The archaeological open-air museum Biskupin is an archaeological site and a life-size model of an Iron Age fortified settlement in Poland. When first discovered it was thought to be evidence of Slavic settlement. The excavation and the reconstruction of the settlement has played an instrumental part in Polish historical consciousness. The Museum is situated on a peninsula in Lake Biskupin. It is a division of the National Museum of Archaeology in Warsaw, the site is one of Polands official national Historic Monuments, as designated September 16,1994, and tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland. In 1933 Polish archaeologists discovered remains of a Bronze Age fort/settlement in Wielkopolska, the site was excavated from 1934 onwards by the team from Poznań University, led by archaeologists Józef Kostrzewski and Zdzisław Rajewski. The first report was published in 1936, by the beginning of 1939, ca.2,500 m2 had been excavated. The site soon became part of Polish national consciousness, the symbol of achievements of the Slavonic forebears in prehistoric times and it was called the Polish Pompeii or Polish Herculaneum.
The existence of a fortress,70 km from the German border, was used to show that the prehistoric Poles had held their own against foreign invaders and plunderers as early as the Iron Age. Biskupin came to feature in paintings and popular novels, when the Germans occupied Poland in the autumn of 1939, Biskupin was renamed Urstädt. In 1940, excavations were resumed by the SS-Ahnenerbe until 1942, when Germans were forced to retreat they flooded the site hoping to destroy it, but—ironically—it led to very good preservation of the ancient timbers. Excavations were resumed by Polish archaeologists after the war and continued until 1974, there are two settlement periods at Biskupin, which was located in the middle of a lake but is now situated on a peninsula, that follow each other without hiatus. Both settlements were laid out on a grid with eleven streets that are three metres wide. They consisted of two chambers and an open entrance-area and these houses were designed to accommodate 10–12 persons.
An open hearth was located in the centre of the biggest room, there are no larger houses that could indicate social stratification. Because of the damp, boggy ground the streets were covered with wooden planks, the settlement was surrounded by a tall wooden wall, or palisade, set on a rampart made up of both wood and earth. The rampart was constructed of oak trunks that form boxes filled with earth, the rampart is more than 450 metres long and accompanied by a wooden breakwater in the lake. 6,000 to 8,000 cubic metres of wood was used in the construction of the rampart, the settlement at Biskupin belongs to the Hallstatt C and D periods
Called the Lubusz Land while part of medieval Poland, the territory known as the Neumark gradually became part of the German Margraviate of Brandenburg from the mid-13th century. With the rest of the Electorate of Brandenburg, it part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. After World War I the entirely ethnic German Neumark remained within the Free State of Prussia, after World War II the Potsdam Conference assigned the majority of the Neumark to Polish administration, and since 1945 has remained part of Poland. Polish settlers largely replaced the expelled German population, most of the Polish territory became part of the Lubusz Voivodeship, while the northern towns Choszczno, Myślibórz, and Chojna belong to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. The Oder marked the borders of the Neumark in the west and south, in the north it bordered Pomerania, the Warta and Noteć Rivers and their swamp regions dominated the landscape of the region. In the Iron Age the Jastorf culture operated in this region, identified sometimes with Germanic, as its inhabitants moved westward, the region became depopulated during the Migration Period.
After AD500 West Slavic tribes gradually repopulated the area, which became a forest borderland between Pomerania and Greater Poland, according to the Bavarian Geographers description, the Miloxi inhabited the future Neumark region, they had 47 settlements between the Oder and Poznań. The region came under the sovereignty of the first Polish state during the 10th-century rule of Mieszko I and Bolesław I, Polish rulers incorporated the future Neumark territory as the Lubusz Land and by the beginning of the 13th century the previously depopulated region had a thinly-spread population of Poles. The lords invited members of the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller to establish monasteries, to fortify the borderland Pomeranian and Polish dukes built castles in the north, around which settlements grew. The Ascanian margraves of Brandenburg, starting with Albert the Bear and they had gained a foothold east of the river by 1242 and in 1252 the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Archbishopric of Magdeburg purchased the Lubusz Land.
In 1253 they founded Frankfurt an der Oder as a river-crossing, through land purchases, marriage pacts, and services to Polands Piast dynasty, the Ascanians extended their territory eastward to the Drawa River and northward to the Parsęta River. For instance, the Polish castellany of Santok, an important base, to relieve himself of the trouble of maintaining the fortress, Duke Przemysł I of Greater Poland granted the castellany to Margrave Conrad as a dowry for his daughter Konstancja. To safeguard the region Margrave John I founded the town of Landsberg an der Warthe in 1257, the Templars sold Soldin to the Ascanians in 1261, and the town began to become a center for the region. Most of the colonists who settled in Brandenburgs new eastern territory came from Magdeburg or the Altmark, unlike in the rest of Brandenburg the margraves began constructing castles in their land east of the Oder to guard against Poland. The Slavic inhabitants of the region gradually became Germanized, because the new Terra trans Oderam, or land across the Oder, formed an extension of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, it became known as the Neumark after the middle of the 15th century.
With the extinction of the Ascanian line in 1320, Brandenburgs interest in the Neumark decreased, neither the margraves of the Wittelsbach nor those of the Luxembourg dynasties concerned themselves with developing their eastern-most territory further. The political vacuum allowed Poland to reassert its influence in the area, Brandenburg pawned the Neumark to the Teutonic Knights in 1402, and it passed completely under their control in 1429, although the Order neglected the region as well. This allowed the Order to retain much of its territory in the First Peace of Thorn in 1411, in 1454/1455 the Knights mismanagement led to their pawning of the Neumark back to Brandenburg, by led by Elector Frederick II of the Hohenzollern dynasty
Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages
The southward movement of Germanic tribes during the migration period had left territory called Pomerania largely depopulated by the 7th century. Between 650 and 850 AD, West Slavic tribes settled in Pomerania, the tribes between the Oder and the Vistula were collectively known as Pomeranians, and those west of the Oder as Veleti and Lutici. A distinct Slavic tribe, the Rani, was based on the island of Rügen, in the 8th and 9th centuries, Slavic-Scandinavian emporia were set up along the coastline as powerful centers of craft and trade. In 936, the Holy Roman Empire set up the Billung and Northern marches in Western Pomerania, the Liutician federation regain independence in an uprising of 983 but succumbed to internal conflicts and disintegrated in the course of the 11th century. In late 960s, Polish Piasts acquired parts of eastern Pomerania, the Pomeranians regained independence during the Pomeranian uprising of 1005. During the first half of the 11th century, the Liuticians participated in the Holy Roman Empires wars against Piast Poland, the alliance broke off when Poland was defeated, and the Liutician federation broke apart in 1057 during a civil war.
The Liutician capital was destroyed by the Germans in 1068/69, making way for the subsequent eastward expansion of their western neighbor, in 1093, the Luticians and Rani had to pay tribute to Obodrite prince Henry. The pattern of settlement in Pomerania started to change in the 3rd century, the prospering material cultures of the Roman Iron Age decayed. Only in some areas a continuity of these cultures is observed until the 5th and 6th centuries and these changes are associated with the migration period, when Germanic tribes migrated towards the Roman Empire. The origins of the Slavic tribes in Pomerania are subject to an ongoing debate and it does not explain, the enormous increase in both the inhabited area and the numbers of the settlers. The second school of thought, popular among Polish researchers, seeks to prove a continuity from the cultures of the Roman Iron Age to the medieval Slavic culture. The third hypothesis postulates that parts of the Veneti were assimilated by the Germanic tribes while the rest became Slavs, no consensus on the subject has emerged.
The first appearance of Slavs in the area is unclear and is related to the question of the general ethnogenesis of the Slavs. On the other hand, Polish historiography has stressed linkages between Roman-era cultures and later, clearly Slavic, the first archeological records of Slavs in the Oder area are ceramics of the Sukow type dated back to the 6th or the beginning 7th century. The Sukow type is known as Sukow-Szeligi group, Deez type. These findings are associated with the first wave of immigrants from what is now Southwestern Poland, for some areas, continuous settlement from the Roman to the Slavic era is suggested on the basis of analyses of pollen name transitions. Farther Pomerania and Pomerelia appear to have been unsettled in this period, archeological research in Pomerelia is less extensive than that of Farther Pomerania. Slavic Feldberg type ceramics, found in a region comprising the Oder area up to the Persante river, Feldberg ceramics dominate west of the Oder since the mid-8th century, except for Northwestern Pomerania
Pomerania during the High Middle Ages
Pomerania during the High Middle Ages covers the History of Pomerania in the 12th and 13th centuries. The early 12th century Obodrite, Polish and Danish conquests resulted in vassalage and Christianization of the formerly pagan, local dynasties ruled the Principality of Rügen, the Duchy of Pomerania, the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp, and the duchies in Pomerelia. Pomerania-Demmin lost most of its territory and was integrated into Pomerania-Stettin in the mid-13th century, when the Ratiborides died out in 1223, competition arose for the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp, which changed hands numerous times. Starting in the High Middle Ages, an influx of German settlers and the introduction of German law, custom. Many of the groups that had dominated the area during the Early Middle Ages, such as the Slavic Rani. The Germanisation was not complete, as the Kashubians, descendants of Slavic Pomeranians, the arrival of German colonists and Germanization mostly affected both the central and local administration.
A Pomeranian diocese was set up in Wolin, the see was moved to Cammin. The Rani however launched an expedition in 1100, in the course of which they sieged Liubice. This attack was repulsed, and the Rani became tributary again. After they had killed Henrys son Woldemar and stopped paying tribute, the Rani Svantevit priests were forced to negotiate, and the island was spared only in return for an immense sum which had to be collected from the continental Slavs further east. At this time, Wartislaw I, Duke of Pomerania, was expanding his realm into Liutician territories south of the Rani. Regrouping after Henrys death, the Rani again assaulted and this time destroyed Liubice in 1128, in several expeditions mounted between 1102 and 1121, most of Pomerania had been acquired by the Polish duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. From 1102 to 1109, Boleslaw campaigned in the Noteć and Parsęta area, the Pomeranian residence in Białogard was taken already in 1102. From 1112 to 1116, Boleslaw took all of Pomerelia, from 1119 to 1122, the area towards the Oder was acquired.
Szczecin was taken in the winter of 1121/1122, the conquest resulted in a high death toll and devastation of vast areas of Pomerania, and the Pomeranian dukes became vassals of Boleslaw III of Poland. Deportations of Pomeranians to Poland took place, the terms of surrender after the Polish conquest were that Wartislaw had to accept Polish sovereignty, convert his people to Christianity, and pay an annual tribute to the Polish duke. |The Annals of Traska report that Boleslaw III crossed the sea, the currently prevailing view is that this mention refers to a campaign in Pomerania, but proposed targets include the Levant, Denmark and Öland. In Pomerania, Boleslaws targets may have been Rügen/Rugia, Wolin/Wollin or Stettin/Szczecin, |} Pomerelia, initially under Polish control, was ruled by the Samborides dynasty from 1227 until 1294
Bishopric of Cammin
The Bishopric of Cammin was both a former Roman Catholic diocese in the Duchy of Pomerania from 1140 to 1544, and a secular territory in the Kolberg area from 1248 to 1650. The Catholic diocese was succeeded by the Pomeranian Evangelical Church, the area of the former principality was administered as Fürstenthum county within the Prussian Province of Pomerania until its division in 1872. After Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland had conquered Pomerania until 1121/22, Ottos first mission in 1124 followed a failed mission by eremite Bernard in 1122, and was initiated by Bolesław with the approval of both Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Pope Callixtus II. Ottos second mission in 1128 was initiated by Lothair after a pagan reaction, Wartislaw I, Duke of Pomerania supported and aided both missions. Between the missions, he had expanded his duchy westward, up to Güstrow and these former Lutician areas were not subject to Polish overlordship, but claimed by the Holy Roman Empire. Otto during his lifetime did not succeed in founding a diocese, caused by a conflict of the archbishops of Magdeburg and Gniezno about ecclesiastical hegemony in the area.
Pope Innocent II founded the diocese by a bull of 14 October 1140. Adalbert, a chaplain of Saint Otto who had participated in Ottos mission as an interpreter. Adalbert and Ratibor I founded Stolpe Abbey at the side of Wartislaw Is assassination by a pagan in 1153, the bishops held the title of Pomeranorum or Pomeranorum et Leuticorum episcopus, referring to the tribal territories of the Pomeranians and Luticians merged in the Duchy of Pomerania. In the late 12th century the territory of the Griffin dukes was raided several times by Saxon troops of Henry the Lion, the initial see of in Wollin was moved to Grobe Abbey on the island of Usedom after 1150. At the same time Wollin economically decayed and was devastated by Danish expeditions, the see was again moved to Cammin, now Kamień Pomorski, in 1175, where a chapter was founded for the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist. All this time, the question of subordinance of the Pomeranian diocese as suffragan to an archdiocese remained unsolved. Since 1188, when the pope accepted the move of the see, the pope furthermore placed the bishopric as an exempt diocese directly under the Holy See.
Since 1208, the bishops held the title Caminensis episcopus, the area of the diocese resembled the area controlled by Wartislaw I and his brother and successor, Ratibor I. The northern border was defined by the coastline and the border with the Principality of Rügen, in the West, the diocese included Circipania up to Güstrow. The border turned east to meet the Oder river south of Gartz, in the South, the diocese border ran immediately north of the Warthe to include Landsberg and Soldin. The southeastern border left the Warthe area with a sharp turn running straight north to Dramburg, after a southeast turn, it turned northeast towards Bütow. The eastern border ran east of Bütow and west of Lauenburg in Pomerania to meet the seacost east of Revekol, in 1248, the Cammin bishops and the Pomeranian dukes had interchanged the terrae Stargard and Kolberg, leaving the bishops in charge of the latter
Bronze- and Iron-Age Poland
The Bronze and Iron Age cultures in Poland are known mainly from archeological research. Early Bronze Age cultures in Poland begun around 2300–2400 BCE, while the Iron Age commenced in approximately 700–750 BCE, the Iron Age archeological cultures no longer existed by the start of the Common Era. In Poland the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became particularly prominent, the most famous archeological finding from that period is the Biskupin fortified settlement on the lake from which it takes its name, representing the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age. The Bronze Age in Poland consisted of Period I,2300 to 1600 BC, Period II,1600 to 1350 BC, Period III,1350 to 1100 BC, Period IV,1100 to 900 BC, Period V,900 to 700 BC. The Early Iron Age included Hallstatt Period C,700 to 600 BC, Bronze items present in Poland around 2300 BC were brought from the Carpathian Basin. The native Early Bronze Age that followed was dominated by the innovative Unetice culture in western Poland and those were replaced in their respective territories, for the duration of the second, the Older Bronze Period, by the Tumulus culture and the Trzciniec culture.
Characteristic of the remaining bronze periods were the Urnfield cultures, within their range skeletal burials had been replaced by cremation of bodies throughout much of Europe, in Poland the Lusatian culture settlements dominated the landscape for nearly a thousand years, continuing into and including the Early Iron Age. A series of Scythian invasions, beginning in the 6th century BC, the Hallstatt Period D was the time of expansion of the Pomeranian culture, while the Western Baltic Kurgans culture occupied the Masuria-Warmia region of contemporary Poland. This settled agricultural societys origins consisted of the traditions inherited from the Corded Ware populations. Significantly, the Unetice people cultivated contacts with the highly developed cultures of the Carpathian Basin and their culture echoed inspiring influence coming all the way from the most highly developed at that time civilizations of the Middle East. Characteristic of the Unetice societies was greater general affluence and developed social stratification, objects made of bronze, often of luxurious or prestigious nature, were in high demand as symbols of power and importance and are typically found in the graves of princes.
Many concealed bronze treasures have been found, including a fine one from Pilszcz near Głubczyce, stylistically refined Uneticean ceramics show inspiration from the Achaean vessels obtained through trade. Fortified settlements were built, one actively researched site, that was utilized, remains of settlements and cemeteries were discovered around Wrocław and elsewhere in Lower Silesia, including an amber processing workshop in Nowa Wieś, Bolesławiec County. The nature of the weapons and other items found at Unetice sites suggests a chronic state of warfare, the Iwno culture, named after Iwno near Szubin, was a contemporary of the Unetice culture. Iwno thin-walled clay vessels were carefully finished and domestic animal rising was important for the economy, the Płonia group of a comparable period, named after a neighborhood of Szczecin, extended over central and western Polish Pomerania, it is known for stone chest burials. Mierzanowice culture was a society, frequently still using stone tools.
The Pleszów group of the Mierzanowice culture originated the most significant of the Polish Bronze Age fortified settlements and it was constructed on a particularly suitable, elevated natural location, with the initial enclosed area of 0.6 hectares. It remained in use from about 2100 to 1300 BC and is often dubbed the Carpathian Troy or the Troy of the North
West Pomeranian Voivodeship
West Pomeranian Voivodeship or West Pomerania Province, is a voivodeship in northwestern Poland. Its capital and largest city is Szczecin and it is named for the historical region of Pomerania. In spite of the name, the voivoideship does not include the most westerly parts of historical Pomerania, the name Pomerania comes from the Slavic po more, meaning Land by the Sea. West Pomeranian Voivodeship is the fifth largest voivodeship of Poland in terms of area, among the largest cities, of the region, are the capital Szczecin, as well as Koszalin, and Świnoujście. This is a region of the Baltic Sea coast, with many beaches, lakes. Szczecin, Świnoujście and Police are important ports, other major seaside towns include Międzyzdroje, Dziwnów, Kołobrzeg, and Mielno. West Pomerania is considered one of the greenest regions of Poland and it is characterized by incredible diversity of the landscape, hundreds of lakes, and forests full of wildlife, spreading mainly up the hills of the glacial lakes areas.
West Pomerania is rich in forms and styles of architecture that were built during the Middle Ages as well as the Gothic, Baroque. There is a repertoire of theaters, museums. During a few-day long annual Sea Festival in Szczecin, a number of free concerts take place. In Świnoujście during the summer, the FAMA Academic Youth Arts Festival takes place – an event with several years of tradition, in Międzyzdroje, there is a Festival Of The Stars, which draws many popular actors. In Wolin, a Viking Festival takes place, which draws Vikings from all across Europe, another draw to the area is a wide array of health resorts. Brine and peloid, discovered in the 19th century, together with water resources, are popular attractions in Świnoujście, Kamień Pomorski. The voivodeship contains 64 cities and towns, so overall, about 1 million people live in the historical region of Western Pomerania today, while the Szczecin agglomeration reaches even further. West Pomeranian Voivodeship is divided into 21 counties,3 city counties and 18 land counties and these are further divided into 114 gminas.
The counties are listed in the following table ), Protected areas in West Pomeranian Voivodeship include two National Parks and seven Landscape Parks, after World War II the region was placed under Polish administration by the Potsdam Agreement under territorial changes demanded by the Soviet Union. Most Germans fled or were expelled and replaced with Poles expelled from the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union, in 194867 percent of the populace originated from Central Poland, Greater Poland and Pomeralia while 25 percent came from the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. Another 6 percent returned to Poland from Western Europe, about 50,000 Ukrainians were forcefully resettled to West Pomerania in the Operation Vistula in 1947
The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means Land at the Sea. The adjective for the region is Pomeranian, inhabitants are called Pomeranians, forming part of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, Western Pomeranias boundaries have changed through the centuries and it belonged to countries such as Poland, Sweden and Prussia. Before 1945, it embraced the whole area of Pomerania west of the Oder River, today the cities of Szczecin, Świnoujście and Police are part of Poland, with the remainder of the region staying part of Germany. German Vorpommern now forms about one-third of the present-day north-eastern state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, German Western Pomerania had a population of about 470,000 in 2012 - while the Polish districts of the region had a population of about 520,000 in 2012. So overall, about 1 million people live in the region of Western Pomerania today. Towns on the German side include Damgarten, Anklam, Demmin, Grimmen, Ueckermünde, the German prefix Vor- denotes a location closer to the speaker, and is the equivalent of Hither in English and Citerior/Cis- in Latin.
Historically the name Hither Pomerania has been used, but in modern English the German region is commonly called Western Pomerania or by its native name. The local dialect term is Low German, Vörpommern, the toponym Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means Land at the Sea. Poland has both a historic and geographic term Western Pomerania as well as a province called West Pomerania, the major feature of Western Pomerania is its long Baltic Sea and lagoons coastline. Typical is a distinct double coast, whereby offshore islands separate lagoons from the open sea, the islands Rügen and Usedom are located in Western Pomerania The largest town in Western Pomerania is Szczecin on the Polish side and Stralsund on the German side. Today it is still an important town economically, the towns of Stralsund and Greifswald together, after Rostock, are the second largest centres of population in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In addition the region has the highest population density of the four planning regions in the state, consideration was given during an unsuccessful district reform project in 1994 to restoring the old boundary, but this was not implemented.
The Ribnitz and Fischland area of Vorpommern-Rügen were historically part of Mecklenburg, the old western boundary line is preserved in the division between the two Protestant church bodies of the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Mecklenburg and the Pomeranian Evangelical Church. Major cities and towns in Vorpommern include Stralsund, Bergen auf Rügen, Anklam, Sassnitz, heringsdorf does not have city rights, but is a semi-urban center. With Polish entry into the European Union and the opening of borders and you can sort the table of the 20 largest towns by clicking one of the upper columns. Popular tourist resorts can be all along the Baltic beaches of the Fischland-Darß-Zingst peninsula. The old Haneseatic towns are popular tourist destinations due to their brick gothic medieval architecture. In Mukran near Sassnitz on Rügen, there is a ferry terminal linking Western Pomerania to Sweden, Lithuania
Pomerania is a region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland. The name derives from the Slavic po more, meaning by the sea, Pomerania stretches roughly from the Recknitz river in the west to the Vistula river in the east. The largest Pomeranian islands are Rügen, Usedom/Uznam and Wolin, the largest Pomeranian city is Gdańsk, or, when using a narrower definition of the region, Szczecin. Outside its urban areas, Pomerania is characterized by farmland, dotted with lakes, forests. The region was affected by post–World War I and II border and population shifts. Pomerania is the area along the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea between the rivers Recknitz in the west and Vistula in the east and it formerly reached perhaps as far south as the Noteć river, but since the 13th century its southern boundary has been placed further north. Most of the region is coastal lowland, being part of the North European Plain, but its southern, hilly parts belong to the Baltic Ridge, within this ridge, a chain of moraine-dammed lakes constitutes the Pomeranian Lake District.
The soil is rather poor, sometimes sandy or marshy. The western coastline is jagged, with many peninsulas and islands enclosing numerous bays, Łebsko and several other lakes were formerly bays, but have been cut off from the sea. The easternmost coastline along the Gdańsk Bay and Vistula Lagoon, has the Hel peninsula, the Pomeranian region has the following administrative divisions, Hither Pomerania in northeastern Germany, stretching from the Recknitz river to the Oder–Neisse line. This region is part of the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The southernmost part of historical Vorpommern is now in Brandenburg, while its eastern parts are now in Poland. Vorpommern comprises the regions inhabited by Slavic tribes Rugians and Volinians, otherwise the Principality of Rügen. The West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland, stretching from the Oder–Neisse line to the Wieprza river, the Pomeranian Voivodeship, with similar borders to Pomerelia, stretching from the Wieprza river to the Vistula delta in the vicinity of Gdańsk.
The northern half of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, comprising most of Chełmno Land, the bulk of Farther Pomerania is included within the modern West Pomeranian Voivodeship, but its easternmost parts now constitute the northwest of Pomeranian Voivodeship. Parts of Pomerania and surrounding regions have constituted a euroregion since 1995, the Pomerania euroregion comprises Hither Pomerania and Uckermark in Germany, West Pomerania in Poland, and Scania in Sweden. Pomerania was first mentioned in a document of 1046, referring to a Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum. Pomerania is mentioned repeatedly in the chronicles of Adam of Bremen, the term West Pomerania is ambiguous, since it may refer to either Hither Pomerania or to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship
About 650 BC, it evolved from the Lusatian culture between the lower Vistula and Parseta rivers, and subsequently expanded southward. Between 200 and 150 BC, it was succeeded by the Oksywie culture in eastern Pomerania, the Pomeranian culture developed in Western Pomerania covering the entire range of Oder/Odra and Vistula River basin. It has been associated with the Bastarnae. The original homeland of the Bastarnae remains uncertain, the most characteristic feature was the use of burial urns with faces. The urns were often contained in stone cists, the face-urns have lids in the form of hats, often miniature ear-rings of real bronze are added. The faces are sometimes modelled very naturalistically, and no two urns show the same face, incised drawings on the urns show hunting scenes, chariot races or riders. Brooches of Certoza-type and necklaces of multiple bronze rings are typical examples of metal work, the economy was similar to that of the Lusatian culture. Rye was systematically cultivated for the first time, but still formed a component of the cereals.
There were fewer hill forts than in the area of the Lusatian culture further west, southern imports were sparse as well. A related culture of the age was the House Urn culture in central Germany. In the Iron Age, the Pomeranian culture spread southward, into areas belonging to the Lusatian, Wysoko-. In Masovia and Poland this mixture led to the development of the group with bell-shaped burials, Lusatian culture Przeworsk culture Nordic Bronze Age