Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Finn Lied was a Norwegian military researcher and politician for the Labour Party. He was known for work on the establishment of the Norwegian state oil company Statoil, his effort to ensure that a large part of the revenues from the oil industry that explored the petroleum deposits under the Norwegian continental shelf was taxed by the Norwegian state was of great importance. Finn Lied studied electrical engineering at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim when Norway was attacked by Nazi-Germany in 1940. Lied fled to Sweden in 1941 and worked for one year with the Norwegian Military Attaché in Stockholm before he went to the United Kingdom. After an officer course, he was employed by the communications department at the Armed Forces High Command in London. Lied spent his entire professional career at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, where he worked from 1946 to 1983, interrupted only by studying and ministerial posts. Lied was director of FFI from 1957 until he retired in 1983, contributed to shaping the institute.
Lied was concerned with the technological importance of research for social development. Lied was Labour Party politician and Cabinet Minister in the Ministry of Industry in Trygve Bratteli’s government from 17 March 1971 to 18 October 1972, he was aware of other countries' experience with rapid oil money having harmful effect on the economy, allowing other businesses to suffer. He observed that in many countries the overwhelming proceeds from the oil industry went to an elite, while only a small part was used to the benefit of the population as a whole; the management scheme and the bold tax system he supported meant that most of the wealth remained in Norway, the bolstering of the welfare state. Lied was a driving force for the creation of state-owned oil company Statoil in 1972, where his undersecretary Arve Johnsen was the first CEO. Lied was Chairman of Statoil from 1974 to 1984. Statoil was the instrument of the "nationalization" and entered operational cooperation with major foreign companies had to obey the Norwegian government.
During the Yom Kippur War, Lied led the action committee Let Israel Live. He was involved in the creation of the friendship association Friends of Israel in the Norwegian Labour Movement ( Norwegian: Venner av Israel i Norsk Arbeiderbevegelse. From 1978 to 1993 he was a member of the Norwegian Committee for the support of the Jerusalem Shaare Zedek Medical Center. In 1980, Lied was appointed commander of the Order of St. Olav, he was the holder of the Defence Service Medal with Laurel Branch. In 1982 he was made an Honorary Knight Commander of the British Order Royal Victorian Order
The Storting is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway. It is located in Oslo; the unicameral parliament has 169 members, is elected every four years based on party-list proportional representation in nineteen plurinominal constituencies. A member of the Storting is known in Norwegian as a stortingsrepresentant "Storting representative"; the assembly is led by a president and, since 2009, five vice presidents: the presidium. The members are allocated to twelve standing committees, as well as four procedural committees. Three ombudsmen are directly subordinate to parliament: the Parliamentary Intelligence Oversight Committee and the Office of the Auditor General. Parliamentarianism was established in 1884. In 2009, qualified unicameralism was replaced by unicameralism, through the dissolution of the two chambers: the Lagting and the Odelsting. Following the 2017 election, nine parties are represented in parliament: the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, the Progress Party, the Centre Party, the Christian Democratic Party, the Liberal Party, the Socialist Left Party, the Green Party, the Red Party.
Since 2018, Tone Wilhelmsen Trøen has been President of the Storting. The parliament in its present form was first constituted at Eidsvoll in 1814, although its origins can be traced back to the allting, as early as the 9th century, a type of thing, or common assembly of free men in Germanic societies that would gather at a place called a thingstead and were presided over by lawspeakers; the alltings were where political matters were discussed. These were formalised so that the things grew into regional meetings and acquired backing and authority from the Crown to the extent that on occasions they were instrumental in effecting change in the monarchy itself; as oral laws became codified and Norway unified as a geopolitical entity in the 10th century, the lagtings were established as superior regional assemblies. During the mid-13th century, the by archaic regional assemblies, the Frostating, the Gulating, the Eidsivating and the Borgarting, were amalgamated and the corpus of law was set down under the command of King Magnus Lagabøte.
This jurisdiction remained significant until King Frederick III proclaimed absolute monarchy in 1660. The Parliament of Norway Building opened in 1866. On 27 June 1940 the presidium signed an appeal to King Haakon. In September 1940 the representatives were summoned to Oslo, voted in favour of the results of the negotiations between the presidium and the authorities of the German invaders. However, directives from Adolf Hitler resulted in the obstruction of "the agreement of cooperation between parliament and occupation force". Although the Storting has always been unicameral, until 2009 it would divide itself into two divisions for legislative purposes. After an election, the Storting would elect a quarter of its membership to form the Lagting, a sort of "upper house" or revising chamber, with the remaining three-quarters forming the Odelsting or "lower house"; the division was used on rare occasions in cases of impeachment. The original idea in 1814 was to have the Lagting act as an actual upper house, the senior and more experienced members of the Storting were placed there.
However, the composition of the Lagting followed that of the Odelsting, so that there was little that differentiated them, the passage of a bill in the Lagting was a formality. Bills were submitted by the Government by a member of the Odelsting. A standing committee, with members from both the Odelsting and Lagting, would consider the bill, in some cases hearings were held. If passed by the Odelsting, the bill would be sent to the Lagting for revision. Most bills were passed unamended by the Lagting and sent directly to the king for royal assent. If the Lagting amended the Odelsting's draft, the bill would be sent back to the Odelsting. If the Odelsting approved the Lagting's amendments, the bill would be signed into law by the King. If it did not the bill would return to the Lagting. If the Lagting still proposed amendments, the bill would be submitted to a plenary session of the Storting. In order to be passed, the bill required the approval of a two-thirds majority of the plenary session. In all other cases a simple majority would suffice.
Three days had to pass between each time a chamber voted on a bill. In all other cases, such as taxes and appropriations, the Storting would meet in plenary session. A proposal to amend the constitution and abolish the Odelsting and Lagting was introduced in 2004 and was passed by the Storting on 20 February 2007, it took effect with the newly elected Storting in 2009. The number of seats in the Storting has varied over the years; as of 1882 there were 114 seats, increasing to 117 in 1903, 123 in 1906, 126 in 1918, 150 in 1921, 155 in 1973, 157 in 1985, 165 in 1989, 169 as of 2005. The legislative procedure goes through five stages. First, a bill is introduced to parliament either by a member of govern
Western Norway is the region along the Atlantic coast of southern Norway. It consists of the counties Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Møre og Romsdal; the region has a population of 1.3 million people. The largest city is Bergen and the second-largest is Stavanger; the regions of Agder, Vest-Telemark, Hallingdal and northern parts of Gudbrandsdal have been included in Western Norway. Western Norway, as well as other parts of historical regions of Norway, shares a common history with Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Iceland and to a lesser extent the Netherlands and Britain. For example, the Icelandic horse is a close relative of the Fjord horse and both the Faroese and Icelandic languages are based on the Old West Norse. In early Norse times, people from Western Norway became settlers at the Western Isles in the Northern Atlantic, so that Orkney, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. During the Viking age settlements were made at the Hebrides and Ireland proper. In early modern time, Western Norway has had much emigration to the United States, to a lesser extent to the United Kingdom.
This applies to the US states of Minnesota and South Dakota, Wisconsin and the Canadian province of Manitoba. The Icelandic and Faroese people, many people in the British Isles, are descendants of Norsemen and Vikings who emigrated from Western Norway during the Viking Age. On the other hand, thousands of Western Norwegians are descendants of Dutch and German traders who arrived in the 16th and the 17th centuries in Bergen. Western Norway has the lowest unemployment rates, lowest crime rates, smallest public sector, fewest people on welfare and the most innovative economy in the country, it is regarded as Norway's most functional region. Vestlandet is the name chosen for a future administrative region consisting of two of the four counties, viz. Hordaland and Sogn og Fjordane; the two counties will be re-merged after having been split in 1763. Norway's history begins on the west coast in Rogaland. Excavations and rock art tells us that it was in Rogaland that the first humans settled in Norway, when the ice retreated after the last ice age ca. 10,000 years ago.
There are many artifacts from the Stone Age in Rogaland. The preliminary oldest traces of humans are found in a settlement on Galta, Rennesøy, near the ferry terminal Mortavika and Vista on Randaberg. In the beginning there has been sure short visits by people from the south who hunted along the coast, it is thought that people came from Doggerland, the North Sea land area between Denmark and England, which disappeared when the ice retreated and sea levels rose. The people who lived there must now find a new land; some retreated south again, while a few passed the Norwegian Trench in its hunt for deer and the new country. The region includes most of the scope of the old Gulating, founded around the year 900; the Gulating Act divided the country into the Western counties, which consisted of the former småkongedømmene that existed in the area before the unification of the 800's and was converted to jarle judge. These were Sunnmørafylke, Firda County, Sygna County, Hordafylke and Egdafylke. Before the millennium, iron was introduced and used in agriculture, there was a shortage of land to cultivate.
In the same period, the kings’ power increased, large tax claims caused many to seek freedom and fortune abroad. Many emigrated, looting became an alternative source of income. Effective boats and weapons made, but the images of Vikings as bloodthirsty plunderers are not always representative. The Vikings were involved in a wealthy merchant trade, not only in Europe but including the Byzantine Empire and the Baghdad Caliphate. Vikings are introduced with the Viking attack on Lindisfarne in 793, when they made their mark in European history; the era ends with the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066. Vikings' seaworthiness and wanderlust resulted in new areas being developed. Norwegian settlers moved into the North Sea westward to Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Shetland, Isle of Mann and the Hebrides. Settlements were established in the southeast corner of Ireland including in Dublin and Wexford. Norwegians settled along the northwest area of England, principally in the area of modern-day Cumbria; the Norwegian Vikings discovered Vinland, present-day America, long before Christopher Columbus.
Christianity became the dominant religion in Norway in the 11th century, but the religion was known among Norwegians in the 7th century. While Eastern Norway was introduced to Christianity by missionaries and monks from Germany and Friesland, Western Norway was introduced to the religion by English, Irish people and Vikings who had converted to Christianity. Norse paganism existed in some areas in Western Norway until they were replaced by Christianity in the 13th century; the coastal areas were the first to introduce the new faith, the inland areas. Churches were planted everywhere; the main source of information about the settlement period in Iceland is the Book of Settlements, written in the 12th century, which gives a detailed account of the first settlers. According to this book, Western Norwegian sailors accidentally discovered the country. A few voyages of exploration were made soon after that and the settlement started. Ingólfur Arnarson was said to be the first settler, he was
Candidate of Law
Candidate of Law is the degree awarded to jurists who have passed the law exam in Denmark, Norway and Finland after studying law for about 5–6 years. In Iceland, graduates are now awarded a master's degree in the field of law; the Swedish jur.kand is obtained after four and a half years at the normal pace. Danish and Finnish degrees take five years. In Norway, the degree is obtained after five and a half years, in addition to a compulsory single term entrance examination in philosophy and ethics, the Examen Philosophicum – a total of 6 years. In Norway it was replaced by the degree Master of Laws in 2003. Swedish universities switched to a curriculum leading up to a Master of Law rather than a jur.kand in the fall of 2010. In Finland the academic degree was awarded to a person after completing 5 years of study in the field of law. Both before and after the Bologna process in 2005 the academic degree is split into two different grades; the lower degree was varanotaari / vicenotarie, the lower degree awarded is oikeusnotaari / rättsnotarie after completing circa 3 years of study equal to LL.
B. The upper degree is oikeustieteen maisteri / juris magister after additional 2 years of study equal to an LL. M. or JD. The right to practice specific law-related occupations in Finland is awarded by completing either the old exam oikeustieteen kandidaatti / juris kandidat or the new exam oikeustieteen maisteri / juris magister; the oikeusnotaari/rättsnotarie degree alone doesn't give the right to practice law-related occupations. The cand. jur. education used to be the qualifying legal education in Norway completed in 6 years full-time. As a result of an extensive reform of the Norwegian educational system, the cand. jur. program was replaced with the Master of Laws-degree. The Master of Laws is standardized to 5 years, based on the standard length of a bachelor+master education of 5 years; the final cand. jur. degree was awarded in the Spring of 2007. Traditionally, the student must swear an oath to avoid straying from truth and justice, nor encouraging needless dispute; the oath is no longer spoken.
In Scandinavian countries, the exam can only be taken at a university with a diploma privilege granted by the government – though any institution may provide legal education. University education was until based on large scale seminars rather than classroom education, thus several private institutions were established in the 1980s and 1990s in order to assist lawstudents; the competition for a study right in law at university is fierce in all Nordic countries. There are more than 10 applicants for one place at the Law faculties; the admission system however vary from every country. The degree is equal to the Master of Laws in Europe but a step above the Juris Doctor the United States which would be the equivalent of a LL. B. Candidate The Faculty of Law at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark The Faculty of Law at the University of Oslo, Norway The Faculty of Law at the University of Helsinki, Finland The Department of Law at Åbo Akademi, Finland The Faculty of Law at the University of Stockholm, Sweden The Faculty of Law at the University of Lund, Sweden The Faculty of Law at the University of Uppsala, Sweden The Faculty of Law at the University of Iceland Educational Credential Evaluators, Inc
Lise Skjåk Bræk
Lise Skjåk Bræk is a Norwegian textile artist, known for her works within ceremonial apparel, costumes and other textiles. She is a resident of Trondheim, she is the daughter of former minister of industry in Norway, Ola Skjåk Bræk, Ingeborg Bræk, a noted activist for humanitarian causes. Helgheim, Helge. "Røde dåpskjoler". NRK. pp. Norwegian. Retrieved 2008-08-21