Eric I of Denmark
Eric I known as Eric the Good, was King of Denmark following his brother Olaf I Hunger in 1095. He was a son of Sweyn II, his mother's identity is unknown. He married Boedil Thurgotsdatter. Eric was born in the town of Slangerup in North Zealand. During the rule of his half-brother Canute IV he was an eager supporter of the king, but he was spared during the rebellion against Canute IV. Eric remained at the royal farm instead of accompanying Canute IV to St Albans priory in Odense where Canute IV was killed. Eric talked his way off the farm and fled to Zealand fled to Scania, part of Denmark at the time. Olaf I Hunger was elected King of Denmark. At last Eric was elected as a king at the several landsting assemblies in 1095. Eric was well liked by the people and the famines that had plagued Denmark during Olaf Hunger's reign ceased. For many it seemed a sign from God. Medieval chroniclers, such as Saxo Grammaticus, myths portrayed Eric a “strapping fellow” appealing to the common people, he could keep his place.
Eric was a good speaker, people went out of their way to hear him. After a ting assembly concluded, he went about the neighborhood greeting men and children at their homesteads, he had a reputation as a loud man. Though a presumed supporter of a strong centralized royal power, he seems to have behaved like a diplomat avoiding any clash with the magnates, he had a reputation for being ruthless to pirates. On a visit to the Pope in Rome he obtained canonization for his late brother, Canute IV, an archbishopric for Denmark, instead of being under the Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. Bishop Asser became the first Archbishop of Lund. King Eric announced at the Viborg assembly; the cause, according to Danmarks Riges Krønike, was the murder of four of his own men while drunk at a feast in his own hall. Despite the pleadings of his subjects, he would not be deterred. Eric appointed his son, Harald Kesja, Bishop Asser as regents. Eric and Boedil and a large company traveled through Russia to Constantinople where he was a guest of the emperor.
While there, he took ship for Cyprus anyway. He died at Paphos, Cyprus in July 1103; the queen had him buried there. He was the first king to go on pilgrimage. Queen Boedil became ill, but made it to Jerusalem where she died, she was buried at the foot of the Mount of Olives in the Valley of Josaphat. Eric and Boedil had Canute Lavard. Harald Kesja was Canute's half-brother. Eric had two sons outside marriage Eric II the Memorable and Benedict, the daughter Ragnhilde. Canute Lavard was king Eric's eldest son, he was a chivalrous and popular Danish prince. Canute was murdered 7 January 1131 by Eric's nephew Magnus the Strong, the son of King Niels, who viewed Canute as a competitor for the throne. Canute's death occurred days before the birth of his child, Valdemar I the Great, who would become King of Denmark from 1157 to 1182. Eric Ejegod is the ancestor of Danish monarchs
Eric II of Denmark
Eric II the Memorable was king of Denmark between 1134 and 1137. Eric was an illegitimate son of Eric I of Denmark, who ruled Denmark from 1095 to 1103. Eric the Memorable rebelled against his uncle Niels of Denmark, was declared king in 1134, he punished his adversaries and rewarded his supporters handsomely. He was was promptly succeeded by his nephew Eric III of Denmark. Eric was born to King Eric I of Denmark and an unknown concubine, he was given some Danish isles by his half-brother Canute Lavard, was jarl of Møn, Falster. When Lavard was murdered in 1131, Eric joined his half-brother Harald Kesja in a rebellion against the responsible king Niels of Denmark. Eric was elected Danish Antiking in Scania in April 1131, which prompted Kesja to support Niels in jealousy. Eric's army lost several battles against Niels and his son Magnus the Strong, including Jelling in Jutland in 1131 and Værbro on Zealand, he fled to Scania, his retreat earned him the nickname Harefoot. Eric unsuccessfully tried to convince Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor to support his bid for kingship, had no luck asking Magnus IV of Norway for help.
He returned to Scania in 1134, where Archbishop Asser of Lund joined his cause, Lothair supported him as well. In 1134, he defeated king Niels' entire army at the Battle of Fotevik in Scania, with the crucial help of German mounted mercenaries, Niels died within the year. Eric was proclaimed king at Scania's landsting assembly at Lerbäckshögen in Kävlingevägen near Lund. Eric subsequently made Lund his capital city. With the resounding victory at Fotevik, Eric was given the nickname the Memorable to replace Harefoot. Kesja was proclaimed king at Urnehoved in Schleswig. Eric chased him down and killed Harald Kesja and his sons, of whom only Olaf Haraldsen escaped with his life. Eric sought to consolidate and legitimize his rule, he gave titles and privileges to his supporters, proclaimed Archbishop Asser's nephew Eskil, Bishop of the Diocese of Roskilde. He initiated the process of getting his half-brother Canute Lavard canonized, established an abbey at Ringsted to document reports of miracles at Canute's grave.
Eric wanted to establish the divine right of kings, canonizing Canute would support his claim on the throne. Canute was canonized in 1170. Eric was known as a harsh ruler to his enemies. In the summer of 1136, Eric undertook a crusade against the pagan population on the Baltic island of Rügen and its capital Arkona, he ordered his men to dig the rest of the island. The canal had the effect of drying up the spring. Arkona was forced to surrender, but in 1135, before this success in Arkona, Eric defeated in a naval battle near Denmark's coast the lechitic troops under pomeranian Duke Ratibor who had sacked Roskilde, a year after the battle of Konungahela, sacked this city as well. He joined Magnus for an unsuccessful campaign in Norway; when he learned that Eskil had raised the nobles of Zealand against him, Eric raced north to put down the rebellion which spread across Funen and Jutland, fined Eskil heavily. Eric was killed on 18 September 1137; the death of Eric, as told by Arild Huitfeldt: A harsh and unpopular ruler, Eric died at Urnehoved landsting in 1137.
King Eric was struck down by Sorte Plov. According to legend, Sorte Plov asked permission to approach the king, carrying a spear in his hand with a block of wood protecting the tip. Having deemed that King Eric wore no mail underneath his tunic, Sorte Plov kicked off the protection, drove his spear right through the king. King Eric's nephew Erik Håkonssøn stepped forward with sword in hand, but the nobleman told him to calm down, seeing as how he – Erik – was next in line for the throne, being the only adult male in the royal family: "Put away thy mace, young Erik. A juicy piece of meat hath fallen in thy bowl!" According to legend, Sorte Plov escaped with his life. Eric was buried at Ribe Cathedral. Erik Håkonssøn was crowned Eric III of Denmark. Sometime before 1130, Eric married Malmfred of Kiev, the daughter of Grand Duke Mstislav I of Kiev and Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden. Malmfrid was the former wife of King Sigurd I of Norway. With his concubine Thunna, Eric had the illegitimate son Sweyn, who would become king as Sweyn III of Denmark
Harald Sigurdsson, given the epithet Hardrada in the sagas, was King of Norway from 1046 to 1066. In addition, he unsuccessfully claimed the Danish throne until 1064 and the English throne in 1066. Before becoming king, Harald had spent around fifteen years in exile as a mercenary and military commander in Kievan Rus' and of the Varangian Guard in the Byzantine Empire; when he was fifteen years old, in 1030, Harald fought in the Battle of Stiklestad together with his half-brother Olaf Haraldsson. Olaf sought to reclaim the Norwegian throne, which he had lost to the Danish king Cnut the Great two years prior. In the battle and Harald were defeated by forces loyal to Cnut, Harald was forced into exile to Kievan Rus', he thereafter spent some time in the army of Grand Prince Yaroslav the Wise obtaining rank as a captain, until he moved on to Constantinople with his companions around 1034. In Constantinople, he soon rose to become the commander of the Byzantine Varangian Guard, saw action on the Mediterranean Sea, in Asia Minor, Sicily in the Holy Land, Bulgaria and in Constantinople itself, where he became involved in the imperial dynastic disputes.
Harald amassed considerable wealth during his time in the Byzantine Empire, which he shipped to Yaroslav in Kievan Rus' for safekeeping. He left the Byzantines in 1042, arrived back in Kievan Rus' in order to prepare his campaign of reclaiming the Norwegian throne. To Harald's knowledge, in his absence the Norwegian throne had been restored from the Danes to Olaf's illegitimate son Magnus the Good. In 1046, Harald joined forces with Magnus's rival in Denmark, the pretender Sweyn II of Denmark, started raiding the Danish coast. Magnus, unwilling to fight his uncle, agreed to share the kingship with Harald, since Harald in turn would share his wealth with him; the co-rule ended abruptly the next year as Magnus died, Harald thus became the sole ruler of Norway. Domestically, Harald crushed all local and regional opposition, outlined the territorial unification of Norway under a national governance. Harald's reign was one of relative peace and stability, he instituted a viable coin economy and foreign trade.
Seeking to restore Cnut's "North Sea Empire", Harald claimed the Danish throne, spent nearly every year until 1064 raiding the Danish coast and fighting his former ally, Sweyn. Although the campaigns were successful, he was never able to conquer Denmark. Not long after Harald had renounced his claim to Denmark, the former Earl of Northumbria, Tostig Godwinson, brother of the newly chosen English king Harold Godwinson, pledged his allegiance to Harald and invited him to claim the English throne. Harald went along and entered Northern England in September 1066, raided the coast and defeated English regional forces in the Battle of Fulford near York. Although successful, Harald was defeated and killed in an attack by Harold Godwinson's forces in the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Modern historians have considered Harald's death, which brought an end to his invasion, as the end of the Viking Age. Harald's most famous epithet is Old Norse harðráði, translated variously as'hard in counsel','tyrannical', ‘tyrant’, ‘hard-ruler’, ‘ruthless’, ‘savage in counsel’, ‘tough’, ‘severe’.
While Judith Jesch has argued for'severe' as the best translation, Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes prefer'resolute'. Harðráði has traditionally been Anglicised as'Hardrada', though Judith Jesch characterises this form as'a bastard Anglicisation of the original epithet in an oblique case'; this epithet predominates in the Icelandic saga-tradition. However, in a number of independent sources associated with the British Isles earlier than the Icelandic sagas, Harald is given epithets deriving from Old Norse hárfagri; these sources include: Manuscript D of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the related histories by Orderic Vitalis, John of Worcester, William of Malmesbury. Marianus Scotus of Mainz; the Life of Gruffydd ap Cynan. In Icelandic sagas the name Harald Fairhair is more famously associated with an earlier Norwegian king, twentieth-century historians assumed that the name was attached to Harald Hardrada in error by Insular historians. However, recognising the independence of some of the Insular sources, historians have since favoured the idea that Harald Hardrada was known as Harald Fairhair, indeed now doubt that the earlier Harald Fairhair existed in any form resembling the saga-accounts.
Sverrir Jakobsson has suggested that'fairhair"might be the name by which King Harald wished himself to be known. It must have been his opponents who gave him the epithet “severe”, by which he is known in thirteenth-century Old Norse kings’ sagas'. Harald was born in Ringerike, Norway in 1015 to Åsta Gudbrandsdatter and her second husband Sigurd Syr. Sigurd was a petty king of Ringerike, among the strongest and wealthiest chieftains in the Uplands. Through his mother Åsta, Harald was the youngest of King Olaf II of Norway / Olaf Haraldsson's three half-brothers. In his youth, Harald displayed traits of a typical rebel with big ambitions, admired Olaf as his role model, he thus differed from his two older brothers, who were more sim
Magnus Olafsson, better known as Magnus Barefoot, was King of Norway from 1093 until his death in 1103. His reign was marked by aggressive military campaigns and conquest in the Norse-dominated parts of the British Isles, where he extended his rule to the Kingdom of the Isles and Dublin; as the only son of King Olaf Kyrre, Magnus was proclaimed king in southeastern Norway shortly after his father's death in 1093. In the north his claim was contested by his cousin, Haakon Magnusson, the two co-ruled uneasily until Haakon's death in 1095. Disgruntled members of the nobility refused to recognise Magnus after his cousin's death, but the insurrection was short-lived. After securing his position domestically, Magnus campaigned around the Irish Sea from 1098 to 1099, he raided through Orkney, the Hebrides and Mann, ensured Norwegian control by a treaty with the Scottish king. Based on Mann during his time in the west, Magnus had a number of forts and houses built on the island and also obtained suzerainty of Galloway.
He sailed to Wales in his expedition, winning control of Anglesey after repelling the invading Norman forces from the island. Following his return to Norway Magnus led campaigns into Dalsland and Västergötland in Sweden, claiming an ancient border with the country. After two unsuccessful invasions and a number of skirmishes Danish king Eric Evergood initiated peace talks among the three Scandinavian monarchs, fearing that the conflict would get out of hand. Magnus concluded peace with the Swedes in 1101 by agreeing to marry Margaret, daughter of the Swedish king Inge Stenkilsson. In return, Magnus gained Dalsland as part of her dowry, he set out on his final western campaign in 1102, may have sought to conquer Ireland. Magnus entered into an alliance with Irish king Muirchertach Ua Briain of Munster, who recognised Magnus' control of Dublin. Under unclear circumstances, while obtaining food supplies for his return to Norway, Magnus was killed in an ambush by the Ulaid the next year. Into modern times, his legacy has remained more pronounced in Ireland and Scotland than in his native Norway.
Among the few domestic developments known during his reign, Norway developed a more centralised rule and moved closer to the European model of church organisation. Popularly portrayed as a Viking warrior rather than a medieval monarch, Magnus was the last Norwegian king to fall in battle abroad, he may in some respects be considered the final Viking king. Most information about Magnus is gleaned from Norse sagas and chronicles, which began appearing during the 12th century; the most important sources still available are the Norwegian chronicles Historia de Antiquitate Regum Norwagiensium by Theodoric the Monk and the anonymous Ágrip af Noregskonungasögum from the 1180s and the Icelandic sagas Heimskringla and Fagrskinna, which date to about the 1220s. While the sagas are the most detailed accounts, they are generally considered the least reliable. Additional information about Magnus, in particular his campaigns, is found in sources from the British Isles, which included contemporary accounts.
Magnus was born around the end of 1073 as the only son of King Olaf Kyrre. His mother's identity is uncertain; the historical consensus has favoured Tora Arnesdatter, but the other claims have gained support. Anders Stølen has argued that she was a daughter of Ragnvald jarl, while historian Randi Helene Førsund has considered Tora Joansdatter more likely. Magnus grew up among the hird of his father in de facto capital of Norway at the time, his father's cousin, the chieftain Tore Ingeridsson, was foster-father to Magnus. In his youth, he was more similar to his warlike grandfather, King Harald Hardrada, than to his father. According to Snorri Sturluson, Magnus was considered gifted in learning. Magnus' more-common byname, "Barefoot" or "Barelegs", was—according to Snorri—due to his adopting the Gaelic dress of the Irish and Scots: a short tunic, which left the lower legs bare. Another version maintains that he acquired the nickname because he was forced to flee from a Swedish attack in his bare feet, while a third explains that he rode barefoot.
Due to Magnus' aggressive nature and his campaigns abroad, he had the nickname styrjaldar-Magnús. Norway had experienced a long period of peace during the reign of Olaf. Magnus may have been present when Olaf died in Rånrike, Båhuslen in September 1093 and was proclaimed king at the Borgarting, the thing of the adjacent region of Viken that month; when Magnus became king, he had a network of support among the Norwegian aristocracy. Although sources are unclear about the first year of his reign, it is appar
Carl Frederik Bricka
Carl Frederik Bricka was a Danish archivist and biographer. Carl Bricka was born in Denmark, his father, Frederik Vilhelm Theodor Bricka, was a medical doctor. He earned his Magister degree from the University of Copenhagen, he became an assistant at the Danish Royal Library in 1871. During the period 1883-97, he was employed in the Danish National Archives, after which he became the department head. Bricka became a member of the board of the Danish Historical Society and edited the historical magazine published by the association, he served as editor of Danske Magazin. From 1885 until his death in 1903, he was the publisher of the Dansk biografisk lexikon: tillige omfattende Norge for Tidsrummet 1537–1814; the first edition of this Danish biographic encyclopedia was published by Gyldendal in 19 volumes between 1887 to 1905. L. L.: Bricka, Carl Frederik, in Blangstrup, Christian: Salmonsens Konversationsleksikon, Copenhagen 1915 – 1930, vol. III, p. 947f. URL last accessed 2007-09-15. Dansk biografisk Lexikon - Project Runeberg
Roskilde, located 30 km west of Copenhagen on the Danish island of Zealand, is the main city in Roskilde Municipality. With a population of 50,046, the city is a business and educational centre for the region and the 10th largest city in Denmark. Roskilde is governed by the administrative council of Roskilde Municipality. Roskilde has a long history, dating from the pre-Christian Viking Age, its UNESCO-listed Gothic cathedral, now housing 39 tombs of the Danish monarchs, was completed in 1275, becoming a focus of religious influence until the Reformation. With the development of the rail network in the 19th century, Roskilde became an important hub for traffic with Copenhagen, by the end of the century, there were tobacco factories, iron foundries and machine shops. Among the largest private sector employers today are the IT firm BEC and GPI, specializing in plastics; the Risø research facility is becoming a major employer, extending interest in sustainable energy to the clean technology sphere.
The local university, founded in 1972, the historic Cathedral School, the Danish Meat Trade College, established in 1964, are educational institutions of note. Roskilde has a large local hospital, expanded and modernized since it was opened in 1855, it is now active in the research sphere. The Sankt Hans psychiatric hospital serves the Capital Region with specialized facilities for forensic psychiatry; the cathedral and the Viking Ship Museum, which contains the well-preserved remains of five 11th-century ships, attract more than 100,000 visitors annually. In addition to its internationally recognized tourist attractions and its annual rock festival, Roskilde is popular with shoppers thanks to its two centrally located pedestrian streets complete with restaurants, cafés, a variety of shops; the city is home to the FC Roskilde football club which play in the Danish 1st Division, the Roskilde Vikings RK rugby club, the rowing club, Roskilde Roklub. In the 1970s, the city benefited from the opening of the university and from the completion of the Holbæk Motorway connecting it to Copenhagen.
Roskilde has the oldest operational railway station in Denmark, with connections across Zealand as well as with Falster and Jutland. The local airport opened in 1973 serving light aircraft for business use and flight instruction. Among the city's notable citizens are Absalon, the bishop who founded Copenhagen in the 12th century, L. A. Ring, the symbolist painter who gained fame in the 1880s, the writer Lise Nørgaard who wrote the popular Danish TV series Matador in 1978 and the rower Thomas Ebert who became an Olympic gold medallist in 2004. Roskilde, which developed as the hub of the Viking land and sea trade routes over a thousand years ago, is one of Denmark's oldest cities. From the 11th century until 1443, it was the capital of Denmark. By the Middle Ages, with the support of kings and bishops, it had become one of the most important centres in Scandinavia; the Saxo Grammaticus and other early sources associate the name Roskilde with the legendary King Roar who lived there in the 6th century.
According to Adam of Bremen and the Saxo Grammaticus, Roskilde was founded in the 980s by Harald Bluetooth. On high ground above the harbour, he built a wooden church consecrated to the Holy Trinity as well as a royal residence nearby. Although no traces of these buildings have been discovered, in 1997 archaeologists found the remains of Viking ships in the Isefjord, the oldest of, dated to 1030. At the time, there were two churches in the area: St Jørgensbjerg, an early stone church, a wooden church discovered under today's St Ib's Church. Harald was buried in the wooden church. In 1020, King Canute elevated Roskilde to a bishopric. Absalon, the Danish bishop, had a brick church built on the site of Harald's church in 1170. Today's cathedral was completed in 1275 after five of Absalon's successors had contributed to its construction; as a result of Absalon's influence, many other churches were built in the vicinity, making Roskilde the most important town in Zealand. Coins were minted there from the 11th to the 14th century.
In 1150, Sweyn Grathe built a moat around the city. The Roskilde bishops owned large areas of land in the region including, from 1186, Havn on the Øresund which became Copenhagen. By the time of the Danish Reformation in 1536, there were 12 churches and five monasteries in the city, it is not clear when Roskilde became a market town but it was enjoying trading privileges under King Eric II who reigned from 1134 to 1137. These privileges were established when the Roskilde City Council granted market town status to other towns on Zealand on 15 June 1268. By that time, it was the largest and most important town in Denmark. In 1370, the city owned 2,600 farms throughout Zealand; the Reformation brought Roskilde's development to an abrupt stop. While the cathedral continued to be the preferred location for the entombment of the Danish monarchs, most of the other religious institutions disappeared. For the next three centuries, the city suffered a series of disasters including the effects of the Dano-Swedish War which terminated with the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, the plague in 1710 and 1711, a series of fires in 1730.
Conditions improved in 1835 when the city became the Assembly of the Estates of the Realm and in 1847 with the railway connecting Copenhagen and Roskilde. With the development of the rail network, Roskilde became an important hub for traffic with Copenhagen. In the 1870s and 1880s, the harbour was extended attracting industria