Oland (Frisian island)
Media related to Hallig Oland at Wikimedia Commons
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Media related to Hallig Oland at Wikimedia Commons
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The Halligen or the halliger are small islands without protective dikes. There are ten German halligen in the North Frisian Islands on Schleswig-Holstein's Wadden Sea-North Sea coast in the district of Nordfriesland and one hallig at the west coast of Denmark; the name is cognate to Old-English halh, meaning "slightly raised ground isolated by marsh". The existence of the Halligen is a result of frequent floods and poor coastal protection; the floods were much more common in the Middle Ages and coastal protection was much poorer. The Halligen have areas ranging from 7 to 956 ha, are former parts of the mainland, separated therefrom by storm tide erosion; some are parts of once much bigger islands sundered by the same forces. Sometimes, owing to sediment deposition, islands have grown together to form larger ones. Langeneß includes a former island by that same name, two others that were called Nordmarsch and Butwehl. Dwellings and commercial buildings are built upon metre-high, man-made mounds, called Warften in German or Værft in Danish, to guard against storm tides.
Some Halligen have overflow dikes. Not many people live on the Halligen, their livelihoods are based on tourism, coastal protection, agriculture. This last activity involves raising cattle in the fertile flooded, salt meadows; the Halligen are to be found in the Schleswig-Holsteinisches Wattenmeer National Park. The commercially developed Halligen Nordstrandischmoor, Gröde, Langeneß, Hooge are surrounded by the protected area, but not an integral part of it; the smaller Halligen Habel, Südfall, Süderoog, Norderoog as well as the Hamburger Hallig are parts of the national park. Walks on the tidal flats and informational meetings are offered by tourist boards and the park administration. In the west the German Halligen are protected from the open sea by the North Frisian Barrier Island; the island of Mandø in the Danish Wadden Sea Islands is technically one of the Halligen, although it is far away from the other ten, which are quite near each other. Mandø can be reached from the mainland over the mudflats at low tide, when a tidal pathway is above water.
There are 10 halligen in Germany. The following list does not include existing Halligen that have either vanished or merged with current halligen or the mainland: Langeneß – 956 ha, 16 Warften, about 110 inhabitants. Narrow gauge railway connection to Oland. Hooge – 574 ha, 10 Warften, about 120 inhabitants. Gröde – 277 ha, 2 Warften, 11 inhabitants. Nordstrandischmoor. One-room schoolhouse. Narrow gauge railway connection to mainland. Oland – 96 ha, 1 Warft, about 30 inhabitants. Narrow gauge railway connection to mainland and Langeneß. Süderoog – 60 ha, 1 Warft, 2 inhabitants. Südfall – 50 ha, 1 Warft, bird sanctuary. Hamburger Hallig – 50 ha, 2 Warften, inn occupied in summer, joined to the mainland by a 4 km-long causeway and a polder. Norderoog – 9 ha, no Warften, bird sanctuary tended year-round. Habel – 3.6 ha, 1 Warft, bird sanctuary occupied in summer. On the Danish side, three halliger are to be noted, current or past: Mandø Langli Jordsand The peninsula and former island of Großer Werder on the Baltic Sea coast is nicknamed "Baltic Hallig" due to its remote situation and appearance.
List of islands of Denmark List of islands of Germany Tidal island Uthlande Johann C. Biernatzki; the Hallig: or, The sheepfold in the waters. A tale of humble life on the coast of Schleswig. Translated, with a biographical sketch of the author, by Mrs. George P. Marsh. Boston: Gould and Lincoln
Neuwerk is a 3 km2 tidal island in the Wadden Sea on the German North Sea coast, with a population of 32. Neuwerk is located 13 km northwest between the Weser and Elbe estuaries; the distance to the centre of Hamburg is about 120 km. Archaic English names for the island are New Newark. Administratively, Neuwerk forms a homonymous quarter of the city and state of Hamburg, is part of the borough Hamburg-Mitte; this quarter includes the islands of Scharhörn and Nigehörn, which are bird sanctuaries and closed to the public. All three islands and the Wadden Sea around them form the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park. Dikes encircle the island, about 3 square kilometres, one can walk around it in an hour. Salt marshes, lie outside the dikes and provide a hatchery for birds such as oystercatchers, sandwich terns, black-headed gulls, herring gulls, others. During the summer farmers may pasture horses on the northern Outland. At low tide one can reach the island on foot or on a Wattwagen, a horse-drawn mud flat coach, from Cuxhaven.
A row of poles on the mud flats marks the way. The path includes some elevated cages; these are rescue pods. Should high tide catch a walker far from shore, the walker can climb into the pod and wait for the tide to recede, or trigger a flare. Triggering the flare summons a rescue boat. During the summer the vessel MS Flipper makes a daily trip at high tide from the "Alte Liebe" port in Cuxhaven to the island; because departure times depend on the tides, the times are variable. The trip takes about a half one-way. One may, for a small fee and ascend the lighthouse to a viewing platform; this provides a view of the entire island. There is a small hotel with seven guest rooms inside the lighthouse, a hostel in a building next to the tower. Near the lighthouse there is the "graveyard of the nameless"; this is a resting place for the dead bodies. Today, bodies washed ashore are transferred to the continent; because the Elbe was vital to Hamburg, a member of the Hanseatic League, the city's merchants with those from Bremen and Stade obtained the permission from Albert II, Duke of Saxony and his minor nephews Albert III, Eric I and John II, altogether co-ruling feudal lords of the Land of Hadeln of which Neuwerk formed a part to maintain a permanent fire on a mud flat island named O or Nige O, in the mouth of the Elbe.
On 1 November 1299 Albert III and John II allowed the Hamburg and other seafaring merchants to build a fortified tower, named the new work. Right after work commenced on a 35-metre-high watchtower that could act as a daymark. After its completion, an alderman and ten men-at-arms seized the tower; the oldest existing document that mentions Neuwerk is a Frisian contract of 1316. This document uses the island's old name of Nige O; the current tower dates to 1369, or 1377, built after a fire destroyed its wooden predecessor. The tower is Hamburg's oldest existing building as well as the last remainder of Hamburg's fortifications. In 1648 the tower received a beacon fire, lit at night; the tower was converted into a lighthouse in 1814. Still, the island was the site of numerous shipwrecks. During World War I, a shell destroyed its signalling apparatus. On 3 September 1915 lightning struck the Zeppelin LZ 40, causing it to crash into the North Sea near Neuwerk, with the loss of the entire 20-man crew. Due to the Greater Hamburg Law Neuwerk became part of Prussia in 1937, thus after World War II it became part of the new state of Lower Saxony.
In 1946 an 18 kW wind turbine, 15 metres in diameter, installed to economize on diesel fuel, helped power the lighthouse and residences on the island. This installation ran for around 20 years. In 1969 Hamburg waived older rights on harbour estate in Cuxhaven in favour of Neuwerk and Scharhörn. On 31 December 2007, Neuwerk quarter had 26 female and 13 males. 11 were resident aliens. Media related to Neuwerk at Wikimedia Commons
Ameland is a municipality and one of the West Frisian Islands off the north coast of the Netherlands. It consists of sand dunes, it is the third major island of the West Frisians. It neighbours islands Schiermonnikoog to the east; this includes the small Rif islands to the east. Ameland is, counted from the west, the fourth inhabited Dutch Wadden island and belongs to the Friesland province; the whole island falls under one municipality. The Wadden islands form the border between the North Sea and the Wadden Sea, which lies on the south side of the island file; the municipality of Ameland had a population of 3,683 in 2017. The inhabitants are called Amelanders; the island has four villages, one small part-village. There were two other villages: Oerd and Sier; the name of these villages live on in MS Oerd and MS Sier, which are the names of the ferries to the island. From west to east: Hollum, the most populated village, located on the west coast, home to the island's lighthouse Ballum, smallest village, location of the island's airfield, Ameland Airport Nes, the second largest of the island, a vibrant tourist village with many hotels home to Burgemeester Waldaschool, ferry services from Holwerd mainland Buren, located at the centre of the island, includes Ameland's beach First mentioned as Ambla in the eighth century, it paid tribute to the county of Holland until in 1424 its lord, Ritske Jelmera, declared it a "free lordship".
Although Holland and the Holy Roman Emperor contested this quasi-independent status, it remained a free lordship until the ruling family, died out in 1708. After that, the Frisian stadtholder John William Friso, Prince of Orange, became lord of Ameland and after him, his son the stadtholder of all the Netherlands, William IV, Prince of Orange, his grandson, William V, Prince of Orange. Only in the constitution of 1813 was the island integrated into the Netherlands into the province of Friesland; the monarchy of the Netherlands still maintain the title Vrijheer van Ameland today. In 1871 and 1872, a dike was built between Ameland and the mainland by a society for the reclamation of Frisian land from the sea; the dike ran from Holwerd to Buren and was 8.7 km. long. The province and the Dutch realm each paid 200,000 guilders. In the end, it was unsuccessful; the dike can still be seen at low tide. The dam at Holwerd is the beginning of this dike. In 1940 German troops were ferried to the island and within hours Ameland was under the control of the German Army.
Because of its limited military value the Allies never invaded Ameland. The German forces on the island did not surrender until June 2, 1945 a full month after the defeat of Nazi Germany. Like all West and East Frisian Islands, Ameland is a unique piece of nature; the profusion of different plants on the island is caused by the immense variety of landscapes. One of the scenic areas is the Oerd, a large complex of dunes, still expanding by the year; because of the differing landscapes and types of flora, over 60 different species of birds are sitting there every year. At the eastern part of the Oerd lies a beach plain called the Hon. Besides dunes and beaches, Ameland has some woods, like the Nesser bos. Most travelers reach the island by ferry from Holwerd in the mainland of Friesland, but there is an Airport near Ballum. A bus service connects the ferries from Buren/Nes; when the sea between Friesland and Ameland is low tide one can walk across. The population of each village of the island as of 2017: The following people were born on Ameland: Hannes de Boer, long jumper Jan Bruin, footballer Willem Cornelis de Groot, architect Johannes cardinal de Jong, archbishop of Utrecht Sjoerd Soeters, architect Ameland travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website The history of Ameland
Vlieland is a municipality and island in the northern Netherlands. The municipality of Vlieland has one major town, Oost-Vlieland, it is the second most sparsely populated municipality in the Netherlands, after Schiermonnikoog. Vlieland is one of the West Frisian Islands, lying in the Wadden Sea, it is the second island from the west in the chain, lying between Terschelling. The island was permanently separated from the mainland in St. Lucia's flood in 1287. Vlieland was named after the Vlie, the seaway between it and Terschelling, the estuary of the river IJssel in medieval times. Richel is a permanently dry sandbank, located about 1 kilometer east of the northernmost point of Vlieland and is administered by the municipality of Vlieland; the northern part of the island of Texel, once was the southwestern part of Vlieland. A storm surge in 1296 separated Eierland from Vlieland. Erosion further diminished the size of Vlieland from the west, leading in 1736 to the disappearance of a second village on Vlieland, West-Vlieland, after the inhabitants had tried for decades to rebuild the town following numerous floods.
Until 1942 Vlieland, like Terschelling, was part of the province of North Holland. During the Second World War, Vlieland became part of the German Atlantic Wall; the Germans built two anti-aircraft batteries and stationed more soldiers on the island than there were inhabitants. They repartitioned the island to Friesland and the situation was not reversed after the war; the mail station in the western part of the island is a reminder that in the past mail was delivered by ferry from Texel. Because of this history, Vlieland natives do not speak Frisian; the original dialect, was related to the dialect of Texel and to other Dutch dialects in North Holland. The last native speaker, Petronella de Boer-Zeylemaker, died in 1993 at the age of 107; the majority of the landscape of the island consists of sand dunes, but there are some wooded areas and small meadows. A large part of the island, the western part, consists of sand. There is one village on Oost-Vlieland. A second village, West-Vlieland, was lost to the sea in 1736.
Vlieland can be reached by ferry from the Frisian town of Harlingen on the mainland. Ferries are operated by Doeksen and the journey takes 45 minutes to 1.5 hours to cross the Wadden Sea and part of the North Sea. Tourists are not allowed to bring cars with them on the ferry. A summer-only ferry service runs between De Cocksdorp on the neighboring island of Texel and the westernmost point of Vlieland; the most common form of transport on the island is the bicycle. A bus service runs from the ferry terminal to the village and campgrounds after the arrival of a ferry, some time before departure. There is a small heliport near the village, but it is only used for SAR flights. Vlieland, being the outermost of the Frisian barrier islands, sees its climate the most moderated by the North- and Wadden Sea; as is the case with the other West Frisian islands, sunshine hours are among the highest in the Netherlands. Temperature extremes are rare; this counts for extreme cold. Nights below -10 Celsius only happen on average once every 2 years.
Wind is abundant however, the average wind speed on Vlieland is 8 metres per second, or 28 kilometres per hour. Gale-force winds occur on average nine days per year. Vlieland has a nine-member municipal council elected once every four years; the results of the last election, held in 2018, are shown in the table below. The municipal executive consists of GroenWit. Tineke Schokker has been mayor of Vlieland since 2017. Tourism is the main source of income on Vlieland. There are 15 hotels, several hundred apartments and holiday homes. Vlieland has two campgrounds. Here Comes The Summer and Into The Great Wide Open are two music festivals, held in late April and in late August. Official website Tourist office website
Griend is a small uninhabited Dutch island in the Wadden Sea, lying around 12 kilometres south of Terschelling. It is one of the West Frisian Islands, belongs to the municipality of Terschelling; the island has an area of around 0.1 km2. In the Middle Ages, the island was inhabited, on it a walled settlement and a monastery could be found; as a result of the continuous erosion of the coast, Griend became smaller over time. In 1287 the settlement was completely destroyed as a consequence of St. Lucia's flood; the city was thereafter abandoned and from that time until the eighteenth century, Griend was inhabited by a few farmers, who built their houses on artificial hills. Around 1800, Griend still had an area of 0.25 km2, but the island was moving to the southeast at a speed of 7 metres a year. By this time, all of its inhabitants had abandoned the island, from on it was used by inhabitants of Terschelling as a grazing area for sheep, for the making of hay; the eggs of gulls and terns were gathered for consumption.
In 1916, the grazing rights on the island were bought by the Vereniging Natuurmonumenten, a union devoted to the protection of nature, which tried to prevent the gathering of eggs by guarding the bird colonies. After the Afsluitdijk was completed in 1933, the rate of erosion increased more. However, the island survives to the present day, though it is smaller than before, its current location is to the southeast of its location in the Middle Ages. Nowadays, the island is uninhabited with the exception of a cabin used in summer by birdwatchers and biologists. Griend is not accessible to the general public; because Griend is unprotected by dykes, the island is moving eastward. To prevent the island from vanishing altogether, some measures have been taken to protect it: along its southern edge, a few dams were built, around 1990 the island was strengthened by building a low sand dyke along the north side. Since the process of erosion has changed into a process of gradual growth; the largest colony of Sandwich terns in Western Europe can be found on Griend: every year, around 10,000 pairs breed on the island.
Among others, the common tern, Arctic tern, common eider, common shelduck, Eurasian oystercatcher, common redshank, the short-eared owl breed on the island. During the building of the sand dike, the island was colonized by the wood mouse. Griend is managed by the Vereniging Natuurmonumenten. Media related to Griend at Wikimedia Commons
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Föhr pronunciation is one of the North Frisian Islands on the German coast of the North Sea. It is part of the Nordfriesland district in the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein. Föhr is a popular destination for tourists. A town and eleven distinct municipalities are located on the island; the climate is oceanic with moderate winters and cool summers. Being a settlement area in neolithic times, Föhr had been part of mainland North Frisia until 1362; the coastline was destroyed by a heavy storm flood and several islands were formed, Föhr among them. The northern parts of Föhr consist of marshes. From the middle-ages until 1864, Föhr belonged to the Danish realm and to the Duchy of Schleswig, but was transferred to Prussia as a result of the Second Schleswig War. Seafaring has long been the most popular trade, but farming and tourism became the most important economic factors after the end of the Age of Sail; the island can be reached via an airstrip. Apart from German, a dialect of the North Frisian language, Fering, is spoken on Föhr.
Several authors and poets have written in Fering. Föhr is situated southeast of Sylt. Among those German islands which are accessible only by ship or airplane Föhr is the most populous and has the largest surface. Föhr is called "The Green Island" due to being sheltered from the storms of the North Sea by its neighbouring islands Sylt and Amrum, so that Föhr's vegetation is thriving compared to other islands, it is 12 km long. While the northern parts are marshland, the south consists of higher geestland; the highest elevation measures 13 m above mean sea level and is located on the geestland ridge between the villages of Nieblum and Midlum. The geest makes up about two fifths of Föhr's total area and most villages are located there. In the marshlands, a number of solitary farmsteads can be found, which were moved out of the villages during the 1960s; until the Grote Mandrenke flooding in 1362, Föhr had been part of the mainland, connected by deep tidal creeks. Föhr, like its neighbour islands, is a popular tourist resort.
From the ferry terminal a sandy beach of about 15 km length extends all along Föhr's southern shore and halfway up the western coast. North and northwest of Föhr the Reserved Area I of the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park is located. Föhr's population counts 8,592; the only town on the island is Wyk on its south-eastern coast, a popular seaside resort. In addition there are sixteen small villages on Föhr which are distributed among eleven municipalities, they adhere to the Amt Föhr-Amrum: Alkersum Borgsum Dunsum, comprising Lesser and Greater Dunsum Midlum Nordseebad Nieblum with its neighbourhood Goting Oevenum Oldsum with the districts of Toftum and Klintum Süderende Nordseebad Utersum with the hamlet of Hedehusum Witsum Wrixum A local peculiarity is that all place names end with the suffix -um, which means "home". Föhr features a moderate oceanic climate; the beneficial effects of the local climate and seawater on certain medical conditions inspired the physician Carl Haeberlin from Wyk to develop treatments for climatotherapy and thalassotherapy at the beginning of the 20th century.
He became the pioneer of these disciplines in Germany. The higher geestland cores of the North Frisian islands, scattered between ample marshlands, attracted settlers when the sea level rose at the end of the Neolithicum. Gravesites and several minor artifacts found on Föhr bear witness to this; when the Frisians colonised the area of modern Nordfriesland during the 7th century, their first settlements were erected on Föhr, according to archaeological findings. The sparsely inhabited island witnessed a steep rise of population. A rather large amount of jewellery originating from Scandinavia, found in graves of the time points out a vivid connection to northern Europe. From the age of the Vikings, several ring walls, the Lembecksburg among them, are preserved; the Danish Census Book of King Valdemar II of Denmark tells of two Harden on Föhr, which were territorial subdivisions of the time. The Westerharde Föhr was at times the refuge of a pirate serving the Danish. In 1368 the Westerharde, which included Amrum, was transferred to the Counts of Holstein under the supervision of the knight Klaus Lembeck, bailiff of Ribe.
In 1400 the Harde remained within Ribe County. Until 1864 the western part of Föhr, together with Amrum, belonged to the Danish Enclaves in North Frisia while Osterland and Wyk belonged to the Duchy of Schleswig since it had seceded from the Danish Kingdom in the 1420s. Together with the Wiedingharde, the Bökingharde, the isle of Strand and Sylt, Osterland in 1426 signed the "Compact of the Seven Hundreds" with Duke Henry IV of Schleswig, which stated that the Hundreds intended to keep their judicial autonomy. In 1523 the northern marshlands of Föhr were shut off against the sea by dikes and 22 hectacres of new farming land were won. Beginning in 1526, the Protestant Reformation began to introduce the Lutheran confession on Föhr, completed in 1530. In the 17th century a private navigation school was established in Süderende by pastor Richardus Petri, the first of its kind on the island, it improved the situation of the seafaring population and soon other navi