Schönau Abbey in Schönau in the Odenwald, in the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis in Baden-Württemberg, was a Cistercian monastery founded in 1142 from Eberbach Abbey. The present settlement of Schönau grew up round the monastery. By the end of the 12th century Schönau was in use as a burial place of the Staufen family: in 1195 Conrad of Hohenstaufen, Count Palatine of the Rhine, was buried here, as were his son of the same name in 1186, both his wives. Adolf, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Rupert II, Elector Palatine and other members of the family were buried here. Conrad II, Bishop of Hildesheim, died here and was also buried here. In the 14th century Schönau was the burial place of the Counts of Erbach. During the Reformation the abbey was dissolved, in 1558; the empty buildings were occupied in 1562 by Huguenot refugees from Wallonia, to whom Schönau gave rights of residence. Physical remains of the abbey include the abbey church of c. 1230, the abbey gateway, the former refectory, the "Walloon forge". Die Stadt- und Landkreise Heidelberg und Mannheim.
Amtliche Kreisbeschreibung. Heidelberg 1968 Berendes, H. U. 1984: Die Bischöfe von Worms und ihr Hochstift im 12. Jahrhundert. Diss. Köln de Gudenus, V. F. 1728: Sylloge I variorum diplomatariorum monumentorumque veterum ineditorum adhuc et res germanicas in primis vero moguntinas illustrantium. Frankfurt Derwein, Herbert, 1931: Das Zisterzienserkloster Schönau. Mit den Zeichnungen des 16. Jahrhunderts aus dem Germanischen Nationalmuseum in Nürnberg. Franzmathes: Frankfurt Online-Publikation der Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg Edelmaier, Robert, 1915: Das Kloster Schönau bei Heidelberg. Ein Beitrag zur Baugeschichte der Cisterzienser.. Gustav Koester: Heidelberg Huffschmid, Maximilian: Beiträge zur Geschichte der Cisterzienserabtei Schönau bei Heidelberg. In: ZGO 45, pp. 415–449. Evangelische Stadtkirche, ehemalige Zisterzienserabtei. Schnell & Steiner: Regensburg ISBN 3-7954-5442-5 Kreisarchiv und Referat für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit des Rhein-Neckar-Kreises in Verbindung mit der Stadt Schönau und dem Verein Alt Schönau e.
V. 2002: Kloster und Hühnerfautei Schönau. Heidelberg ISBN 3-932102-08-8 Neumüllers-Klauser, Renate, 1970: Die Inschriften der Stadt und des Landkreises Heidelberg. Stuttgart Rothfuss, Virto-Christian: Die Schönauer Epitaphien der Pfalzgrafen bei Rhein. in: Der Odenwald 54, pp. 99–102 Schaab, Meinrad, 1990: Die Zisterzienserabtei Schönau im Odenwald. Winter: Heidelberg ISBN 3-533-04256-1 Kloster Schönau: digital reconstruction of the abbey buildings
A pontoon bridge known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel. The buoyancy of the supports limits the maximum load. Most pontoon bridges are temporary, used in civil emergencies. Permanent floating bridges are useful for sheltered water-crossings where it is not considered economically feasible to suspend a bridge from anchored piers; such bridges can require a section, elevated, or can be raised or removed, to allow waterborne traffic to pass. Pontoon bridges have been in use since ancient times and have been used to great advantage in many battles throughout history, among them the Battle of Garigliano, the Battle of Oudenarde, the crossing of the Rhine during World War II, during the Iran–Iraq War Operation Dawn 8. A pontoon bridge is a collection of specialized, shallow draft boats or floats, connected together to cross a river or canal, with a track or deck attached on top; the water buoyancy supports the boats, limiting the maximum load to the total and point buoyancy of the pontoons or boats.
The supporting boats or floats can be open or closed, temporary or permanent in installation, made of rubber, wood, or concrete. The decking may be temporary or permanent, constructed out of wood, modular metal, or asphalt or concrete over a metal frame; the spelling "ponton" in English dates from at least 1870. The use continued in references found in U. S. patents during the 1890s. It continued to be spelled in that fashion through World War II, when temporary floating bridges were used extensively throughout the European theatre. U. S. combat engineers pronounced the word "ponton" rather than "pontoon" and U. S. military manuals spelled it using a single'o'. The U. S. military differentiated between the bridge the floats used to provide buoyancy. The original word was derived from Latin ponto, from pons; when designing a pontoon bridge, the civil engineer must take into consideration the Archimedes' principle: Each pontoon can support a load equal to the mass of the water that it displaces. This load includes the mass of the pontoon itself.
If the maximum load of a bridge section is exceeded, one or more pontoons become submerged. Flexible connections have to allow for one section of the bridge to be weighted down more than the other parts; the roadway across the pontoons should be light, so as not to limit the carrying capacity of the pontoons. The connection of the bridge to shore requires the design of approaches that are not too steep, protect the bank from erosion and provide for movements of the bridge during changes of the water level. Floating bridges were constructed using wood. Pontoons were formed by lashing several barrels together, by rafts of timbers, or by using boats; each bridge section consisted of one or more pontoons, which were maneuvered into position and anchored underwater or on land. The pontoons were linked together using wooden stringers called balks; the balks were covered by a series of cross planks called chesses to form the road surface, the chesses were secured with side guard rails. A floating bridge can be built in a series of sections, starting from an anchored point on the shore.
Modern pontoon bridges use pre-fabricated floating structures. Most pontoon bridges are designed for temporary use, but bridges across water bodies with a constant water level can remain in place much longer. Hobart Bridge, a long pontoon bridge built 1943 in Hobart, was only replaced after 21 years; the fourth Galata Bridge that spans the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey was built in 1912 and operated for 80 years. Provisional and lightweight pontoon bridge are damaged; the bridge can be inundated when the load limit of the bridge is exceeded. The bridge can be induced to sway or oscillate in a hazardous manner from the swell, from a storm, a flood or a fast moving load. Ice or floating objects can accumulate on the pontoons, increasing the drag from river current and damaging the bridge. See below for floating pontoon failures and disasters. In ancient China, the Zhou Dynasty Chinese text of the Shi Jing records that King Wen of Zhou was the first to create a pontoon bridge in the 11th century BC.
However, the historian Joseph Needham has pointed out that in all scenarios, the temporary pontoon bridge was invented during the 9th or 8th century BC in China, as this part was a addition to the book. Although earlier temporary pontoon bridges had been made in China, the first secure and permanent ones in China came first during the Qin Dynasty; the Song Dynasty Chinese statesman Cao Cheng once wrote of early pontoon bridges in China: The Chhun Chhiu Hou Chuan says that in the 58th year of the Zhou King Nan, there was invented in the Qin State the floating bridge with which to cross rivers. But the Ta Ming ode in the Shih Ching says that he'joined boats and made of them a bridge' over the River Wei. Sun Yen comments that this shows that the boats were arranged in a row, like the beams with boards laid across them, just the same as the pontoon bridge of today. Tu Yu thought this.... Cheng Khang Chheng says that the Zhou people invented it and used it whenever they had occasion to do so, but the Qin people, to whom they handed it down, were the first to fasten it securely together.
Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly
Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly was a field marshal who commanded the Catholic League's forces in the Thirty Years' War. From 1620–31, he had an unmatched and demoralizing string of important victories against the Protestants, including White Mountain, Wimpfen, Höchst and the Conquest of the Palatinate, he destroyed a Danish army at Lutter and sacked the Protestant city of Magdeburg, which caused the death of some 20,000 of the cities inhabitants, both defenders and non-combatants, out of a total population of 25,000. Tilly was crushed at Breitenfeld in 1631 by the Swedish army of King Gustavus Adolphus. A Swedish cannonball took his life at Rain. Along with Duke Albrecht von Wallenstein of Friedland and Mecklenburg, he was one of two chief commanders of the Holy Roman Empire’s forces in the first half of the war. Johann Tserclaes was born in February 1559 in Castle Tilly, Walloon Brabant, now in Belgium the Spanish Netherlands. Johann Tserclaes was born into a devoutly Roman Catholic Brabantine family.
After this he joined in the Holy Roman Empire's campaign against the Ottoman Turks in Hungary and Transylvania as a mercenary in 1600 and through rapid promotion became a field marshal in only five years. When the Turkish Wars ended in 1606, he remained in the service of Rudolf II in Prague until he was appointed commander of the Catholic League forces by Bavaria under Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria in 1610; as commander of the forces of the Catholic League he fought against the Bohemian rebels following the Defenestration of Prague, by which time he had trained his soldiers in the Spanish Tercio system, which featured musketeers supported by deep ranks of pikemen. A force of 25,000 soldiers, including troops of both the Catholic League and the Emperor scored an important victory against Christian of Anhalt and Count Thurn at the decisive Battle of White Mountain west of Prague on 8 November 1620. Half of the enemy forces were captured, while the Catholic League lost only 700 men; this victory was vital in crushing resistance to the Emperor in Bohemia, as it allowed Prague to be captured several days later.
Next he turned west and marched through Germany, but was defeated at the Battle of Mingolsheim on 27 April 1622. He joined with the Spanish general Duke Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba – not to be confused with the famous Spanish general of the same name from the Italian Wars in Italy at the end of the 15th century – and was victorious at the Battle of Wimpfen against George Fredrick, Margrave of Baden-Durlach on 6 May, he was made a count for this victory. These three battles in two months allowed him to capture the city of Heidelberg following an eleven-week siege on 19 September. Christian the Younger of Brunswick, whom he had defeated at Höchst, raised another army, but again lost to him at the Battle of Stadtlohn, where 13,000 out of his army of 15,000 were lost, including fifty of his high-ranking officers. Together with the complete surrender of Bohemia in 1623, this ended all resistance in Germany; this caused King Christian IV of Denmark to enter the Thirty Years' War in 1625 to protect Protestantism, in a bid to make himself the primary leader of Northern Europe.
Count Tilly besieged and captured Münden on 30 May 1626, whereupon local and refugee Protestant ministers were thrown into the river Werra, but could not lay a siege to Kassel. Tilly fought the Danes at the Battle of Lutter on 26–27 August 1626, in which his disciplined infantry charged the enemy lines four times, breaking through; this led him to win decisively, destroying more than half the fleeing Danish army, uncharacteristic of the warfare of the time. Denmark was forced to sue for peace at the Treaty of Lübeck; this disrupted the balance of power in Europe resulting in Swedish involvement in 1630 under their redoubtable leader, the brilliant King and field general Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, trying to dominate the Baltic for the previous ten years in wars with Poland a continental power of note. While Gustavus Adolphus landed his army in Mecklenburg and was in Berlin, trying to make alliances with the leaders of Northern Germany, Tilly laid siege to the city of Magdeburg on the Elbe, which promised to support Sweden.
The siege began on 20 March 1631 and Tilly put his subordinate Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim in command while he campaigned elsewhere. After two months of laying siege, after the fall of Frankfurt an der Oder to the Swedes, Pappenheim convinced Tilly, who had brought reinforcements, to storm the city on 20 May with 40,000 men under the personal command of Pappenheim; the assault was successful and the walls were breached, but the commanders lost control of their soldiers. A massacre of the populace ensued in which 20,000 of the 25,000 inhabitants of the city perished by sword and the fire which destroyed most of the city one of the largest cities in Germany and about the size of Cologne or Hamburg; some historians debate how much responsibility he bore for what happened. His enemies blamed him, claiming the massacre was ordered and used it as justification to enact similar killings, but many historians consider it unlikely. Magdeburg was a
Martin Zeiler was a Baroque era German author. Zeiler's father was an exile from Upper Styria, forced to emigrate due to his protestant confession. Zeiler was schooled in Ulm, moving to Wittenberg in 1608 to study history, he worked several jobs as private notary. He lived in Ulm from 1629, working as inspector at local schools. Zeiler was productive as an author, meeting the template of the Baroque polyhistor; the Ulm city library lists 90 works authored by Zeiler. His productivity was recognized by his contemporaries. Zeiler is best known for his contribution to Matthäus Merian's Topographia Germaniae. See wikisource:de:Martin Zeiller François de Rosset: Theatrum tragicum... in die Teutsche Sprache transferirt durch M. Zeiller, hg. Martin Opitz. Danzig 1640 u.ö. Fidus achates, oder Getreuer Reisgefert. Ulm 1651 Historici, chronologici et geographi... quo vixerunt, et operibus... scripserunt. 2 Bde. Ulm 1652 100 Dialogi oder Gespräch von unterschiedlichen Sachen. Ulm 1653 Handbuch von allerley nutzlichen Erinerungen.
2 Bde. Ulm 1655 Topographia Germaniae Topographia Galliae Literature by and about Martin Zeiler in the German National Library catalogue Ulrich Gaier u.a.: Schwabenspiegel, Bd. 1, Ulm 2003, S. 496 Walter Brunner: Martin Zeiller – Ein Gelehrtenleben. Graz 1990 Walther Killy: Literaturlexikon: Autoren und Werke deutscher Sprache. Gütersloh. 1988–1991 Pictures and texts of Topographia Helvetiae, Rhaetiae et Valesiae by Matthaeus Merian et Martin Zeiller can be found in the database VIATIMAGES. Max von Waldberg, "Zeiller, Martin", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 44, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 782–784 Constantin von Wurzbach: "Zeiler, Martin". In: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich. Band 59. Verlag L. C
Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria
Charles Theodore reigned as Prince-elector and Count Palatine from 1742, as Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1742 and as prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria from 1777 to his death. He was a member of the House of a branch of the House of Wittelsbach. Charles Theodore was of the Wittelsbach house Palatinate-Sulzbach, his father was Johann Christian, who became Count Palatine of Sulzbach. His mother was Marie-Anne-Henriette-Leopoldine de La Tour d'Auvergne, Margravine of Bergen op Zoom, a grandniece of Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount of Turenne. Charles Theodore was educated in Mannheim. Charles Theodore was the Margrave of Bergen op Zoom from 1728 onwards, he succeeded his father as Count Palatine of Sulzbach in 1733 and inherited the Electoral Palatinate and the duchies of Jülich and Berg in 1742, with the death of Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine. To strengthen the union of all lines of the Wittelsbach dynasty Charles III Philip had organised a wedding on 17 January 1742 when his granddaughter Elizabeth Augusta was married to Charles Theodore and her sister Maria Anna to the Bavarian prince Clement.
As reigning Prince Elector Palatine, Charles Theodore won the hearts of his subjects by founding an academy of science, stocking up the museums' collections and supporting the arts. When Maximilian III Joseph of Bavaria died in 1777, Charles Theodore became Elector and Duke of Bavaria and moved to Munich. Charles Theodore did not take up his new title, he had many illegitimate children. However, these people could inherit neither that of the Palatine. Charles Theodore dreamed of resurrecting the Burgundian Empire of the Middle Ages. On 3 January 1778, shortly after the death of Max Joseph, Charles Theodore signed an agreement with Emperor Joseph II to exchange southern Bavaria for part of the Austrian Netherlands; the plan was opposed by Maria Anna Sophia of Saxony, the widow of Max Joseph, Charles Theodore's cousin Charles II August, Duke of Zweibrücken, the head of the House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld and next heir of Bavaria and the Palatinate. They were supported by Frederick II of Prussia, most of the German minor states.
The ensuing diplomatic crisis led to the War of the Bavarian Succession, ended by the Peace of Teschen. Charles Theodore accepted the Bavarian succession, but agreed that his illegitimate descendants could not inherit Bavaria. Austria acquired a part of Bavaria in the basin of the Inn river. Charles Theodore had only one son with his wife, Countess Elizabeth Augusta of Sulzbach, who died a day after birth, his wife died in 1794. In 1795, he married Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este, Joseph's niece. A second proposal to exchange Bavaria for the Austrian Netherlands in 1784 failed as Frederick II of Prussia initiated the Fürstenbund; when Charles Theodore died and the Electorate passed to his cousin, Max Joseph, Duke of Zweibrücken, the younger brother of Charles August, who had died in 1795. In 1989, Marvin E. Thomas in Karl Theodor and the Bavarian Succession, 1777–1778 argued that in fact Charles Theodore wanted to maintain possession of his new territory, as is shown in his diplomatic correspondence.
Thomas is the only scholar to produce such an analysis. It is more understood that Charles Theodore continued the despotic and expensive habits he had developed as Elector Palatine. Charles Theodore never became popular as a ruler in Bavaria according to his critic Lorenz von Westenrieder, he attempted, without success to exchange the ducal lands of Bavaria, for the Austrian Netherlands and a royal crown, he never managed to control the mounting social tensions in Bavaria. After a dispute with Munich's city council, he moved the electoral residence in 1788 to Mannheim but returned only one year later. In 1785, he appointed the American Loyalist exile Benjamin Thompson as his aide-de-camp and chamberlain. Over the next 11 years, Thompson reformed the army and many aspects of the state, rising to high ministerial rank with Charles Theodore's backing, becoming Count von Rumford. Charles Theodore is known for disbanding Adam Weishaupt's order of the Illuminati in 1785. In 1794, the armies of revolutionary France occupied the Duchy of Jülich, in 1795 they invaded the Palatinate, in 1796 marched towards Bavaria.
Charles Theodore begged Francis II for help. When he died of a stroke in Munich in 1799, the population in Munich celebrated for several days, he is buried in the crypt of the Theatinerkirche in Munich. Despite the mutual dislike and distrust between the Duke and his Bavarian subjects, Charles Theodore left a distinctive mark on the city of Munich: it was during his reign that the English Garden, Munich's largest park, was created, the city's old fortifications were dismantled to make place for a modern, expanding city. One of Munich's major squares, Karlsplatz, is named after Charles Theodore. Munich natives, however use that name, calling the square instead Stachus, after the pub "Beim Stachus", located there until construction work for Karlsplatz began because Charles Theodore, as noted above, never enjoyed the popularity in Bavaria that he enjoyed in the Palatinate. Charles Theodore was more interested in arts and philosophy than in politics. Historian Thomas Carlyle referred to him as a "poor idle creature, of purely egoistical, dilettante nature.
The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, or Electors for short, were the members of the electoral college that elected the Holy Roman Emperor. From the 13th century onwards, the Prince-Electors had the privilege of electing the Holy Roman Emperor who would receive the Papal coronation after assuming the titles of King in Germany and King of Italy. Charles V was the last to be a crowned Emperor. In practice, every emperor from 1440 onwards came from the Austrian House of Habsburg, the Electors ratified the Habsburg succession; the dignity of Elector carried great prestige and was considered to be second only to that of King or Emperor. The Electors had exclusive privileges that were not shared with the other princes of the Empire, they continued to hold their original titles alongside that of Elector; the heir apparent to a secular prince-elector was known as an electoral prince. The German element Kur- is based on the Middle High German irregular verb kiesen and is related etymologically to the English word choose.
In English, the "s"/"r" mix in the Germanic verb conjugation has been regularized to "s" throughout, while German retains the r in Kur-. There is a modern German verb küren which means'to choose' in a ceremonial sense. Fürst is German for'prince', but while the German language distinguishes between the head of a principality and the son of a monarch, English uses prince for both concepts. Fürst itself is related to English first and is thus the'foremost' person in his realm. Note that'prince' derives from Latin princeps, which carried the same meaning. Electors were reichsstände, they were, until the 18th century entitled to be addressed with the title Durchlaucht. In 1742, the electors became entitled to the superlative Durchläuchtigste, while other princes were promoted to Durchlaucht; as Imperial Estates, the electors enjoyed all the privileges of the other princes enjoying that status, including the right to enter into alliances, autonomy in relation to dynastic affairs and precedence over other subjects.
The Golden Bull had granted them the Privilegium de non appellando, which prevented their subjects from lodging an appeal to a higher Imperial court. However, while this privilege, some others, were automatically granted to Electors, they were not exclusive to them and many of the larger Imperial Estates were to be individually granted some or all those rights and privileges; the electors, like the other princes ruling States of the Empire, were members of the Imperial Diet, divided into three collegia: the Council of Electors, the Council of Princes, the Council of Cities. In addition to being members of the Council of Electors, several lay electors were therefore members of the Council of Princes as well by virtue of other territories they possessed. In many cases, the lay electors ruled numerous States of the Empire, therefore held several votes in the Council of Princes. In 1792, the King of Bohemia held three votes, the Elector of Bavaria six votes, the Elector of Brandenburg eight votes, the Elector of Hanover six votes.
Thus, of the hundred votes in the Council of Princes in 1792, twenty-three belonged to electors. The lay electors therefore exercised considerable influence, being members of the small Council of Electors and holding a significant number of votes in the Council of Princes; the assent of both bodies was required for important decisions affecting the structure of the Empire, such as the creation of new electorates or States of the Empire. In addition to voting by colleges or councils, the Imperial Diet voted on religious lines, as provided for by the Peace of Westphalia; the Archbishop of Mainz presided over the Catholic body, or corpus catholicorum, while the Elector of Saxony presided over the Protestant body, or corpus evangelicorum. The division into religious bodies was on the basis of the official religion of the state, not of its rulers, thus when the Electors of Saxony were Catholics during the eighteenth century, they continued to preside over the corpus evangelicorum, since the state of Saxony was Protestant.
The electors were summoned by the Archbishop of Mainz within one month of an Emperor's death, met within three months of being summoned. During the interregnum, imperial power was exercised by two imperial vicars; each vicar, in the words of the Golden Bull, was "the administrator of the empire itself, with the power of passing judgments, of presenting to ecclesiastical benefices, of collecting returns and revenues and investing with fiefs, of receiving oaths of fealty for and in the name of the holy empire". The Elector of Saxony was vicar in areas operating under Saxon law, while the Elector Palatine was vicar in the remainder of the Empire; the Elector of Bavaria replaced the Elector Palatine in 1623, but when the latter was granted a new electorate in 1648, there was a dispute between the two as to, vicar. In 1659, both purported to act as vicar; the two electors made a pact to act as joint vicars, but the Imperial Diet rejected the agreement. In 1711, while the Elector
Ezéchiel du Mas, Comte de Mélac
Ezéchiel du Mas, Comte de Mélac was a career soldier in the French army under King Louis XIV and war minister Louvois. He became notorious for mercilessly and brutally executing the French policy of devastating the enemy's lands rather than seeking major military engagements; the southwestern part of Germany—the Palatinate, the Margraviate of Baden, the Duchy of Württemberg—especially suffered from Mélac's execution of Louvois's order, "brûlez le Palatinat!". Under his command, numerous German towns and villages were set on fire and the livelihood of the population was destroyed. In present southwestern Germany, Mélac's name became a synonym for "murderer and arsonist"; as a lasting result, until today, "Mélac" has been turned into a common dog's name in this part of Germany. "Lackl" is a swearword common to the day in all of southern Germany and said to be derived from "Melac" as its diminutive. The General is considered the godfather of the French–German enmity that contributed to causing the two World Wars.
In contrast to the general German viewpoint, Saint-Simon in his famous Mémoires describes Mélac as an excellent soldier and a pleasant person to his friends and to his superior officers, albeit he admits that the general was sometimes of too fiery a temperament, to the occasional detriment of his military success, nettled by those whom he considered disrespectful towards him, that he had a "mania for making himself terrifying to the enemy." 1630: Born around that year in Sainte-Radegonde, about 15 kilometers southeast of Libourne in today's Département of Gironde. He must have joined the military at an early age. Sources are scarce, as his file in the French military archives of Vincennes, as well as the Mélac family archive, are "strangely lost".1664: Promoted to the rank of Lieutenant with a cavalry regiment in Portugal. 1666: Entrusted with the leadership of a company. 1672: Served in Flanders at the start of the Franco-Dutch War. 1675: Promoted to the rank of Maître de Camp de Cavalerie.
1677: Burned and sacked the town of Sittard, one and a half weeks after other French troops had done the same. Only 68 buildings and two monasteries survived. 1679: Promotion to the rank of Brigadier. 1686: Began service in the army of Maréchal Catinat in Savoy. 1688: In April, Mélac joined the Rhine army under the command of Maréchal Duras. 1688: Married Maréchal de Duras's daughter. 1688: In September, the Rhine army moved into the territory of the Palatinate without formal declaration of war, which began the Nine Years' War, pitting France against a wide coalition of European states, including Britain and the Holy Roman Empire. The French moved into the territory east of the Rhine and conquered the cities of Heilbronn and Mannheim and the stronghold Philippsburg. Mélac was stationed at the Imperial Town of Heilbronn under the command of Joseph de Montclar. Using Heilbronn as his base, Mélac devastated Southern Germany, including the Imperial Town of Donauwörth and Schorndorf. At the year's end he attacked Heidelberg, the capital of the Palatinate, many villages along the Neckar, including Ladenburg.
1689: On 16 February, executing a command of war minister Louvois, the French army under the command of de Mélac and the Comte de Tessé blew up Heidelberg Castle. On 8 March Mannheim was burnt. On, Worms and numerous villages west of the Rhine were devastated. East of the Rhine, Maulbronn, Baden-Baden, numerous other towns and villages met the same fate, but it is not known in detail how Mélac was directly involved in all these cases. In Pforzheim's case, Mélac was the commanding officer and thus directly responsible for the shelling of the town on 10 August and the devastating fire a few days later. There are reports that he raped the young daughter of a pastor in Esslingen. 1690: Promoted to Maréchal de camp. 1691: Mélac's wife died. 1692: On 20 September, ordered the former Benedictine St. Peter and St. Paul Monastery put to the torch to Hirsau. In spring, Mélac became the commander of the strategically important stronghold of Landau. From this base, he again brought terror to the surrounding areas, as far as the Rhine-Hesse and Württemberg areas.
In May, he participated in the final destruction of Heidelberg. While in Landau, his brutality did not subside. On one occasion, he exposed six naked prostitutes on the market square of Landau for two days, for which he received a reprimand from the royal court. Grim stories were told of French soldiers being shot. 1697: The Nine Years War was concluded with the Treaty of Ryswick. Mélac stayed on as stronghold commander of Landau. 1702: As part of the next major conflict France was involved in, the War of the Spanish Succession, the stronghold unde