. Schwerin is the state capital and Rostock is the largest city. Other major cities include Neubrandenburg, Greifswald, Wismar and Güstrow; the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was established in 1945 after World War II through the merger of the historic regions of Mecklenburg and the Prussian Western Pomerania by the Soviet military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947, but was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms and its territory divided into the districts of Rostock and Neubrandenburg. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was re-established in 1990 following German reunification, became one of the Federal Republic of Germany's new states. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern's coastline on the Baltic Sea features many holiday resorts and much unspoilt nature, including the islands such as Rügen and Usedom, as well as the Mecklenburg Lake District, making the state one of Germany's leading tourist destinations.
Three of Germany's fourteen national parks, as well as several hundred nature conservation areas, are in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The University of Rostock, established in 1419, the University of Greifswald, established in 1456, are among the oldest universities in Europe. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was the site of the 33rd G8 summit in 2007. Due to its lengthy name, the state is abbreviated as MV or shortened to MeckPomm. In English, it is sometimes translated as "Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania" or "Mecklenburg-Cispomerania". Inhabitants are called either Mecklenburger or Pomeranians, the combined form is never used; the full name in German is pronounced. Sometimes, Mecklenburg is pronounced; this is. Mecklenburg however is within the historical Low German language area, the "c" appeared in its name during the period of transition to Standard, High German usage; the introduction of the "c" is explained as follows: Either the "c" signals the stretched pronunciation of the preceding "e", or it signals the pronunciation of the subsequent "k" as an occlusive to prevent it from falsely being rendered as a fricative following a Low German trend.
Another explanation is that the "c" comes from a mannerism in High German officialese of writing unnecessary letters, a so-called Letternhäufelung. In the aftermath of the Second World War and German reunification in 1990, the state was constituted from the historic region of Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania, both of which had long and rich independent histories. Human settlement in the area of modern Mecklenburg and Vorpommern began after the Ice Age, about 10,000 BC. About two thousand years ago, Germanic peoples were recorded in the area. Most of them left during the Migration Period, heading towards Spain and France, leaving the area deserted. In the 6th century Polabian Slavs populated the area. While Mecklenburg was settled by the Obotrites, Vorpommern was settled by the Rani. Along the coast and Slavs established trade posts like Reric and Menzlin. In the 12th century and Vorpommern were conquered by Henry the Lion and incorporated into the Duchy of Saxony, joining the Holy Roman Empire in the 1180s.
Parts of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was settled with Germans in the Ostsiedlung process, starting in the 12th century. In the late 12th century, Henry the Lion, Duke of the Saxons, conquered the Obotrites, subjugated its Nikloting dynasty, Christianized its people. In the course of time, German monks, nobility and traders arrived to settle here. After the 12th century, the territory remained stable and independent of its neighbours. Mecklenburg first became a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire in 1348. Though partitioned and re-partitioned within the same dynasty, Mecklenburg always shared a common history and identity; the states of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz became Grand Duchies in 1815, in 1870 they voluntarily joined the new German Empire, while retaining their own internal autonomy. After the First World War and the abdication of the German Kaiser, the monarchies of the duchies were abolished and republican governments of both Mecklenburg states were established, until the Nazi government merged the two states into a unified state of Mecklenburg, a meaningless administrative decision under the centralised regime.
Vorpommern Fore-Pomerania, is the smaller, western part of the former Prussian Province of Pomerania. In the Middle Ages, the area was ruled by the Pomeranian dukes as part of the Duchy of Pomerania. Pomerania was under Swedish rule after the Peace of Westphalia from 1648 until 1815 as Swedish Pomerania. Pomerania became a province of Prussia in 1815 and remained so until 1945. In May 1945, the armies of the Soviet Union and the Western allies met east of Schwerin. Following the Potsdam Agreement, the Western allies handed over Mecklenburg to the Soviets. Mecklenburg-West Pomerania was established on 9 July 1945, by order No. 5 of Red Army Marshal Georgy Zhuko
Lotyń, Greater Poland Voivodeship
Lotyń is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Okonek, within Złotów County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland. It lies 9 kilometres north-west of Okonek, 32 km north-west of Złotów, 134 km north of the regional capital Poznań. Before 1648 the area was part of Duchy of 1648-1945 Prussia and Germany. For the history of the region, see History of Pomerania; the village has a population of 1,000. Ewald Friedrich von Hertzberg, Prussian politician
The Kashubs are a West Slavic ethnic group native to historical region of Pomerelia in modern north-central Poland. Their settlement area is referred to as Kashubia, they speak the Kashubian language, classified either as a separate language related to Polish, or as a Polish dialect. Analogously to their linguistic classification, the Kashubs are considered either an ethnic or a linguistic community; the Kashubs are related to the Poles. The Kashubs are grouped with the Slovincians as Pomeranians; the Slovincian and Kashubian languages are grouped as Pomeranian languages, with Slovincian either a distinct language related to Kashubian, or a Kashubian dialect. Among larger cities, Gdynia contains the largest proportion of people declaring Kashubian origin. However, the biggest city of the Kashubia region is Gdańsk, the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. Between 80.3% and 93.9% of the people in towns such as Linia, Szemud, Chmielno, Żukowo, etc. are of Kashubian descent. The traditional occupations of the Kashubs have been fishing.
These have been joined by the hospitality industries, as well as agrotourism. The main organization that maintains the Kashubian identity is the Kashubian-Pomeranian Association; the formed "Odroda" is dedicated to the renewal of Kashubian culture. The traditional capital has been disputed for a long time and includes Kartuzy among the seven contenders; the biggest cities claiming to be the capital are: Gdańsk, Bytów. The total number of Kashubians varies depending on one's definition. A common estimate is that over 500,000 people in Poland are of the Kashubian ethnicity, the estimates range from ca. 500,000 to ca. 570,000. In the Polish census of 2002, only 5,100 people declared Kashubian national identity, although 52,655 declared Kashubian as their everyday language. Most Kashubs declare Polish national identity and Kashubian ethnicity, are considered both Polish and Kashubian. On the 2002 census there was no option to declare one national identity and a different ethnicity, or more than one ethnicity.
On the 2011 census, the number of persons declaring "Kashubian" as their only ethnicity was 16,000, 233,000 including those who declared Kashubian as first or second ethnicity. In that census, over 108,000 people declared everyday use of Kashubian language; the number of people who can speak at least some Kashubian is higher, around 366,000. Map: http://docplayer.pl/57273906-Instytut-kaszubski-acta-cassubiana-tom-xvii.html As of 1890, linguist Stefan Ramułt estimated the number of Kashubs in Pomerelia as 174,831. He estimated that at that time there were over 90,000 Kashubs in the United States, around 25,000 in Canada,15,000 in Brazil and 25,000 elsewhere in the world. In total 330,000. Kashubs are a Western Slavic people living on the shores of the Baltic Sea. Kashubs have their own unique language and traditions, having lived somewhat isolated for centuries from the common Polish population; the earliest census figures on ethnic or national structure of West Prussia and Farther Pomerania are from 1817-1823.
Karl Andree, "Polen: in geographischer, geschichtlicher und culturhistorischer Hinsicht", gives the total population of West Prussia as 700,000 - including 50% Poles, 47% Germans and 3% Jews. Kashubians are included with Poles. In all constituencies with significant Catholic Kashubian population, all Reichstag elections in 1867-1912 were won by the Polish Party. Kashubs descend from the Slavic Pomeranian tribes, who had settled between the Oder and Vistula Rivers after the Migration Period, were at various times Polish and Danish vassals. While most Slavic Pomeranians were assimilated during the medieval German settlement of Pomerania in the Pomeranian Southeast some kept and developed their customs and became known as Kashubians; the oldest known mention of "Kashubia" dates from 19 March 1238 – Pope Gregor IX wrote about Bogislaw I as dux Cassubie – the Duke of Kashubia. The old one dates from the 13th century; the Dukes of Pomerania hence used "Duke of Kashubia" in their titles, passing it to the Swedish Crown who succeeded in Swedish Pomerania when the House of Pomerania became extinct.
The westernmost parts of Kashubia, located in the medieval Lands of Schlawe and Stolp and Lauenburg and Bütow Land, were integrated into the Duchy of Pomerania in 1317 and 1455 and remained with its successors until 1945, when the area became Polish. The bulk of Kashubia since the 12th century was within the medieval Pomerelian duchies, since 1308 in the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, since 1466 within Royal Prussia, an autonomous territory of the Polish Crown, since 1772 within West Prussia, a Prussian province, since 1920 within the Polish Corridor of the Second Polish Republic, since 1939 within the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia of Nazi Germany, since 1945 within the People's Republic of Poland, after within the Third Polish Republic. German Ostsiedlung in Kashubia was initiated by the Pom