Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of the Italian Peninsula and to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica. Sardinia is politically a region of Italy, whose official name is Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna, enjoys some degree of domestic autonomy granted by a specific Statute, it is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city, with Cagliari being the region's capital and its largest city. Sardinia's indigenous language and the other minority languages spoken on the island are recognized by the regional law and enjoy "equal dignity" with Italian. Due to the variety of its ecosystems, which include mountains, plains uninhabited territories, rocky coasts and long sandy beaches, the island has been defined metaphorically as a micro-continent. In the modern era, many travelers and writers have extolled the beauty of its untouched landscape, which houses the vestiges of the Nuragic civilization; the name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *srd- romanised as sardus.
It makes its first appearance on the Nora Stone, where the word Šrdn testifies to the name's existence when the Phoenician merchants first arrived. According to Timaeus, one of Plato's dialogues and its people as well might have been named after a legendary woman going by Sardò, born in Sardis, capital of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia. There has been speculation that identifies the ancient Nuragic Sards with the Sherden, one of the Sea Peoples, it is suggested that the name had a religious connotation from its use as the adjective for the ancient Sardinian mythological hero-god Sardus Pater, as well as being the stem of the adjective "sardonic". In Classical antiquity, Sardinia was called a number of names besides Sardò or Sardinia, like Ichnusa and Argirofleps. Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 24,100 square kilometres, it is situated between 8 ° 8' and 9 ° 50' east longitude. To the west of Sardinia is the Sea of Sardinia, a unit of the Mediterranean Sea.
The nearest land masses are the island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Tunisia, the Balearic Islands, Provence. The Tyrrhenian Sea portion of the Mediterranean Sea is directly to the east of Sardinia between the Sardinian east coast and the west coast of the Italian mainland peninsula; the Strait of Bonifacio is directly north of Sardinia and separates Sardinia from the French island of Corsica. The coasts of Sardinia are high and rocky, with long straight stretches of coastline, many outstanding headlands, a few wide, deep bays, many inlets and with various smaller islands off the coast; the island has an ancient geoformation and, unlike Sicily and mainland Italy, is not earthquake-prone. Its rocks date in fact from the Palaeozoic Era. Due to long erosion processes, the island's highlands, formed of granite, trachyte, basalt and dolomite limestone, average at between 300 to 1,000 metres; the highest peak is part of the Gennargentu Ranges in the centre of the island. Other mountain chains are Monte Limbara in the northeast, the Chain of Marghine and Goceano running crosswise for 40 kilometres towards the north, the Monte Albo, the Sette Fratelli Range in the southeast, the Sulcis Mountains and the Monte Linas.
The island's ranges and plateaux are separated by wide alluvial valleys and flatlands, the main ones being the Campidano in the southwest between Oristano and Cagliari and the Nurra in the northwest. Sardinia has few major rivers, the largest being the Tirso, 151 km long, which flows into the Sea of Sardinia, the Coghinas and the Flumendosa. There are 54 artificial dams that supply water and electricity; the main ones are Lake Coghinas. The only natural freshwater lake is Lago di Baratz. A number of large, salt-water lagoons and pools are located along the 1,850 km of the coastline; the climate of the island is variable from area to area, due to several factors including the extension in latitude and the elevation. It can be classified in two different macrobioclimates, one macrobioclimatic variant, called Submediterranean, four classes of continentality, eight thermotypic horizons and seven ombrotypic horizons, resulting in a combination of 43 different isobioclimates. During the year there is a major concentration
Crown of Aragon
The Crown of Aragon was a composite monarchy nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Corsica, Malta, Southern Italy and parts of Greece; the component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name.
In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles in the War of the Spanish Succession. Formally, the political center of the Crown of Aragon was Zaragoza, where kings were crowned at La Seo Cathedral. The'de facto' capital and leading cultural and economic centre of the Crown of Aragon was Barcelona, followed by Valencia. Palma was an additional important city and seaport; the Crown of Aragon included the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Valencia, the Kingdom of Majorca, the Kingdom of Sicily, the Kingdom of Naples and Kingdom of Sardinia. For brief periods the Crown of Aragon controlled Montpellier, Provence and the twin Duchy of Athens and Neopatras in Latin Greece.
The countries that are today known as Spain and Portugal spent the Middle Ages after 722 in an intermittent struggle called the Reconquista. This struggle pitted the northern Christian kingdoms against the Islamic taifa petty kingdoms of the South and against each other. In the Late Middle Ages, the expansion of the Aragonese Crown southwards met with the Castilian advance eastward in the region of Murcia. Afterward, the Aragonese Crown focused on the Mediterranean, acting as far as Greece and Barbary, whereas Portugal, which completed its Reconquista in 1249, would focus on the Atlantic Ocean. Mercenaries from the territories in the Crown, known as almogàvers participated in the creation of this Mediterranean "empire", found employment in countries all across southern Europe; the Crown of Aragon has been considered an empire which ruled in the Mediterranean for hundreds of years, with the power to set rules over the entire sea. It was indeed, at its height, one of the major powers in Europe.
However, its different territories were only connected through the person of the monarch, an aspect of empire seen as early as Achaemenid Persia. A modern historian, Juan de Contreras y Lopez de Ayala, Marqués de Lozoya described the Crown of Aragon as being more like a confederacy than a centralised kingdom, let alone an empire. Nor did official documents refer to it as an empire; the Crown of Aragon originated in 1137, when the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona merged by dynastic union upon the marriage of Petronilla of Aragon and Raymond Berenguer IV of Barcelona. This union respected the existing parliaments of both territories; the combined state was known as Regno, Dominio et Corona Aragonum et Catalonie, as Corona Regum Aragoniae, Corona Aragonum or Aragon. This was due to the reduction of Catalan influence, the renunciation of the family rights of the counts of Barcelona in Occitania, the extinction of the House of Barcelona in 1410; the monarchs denominated themselves de Aragon, Aragon became prominent as an Iberian kingdom linked to the House of Jiménez which ruled over Navarre, Castile and Galicia and Aragon.
Petronilla's father King Ramiro, "The Monk", raised in the Saint Pons de Thomières Monastery, Viscounty of Béziers as a Benedictine monk was the youngest of three brothers. His brothers Peter I and Alfonso I El Batallador had bravely fought against Castile for hegemony in the Iberian peninsula. After the death of Alfonso I, the Aragonese nobility that campaigned close him feared being overwhelmed by the influence of Castile, and so, Ramiro was forced to proclaim himself King of Aragon. He married Agnes, sister of the Duke of Aquitaine and betrothed his only daughter to Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona, member of o
Valencian referred to as Southern Catalan, is a dialect of the Catalan language spoken in the Valencian Community, where it is an official language, in the El Carche comarca in Murcia, where it has no official recognition. Besides, it is spoken in the south of the Terres de l'Ebre and in the south of La Franja in Aragon, in its transitional variety; the denominations "Valencian" or "Valencian language" are used traditionally and as a glottonym exclusively in the Valencian Community, to refer not only to the dialect spoken in the region, but to refer to the totality of the Catalan language. However, outside this territory the use of this denomination is null, it is considered the Valencian Community's own language according to the region's 1982 Statute of Autonomy and the Spanish Constitution. According to philological studies, the varieties of this language spoken in the Valencian Community and El Carxe cannot be considered a dialect restricted to these borders: the several dialects of Valencian belong to the Western group of Catalan dialects.
Valencian, as a variety of the Catalan language, displays transitional features between Ibero-Romance languages and Gallo-Romance languages. Its similarity with Occitan has led many authors to group it under the Occitano-Romance languages. There is some controversy within the Valencian Community regarding its status as a glottonym or as a language on its own among certain political sectors such as blaverism and Spanish nationalism. According to a study carried out by the Generalitat Valenciana in 2014, scarcely more than a half people in the Valencian Community consider it as a separate language, different from Catalan. However, according to the same study, most of Valencians with higher studies say that it is the same language. According to the 2006 Statute of Autonomy Valencian is regulated by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, by means of the Normes de Castelló. Due to not having been recognized for a long time and the considerable immigration coming from Andalusia but from other areas of Spain where Spanish is spoken, the number of speakers has decreased, the influence of Spanish has led to the adoption of a huge amount of loanwords.
Some of the most important works of Catalan literature in Valencia experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, Ausiàs March's poetry; the first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor; the official status of Valencian is regulated by the Spanish Constitution and the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, together with the Law of Use and Education of Valencian. Article 6 of the Valencian Statute of Autonomy sets the legal status of Valencian, providing that: The official language of the Valencian Community is Valencian. Valencian is official within the Valencian Community, along with Spanish, the official language nationwide. Everyone shall have the right to know it and use it, receive education in Valencian. No one can be discriminated against by reason of their language.
Special protection and respect shall be given to the recuperation of Valencian. The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua shall be the normative institution of the Valencian language; the Law of Use and Education of Valencian develops this framework, providing for implementation of a bilingual educational system, regulating the use of Valencian in the public administration and judiciary system, where citizens can use it when acting before both. Valencian is recognized under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages as "Valencian". Valencian is not spoken all over the Valencian Community. A quarter of its territory, equivalent to 10% of the population, is traditionally Castilian-speaking only, whereas Valencian is spoken to varying degrees elsewhere. Additionally, it is spoken by a reduced number of people in Carche, a rural area in the Region of Murcia adjoining the Valencian Community. Although the Valencian language was an important part of the history of this zone, nowadays only about 600 people are able to speak Valencian in the area of Carche.
In 2010 the Generalitat Valenciana published a study and Social use of Valencian, which included a survey sampling more than 6,600 people in the provinces of Castellón, Alicante. The survey collected the answers of respondents and did not include any testing or verification; the results were: Valencian was the language "always or most used": at home: 31.6% with friends: 28.0% in internal business relations: 24.7%For ability: 48.5% answered they speak Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" 26.2% answered they write Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" The survey shows that, although Valencian is still the common language in many areas in the Valencian Community, where more than half of the Valencian population are able to speak it, most Valencians do not speak in Valencian in their
The dialects of the Catalan language feature a relative uniformity when compared to other Romance languages. Mutual intelligibility between its dialects is high, estimates ranging from 90% to 95%; the only exception is the isolated idiosyncratic Alguerese dialect. In 1861, linguist Manuel Milà i Fontanals split Catalan into two main dialects: Eastern; the most obvious phonetic difference lies in the treatment of unstressed a and e, which have merged to /ə/ in Eastern dialects, but remain distinct as /a/ and /e/ in Western dialects. There are a few other differences in pronunciation, verbal morphology, vocabulary. Western Catalan comprises the two dialects of Northwestern Valencian; each dialect can be further subdivided in several subdialects. There are two spoken standards for the language based on the Eastern and Western dialects respectively: In Catalonia, the Institut d'Estudis Catalans regulates the spoken standard based on Central Catalan, which has the highest number of speakers and is spoken in the densely populated regions of the Barcelona province, the eastern half of the province of Tarragona, most of the province of Girona.
In the Valencian Community, the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua adapts the Fabran guidelines to the Valencian variety, regulates an alternative spoken standard based on the Southern Valencian subdialect. Despite having fewer speakers than the Central Valencian subdialect, Southern Valencian has been less influenced by Spanish, it is spoken in the South and North of the València and Alacant provinces in cities such as Gandia, Alcoi and Xàtiva. Valencians are only surpassed in number of Catalan-speakers by Catalans themselves, representing a third of the whole Catalan-speaking population. Therefore, in the context of linguistic conflict and respect towards the dual standard, as well as the dual Catalan–Valencian denomination, pacifies the tense central–periphery relations between Catalonia and the Valencian coumunity. Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, a common feature in Western Romance, except Spanish and Aragonese.
Balearic has instances of stressed /ə/. Dialects differ in the different degrees of vowel reduction, the incidence of the pair /ɛ e/. In Eastern Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to three: /a e ɛ/ →. There are a few instances of unreduced, in some words. Alguerese has lowered to. In Majorcan, unstressed vowels reduce to four: /a e ɛ/ follow the Eastern Catalan reduction pattern. In Western Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to five: /e ɛ/ →; this reduction pattern, inherited from Proto-Romance, is found in Italian and Portuguese. Some Western dialects present further vowel harmony in some cases. Central and Balearic differ in the lexical incidence of stressed /e/ and /ɛ/. Words with /ɛ/ in central Catalan correspond to /ə/ in Balearic and /e/ in Western Catalan. Words with /e/ in Balearic always have /e/ in central and western Catalan as well; as a result, Western Catalan has a much higher incidence of /e/. In verbs, the 1st person present indicative ending is -e, or -o. E.g. Parle, sent. In verbs, the 1st person present indicative ending is - - i or ∅ in all conjugations.
E.g. parlo, parli. In verbs, the inchoative desinences are -isc/-ixo, -ix, -ixen, -isca. In verbs, the inchoative desinences are - - eix, - eixen, - eixi. In nouns and adjectives, maintenance of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words. E.g. Hòmens'men', jóvens'youth'. In nouns and adjectives, loss of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words. E.g. Homes'men', joves'youth'. Despite its relative lexical unity, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan show some differences in word choices. Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. Central Catalan acts as an innovative element. Carbonell, Joan F.. "Catalan". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0. Feldhausen, Ingo. Sentential Form and Prosodic Structure of Catalan. John Benjamins B. V. ISBN 978 90 272 5551 8. Wheeler, Max; the Phonology of Catalan. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7. Costa Carreras, Joan; the Architect of Modern Catalan: Selected Writings/Pompeu Fabra. Instutut d'Estudis Catalans & Universitat Pompeu Fabra & Jonh Benjamins B. V. ISBN 978 90 272 3264 9. Moll, Francesc de B.. Gramàtica Històrica Catalana. Universitat de València. ISBN 978-84-370-6412-3. Recasens, Daniel. Fonètica descriptiva del català: assaig de caracterització de la pronúncia del vocalisme i el consonantisme català al segle XX. Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans. ISBN 9788472833128. Melchor, Vicent de. El catalán: una lengua de Europa para compartir. Bellaterra: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. ISBN 84-490-2299-1. Ferrater. "Català". Enciclopèdia Catalana. 4. Barcelona: Enciclopèdia Catalana. Pp. 628–639. ISBN 84-85-194-04-7
Institut Ramon Llull
The Institut Ramon Llull is a Catalan organization constituted in 2002 in order to "promote Catalan language and culture internationally". Created in 2002, it is a consortium based in Barcelona that -in 2018- comprises the Generalitat de Catalunya, Balearic Islands Government and the Barcelona City Council, its mission is the promotion of Catalan language and culture abroad, its Director since September 2018 is Iolanda Batallé. The institute constitutes the Ramon Llull Foundation together with other political institutions from the Països Catalans. Both the institute and the foundation are named after Ramon Llull, a Majorcan medieval writer and philosopher, considered the first notable writer in Catalan language; the Ramon Llull Institute's main objective is to promote Catalan language and culture abroad, in all its variants. In order to achieve its mission, IRL carries out several activities including promoting the establishment of Catalan language classes in educational institutions beyond its natural linguistic domain, holding certifications tests for students of Catalan, promoting Catalan literature by endorsing translations into different languages, promoting the works of Catalan artist, performers and researchers.
IRL's activities are coordinated by three main departments: Area of Creation Department Area of Literature and Humanities Department Area of Language and Universities On 27 November 2004, the President of the Catalan government, Pasqual Maragall inaugurated the International Book Fair at Guadalajara, which presented the "Catalan Culture" its "yearly guest of honor", with a total attendance of 450.000. On 10 October 2007, "Catalan Culture" was the guest of honor of the Frankfurt Book Fair; the government of Andorra collaborated with IRL in this event before the creation of FRL. The main resources of this institution are the ones allocated by its participant regions for this purpose. Instituto Cervantes Institut Ramon Llull official website
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips; the term is restricted to consonants. When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded; the most common labialized consonants are labialized velars. Most other labialized sounds have simultaneous velarization, the process may be more called labio-velarization. In phonology, labialization may refer to a type of assimilation process. Labialization is the most widespread secondary articulation in the world's languages, it is phonemically contrastive in Northwest Caucasian and Salishan language families, among others. This contrast is reconstructed for Proto-Indo-European, the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. American English has three degrees of labialization: tight rounded, slight rounded, unrounded, which in vowels is sometimes called'spread'; these secondary articulations are not universal. For example, French shares the English slight rounding of /ʃ/, /ʒ/ while Russian does not have slight rounding in its postalveolar fricatives.
A few languages, including Arrernte and Mba, have contrastive labialized forms for all of their consonants. Out of 706 language inventories surveyed by Ruhlen, labialization occurred most with velar and uvular segments and least with dental and alveolar segments. With non-dorsal consonants, labialization may include velarization as well. Labialization is not restricted to lip-rounding; the following articulations have either been described as labialization, or been found as allophonic realizations of prototypical labialization: Labiodental frication, found in Abkhaz Complete bilabial closure, found in Abkhaz and Ubykh "Labialization" without noticeable rounding of the lips, found in the Iroquoian languages. It may be. Rounding without velarization, found in Shona and in the Bzyb dialect of Abkhaz. Eastern Arrernte has labialization at all manners of articulation. Marshallese has labialization at all places of articulation except for coronal obstruents. In North America, languages from a number of families have sounds that sound labialized without participation of the lips.
See Tillamook language for an example. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, labialization of velar consonants is indicated with a raised w modifier, as in /kʷ/. There are diacritics to indicate greater or lesser degrees of rounding; these are used with vowels, but may occur with consonants. For example, in the Athabaskan language Hupa, voiceless velar fricatives distinguish three degrees of labialization, transcribed either /x/, /x̹/, /xʷ/ or /x/, /x̜ʷ/, /xʷ/; the extensions to the IPA has two additional symbols for degrees of rounding: Spread and open-rounded. It has a symbol for labiodentalized sounds. If precision is desired, the Abkhaz and Ubykh articulations may be transcribed with the appropriate fricative or trill raised as a diacritic:. For simple labialization, Ladefoged & Maddieson resurrected an old IPA symbol, which would be placed above a letter with a descender such as ɡ. However, their chief example is Shona sv and zv, which they transcribe /s̫/ and /z̫/ but which seem to be whistled sibilants, without being labialized.
Another possibility is to use the IPA diacritic for rounding, distinguishing for example the labialization in English soon and swoon. The open rounding of English /ʃ/ is unvelarized. Labialization refers to a specific type of assimilatory process where a given sound become labialized due to the influence of neighboring labial sounds. For example, /k/ may become /kʷ/ in the environment of /o/, or /a/ may become /o/ in the environment of /p/ or /kʷ/. In the Northwest Caucasian languages as well as some Australian languages rounding has shifted from the vowels to the consonants, producing a wide range of labialized consonants and leaving in some cases only two phonemic vowels; this appears to have been the case in Eastern Arrernte, for example. The labial vowel sounds still remain, but only as allophones next to the now-labial consonant sounds. Labialized voiceless alveolar stop labialized voiced alveolar stop labialized voiceless velar stop labialized voiced velar stop ( labialized voiceless uvular stop ( labialized pharyngealized voiceless uvular stop labialized voiced uvular stop ( labialized glottal stop ( labialized voiceless bilabial stop ( labialized voiced bilabial stop ( labialized prenasalized voiced bilabial plosive (in Tamamb