Old-school hip hop

Old-school hip hop is the earliest commercially recorded hip hop music. It refers to music created around 1979 to 1983. Old-school hip hop is said to have ended around 1983 with the emergence of Run-DMC, due to changes in both rapping technique and the accompanying music and rhythms; the image and sounds of old-school hip hop were exemplified by figures like Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaataa, DJ Kool Herc, Treacherous Three, Funky Four Plus One, Kurtis Blow, The Sugarhill Gang, Melle Mel, Super-Wolf, West Street Mob Spoonie Gee, Kool Moe Dee, Busy Bee Starski, Lovebug Starski, The Cold Crush Brothers, Warp 9, T-Ski Valley, Grandmaster Caz, Doug E. Fresh, The Sequence, Jazzy Jay, Rock Steady Crew, Fab Five Freddy, it is characterized by the simpler rapping techniques of the time and the general focus on party-related subject matter. The lyrics were not a important part of old-school rap songs. There were, exceptions such as Brother D's, "How We Gonna Make the Black Nation Rise," and Kurtis Blow's, "Hard Times", that explored relevant ideas.

The release of The Message in 1982 by Duke Bootee and Melle Mel, although released as by Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, marked the arrival of hip hop as social commentary, making it possible for future artists like Public Enemy and N. W. A to create an identity based on conscious themes in years. Old-school rappers are respected by current hip hop artists and fans, with many claiming they have contributed to the evolution of hip-hop. Old-school hip hop is noted for its simple rapping techniques, compared to hip hop music. Artists such as Melle Mel would use few syllables per bar of music, with simple rhythms and a moderate tempo. Much of the subject matter of old-school hip hop centers around having a good time. In the book How to Rap, Immortal Technique explains how party content played a big part in old-school hip hop: "hip-hop was born in an era of social turmoil... in the same way that slaves used to sing songs on a plantation... that's the party songs that we used to have". As mentioned earlier, a notable exception is the song "The Message", written and rapped by Duke Bootee.

It was offered to Grandmaster Flash and he turned it down, citing that no one wanted to hear reality, that it was all about parties. Melle Mel however expressed that he did want to take part. Melle Mel rapped the verse he rapped in 1979's "Super Rappin'" on "The Message", the rest is in fact rapped by Duke Bootee himself. Once the song was completed it was released under the banner of Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five in order to give it some credibility; the song was a introduced social commentary to hip hop. Grandmaster Flash does not reference that he had nothing to do with "The Message", Duke Bootee is given no credit in documentaries or by hip hop historians. Duke Bootee produced and rapped "The Message II" with Melle Mel again in 1983. Battle rap was a part of the old-school hip hop aesthetic. While discussing battle rapping, Esoteric said, "a lot of my stuff stems from old school hip-hop, braggadocio ethic". A famous old-school hip hop battle occurred in December 1981, when Kool Moe Dee challenged Busy Bee Starski.

Busy Bee Starski's defeat by the more complex raps of Kool Moe Dee meant that "no longer was an MC just a crowd-pleasing comedian with a slick tongue. Sci-fi/Afrofuturism was another theme introduced into hip hop; the release of Planet Rock in 1982 was a game-changer, like "a light being switched on." The combination of electronic percussive propulsion and Afrika Bambaataa's rap sounded like "an orchestra being rocketed into outer space." "Light Years Away", by Warp 9, produced and written by Lotti Golden and Richard Scher, explored social commentary from a sci-fi perspective. A "cornerstone of early 80's beatbox afrofuturism", "Light Years Away" is characterized as "a brilliantly spare and sparse piece of electro hip-hop traversing inner and outer space."Freestyle rap during hip hop's old-school era was defined differently than it is today. Kool Moe Dee refers to this earlier definition in his book There's a God on the Mic: "There are two types of freestyle. There's an old-school freestyle that's rhymes that you've written that may not have anything to do with any subject or that goes all over the place.

There's freestyle where you come off the top of the head". In old-school hip hop, Kool Moe Dee says that improvisational rapping was instead called "coming off the top of the head", he refers to this as "the real old-school freestyle". This is in contrast to the more recent definition defining freestyle rap as "improvisational rap like a jazz solo". Old-school hip hop sampled disco and funk tracks, such as "Good Times" by Chic, when performed live in the 1970s. Recorded hip hop" would use a live band to do covers of the famous breaks from the 1970s block parties. However, after Planet Rock, electro-funk became the staple production technique between 1982 and 1986; the use of extended percussion breaks led to the development of scratching techniques. Scratching


Adform is a global digital media advertising technology company. Its operations are headquartered in Europe, its clients vary in size and industry; the company was the first pan-European DSP, has built a reputation for rapid growth and investing in advanced R&D. All three of the company's original founders are still involved in leadership roles and a Series B round of funding for US$5.5 million was closed in early 2014 followed by a 150 million Danish Kroner investment by Danica Pension in late 2015. In 2018 an IPO canceled due to market conditions. Instead of that an external investment of non-disclosed amount by GRO Capital was done in April 2019. Adform was founded in 2002 in Copenhagen, Denmark, by Gustav Mellentin, Jakob Bak and Stefan Juricic; the company was founded to deliver ad serving but grew to become a media-agnostic tech vendor specializing in banner advertising, mobile advertising, digital marketing. Adform at first focused on the buy-side process and worked predominantly with advertisers and agencies.

In 2014 Adform launched its stand alone DMP and in 2015 Adform added additional publisher-facing solutions through its Publisher Edge solution. Under the banner of its Integrated Advertising Platform, Adform provides an extensive paid-media offering for advertisers, agencies and publishers; the company specializes in Programmatic media. Starting in 2005 Adform began to expand its client base in Finland. By 2007 the company had expanded into Sweden; the Lithuania office, situated in Vilnius, was opened in 2006 as a result of the founders' relationship with a group of system developers. Today the Vilnius office is Adform's largest and is the base for a large part of the company's technical development, central human resource management, finance based activities. Other services, such as customer service and account management was handled by each country's local office, but moved to Vilnius as well for efficiency. In 2009 the company launched an office in London, Gustav Mellentin, the co-founder and CEO of the company, temporarily re-located to oversee the company's expansion into the UK market.

The German, Spanish and Belgian markets followed over the next three years. In 2014 Adform raised $5.5 million of series B funding from Via Venture Partners to expand its rich media offering and for expansion into the United States. This led to the launch of two new offices in the US as well as a development center in Belarus and a new office in Poland; as of January 2016 Adform had 700 employees globally, up from 450 in 2014 and 264 in 2013. Late 2015 and early 2016 was followed by continued expansion with the addition of offices in France and Singapore as part of the company's continued focus on servicing an global client base. 2017 saw. Adform cut 8 % of its workforce including senior execs across 15 markets. Adform bootstrapped its expansion over the last decade. Adform planned to go public in Q4 2018, but postponed it because of "continued uncertainty and volatility in the financial markets". During the pre-IPO period Adform needed to publisher their financial results:- operating loss in 2015, 2016 and 2017 - expected operating loss in 2018 - 2017 revenue of 59,5 Mio EUR - 2018 expected revenue of 68-69 Mio EUR After the strategic investment of GRO Capital and a focus on the US market, Adform sacked 70 employees across Europe.

When Adform launched in 2003 they were focused on providing ad serving, supplemented by planning in 2005. These two were the Company's primary focus until 2010 when Adform added Rich Media and initiated an intensive R&D focus; this not only led to a significant increase in staff, it drove the company's expansion into new markets and market areas. In 2011 the company launched its Demand-side platform, followed in 2012 with a Private Marketplace. In 2013 the company added a Rich Media DSP and 2014 saw the introduction of their Data Management Platform. In 2015 the company launched its Programmatic Publisher Ad Server, Supply Side Platform, Automated Guaranteed products. In 2016 Adform expanded with new cross-device offerings, extended digital-out-of-home and programmatic print capabilities. In 2019 Adform re-branded its Advertiser Edge and Publisher Edge offerings as the Integrated Advertising Platform and the Integrated Advertising Platform for Publishers in recognition of the industry's need for more holistic advertising solutions.

Adform's dominant product line, the Integrated Advertising Platform, consists of a stand-alone Ad Server, Demand Side Platform, Data Management Platform which are purchased and used as a single holistic paid-media platform. 2019 saw Adform release a new Creative-centered offering, DCO Pro, its own dedicated cross-device solution, an updated AI solution. The combination of DSP and DMP as a Strong Performer in both Forrester Wave reports made Adform one of only four advertising technology companies recognized in both reports. 2017 saw the company become one of the first advertising technology companies, the first dedicated DSP to secure Media Ratings Council accreditation for viewability measurement across Desktop, Mobile Web and App environments for both Display and Video ads. In 2018 and again in 2019 Adform as featured as a Leader in Gartner's Magical Quadrant for Ad Tech. Adform has offices in 26 countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, South Africa, Sweden, Norway, Spain

La Victoria, Spain

La Victoria is a municipality in the province of Córdoba, Spain. In the year 2011 its population was 2,336, it has an area of 20 square kilometres and a population density of 120/km2. It is situated at an altitude of 262 metres above sea level and is 29 kilometres from the capital of the province, Córdoba. Number of inhabitants in the last eleven years. La Victoria has many cultural buildings because of it there is declared historical Andalusian Heritage. La Victoria borders with: San Sebastian of the Archers and Cordova, and this one divided in a sector: The First sector: Village Quintana. In the municipality of Cordoba Victory are two natural areas: MONTE BENEGUILLASStain oaks and scrub vegetation that covers the so-called Monte Beneguillas, it is situated on a sunny hillside with steep slopes, hence its name. It is an ancient stronghold of Mediterranean forest of oaks, the only unit on forestry in the municipality of La Victoria, consisting of a dense vegetation in which they appear oaks, mastic trees and olive trees.

It has a small extension. It, along the oak adehesado Tocina, the only witness to the climax vegetation of the area, i.e. the primitive vegetation, still undisturbed by man. Conservation over time of this stain of vegetation has occurred due to the slope makes it impracticable for cultivation. However, the Monte Beneguillas is a place frequented by residents of the environment as a place of leisure and outdoor recreation, a fact that sometimes generates dirt and attacks on the vegetation of this area of great ecological value. DEHESA TocinaThe oak adehesado Tocina, is located north of the municipality of La Victoria, 1 km from the city center, with an area of 233.2 belonging to the estate has the same name. The geomorphology of the area is characterized by the presence of rolling hills with small streams and vertebrate seasonal regajos, by which the water flows only during rainy seasons, it is a landscape with arable land of oaks, which are present copies of larger sized oaks of the municipality, with high density in its northern, instead seized in recent years to host the festival of San Isidro Labrador.

The original oak forest has been cleared over time to leave open spaces for farming. The following images shows the evolution of the pasture in the past 60 years, from 1956-1957 American flight to date in 2009. You can see the amount of oak and scrub sets have disappeared during this period of time. Most historians agree that the foundation of the town is linked to the establishment of the Minims of St. Francis of Paula in Córdoba, when General of the Order requested the Bishop of Cordoba, Juan Daza and Osorio, your competition and the council, to establish in this city a convent of the Pauline order; the convent itself was founded Cordoba February 18, 1510, the founder of the Order of Minims was beatified on 7 July 1513, reaching holiness, becoming San Francisco de Paula, on May 1, 1519. In 1810, when Spain was during the War of Independence, La Victoria, for the most part a vast olive grove, it was known as The Guijarrosa to be part of an old and large parts of the Rambla with the same name.

Near the present town was what we now call "The Old Victoria", i.e. the "inheritance" with "houses, wine cellar, winery and jars, vines and trees" and "everything that belongs" that the November 21, 1551 bought the tanner Hillón Alonso and his wife, Isabel Rodriguez, Fray Andrés de Santa Maria to donate shortly after the January 26, 1552, the Minimum or friars of San Francisco de Paula del Convento of Our Lady of Victory in Cordoba. In the above "inheritance" Least built a chapel, whose existence we have been well documented, at least with respect to the eighteenth century: here they were married many of the ancestors who, for the most part, lived in humble and isolated "homes of campocubiertas straw "or" branch ", as they are called in the land of the Marquis de la Ensenada held in mid of that century. Along the same farm was a cemetery; the subsequent emancipation of Victoria regarding La Rambla was in the light of Article 310, "La Pepa", the Constitution was born in Cadiz on March 19, 1812 and was reactivated on 15 August 1836 by Queen Maria Cristina.

CHAPEL HOUSE MONKS MINIMUMThe Old Victoria, that is, the "inheritance" with "houses, wine cellar, winery and jars, vines and trees" and "with everything that belongs to him" that the November 21, 1551 bought the tanner Alonso Hillón and his wife, Isabel Rodriguez, Fray Andrés de Santa Maria to donate shortly after the January 26, 1552, the Minimum or friars of San Francisco de Paula of the Convent of Our Lady of Victory in Cordoba. Torre DON LUCASThe Tower of Don Lucas was raised in Arab times, not knowing the exact date of its construction. On the evidence obtained in the vicinity is supposed to belong to the times of Alhaquen I, it is located northwest of Victoria, within the municipality, about three hundred meters from the local road linking the village with The Victoria Quintana. Built of limestone, pebbles... Iglesia de SAN PEDRO DE ALCÁNTARA The Church of San Pedro de Alcantara, was built on land owned by the Order of St. Francis of Paula in 1818. On 30 August this year was held at the newly built Holy holy place Pastoral Visit of Bishop Pedro Antonio de Trevilla.

On 1 October the same year, in gratitude for the construction of the new church, Father Jose Antonio Valenzuela asked the prelate who could put the temple under the patronage... Ayuntamiento Original building of 1926, of simple but well composed facade and some evocative, overall, of baroque airs. In 2004 he proceeded to its