American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
"Silent Night" is a popular Christmas carol, composed in 1818 by Franz Xaver Gruber to lyrics by Joseph Mohr in the small town of Oberndorf bei Salzburg, Austria. It was declared an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in 2011; the song has been recorded by a large number of singers across many music genres. The version sung by Bing Crosby is the third best-selling single of all-time; the song was first performed on Christmas Eve 1818 at St Nicholas parish church in Oberndorf, a village in the Austrian Empire on the Salzach river in present-day Austria. A young priest, Father Joseph Mohr, had come to Oberndorf the year before, he had written the lyrics of the song "Stille Nacht" in 1816 at Mariapfarr, the hometown of his father in the Salzburg Lungau region, where Joseph had worked as a co-adjutor. The melody was composed by Franz Xaver Gruber and organist in the nearby village of Arnsdorf. Before Christmas Eve, Mohr brought the words to Gruber and asked him to compose a melody and guitar accompaniment for the Christmas Eve mass, after river flooding had damaged the church organ.
The church was destroyed by repeated flooding and replaced with the Silent-Night-Chapel. It is unknown what prompted him to create a new carol. According to Gruber, Karl Mauracher, an organ builder who serviced the instrument at the Obendorf church, was enamoured with the song, took the composition home with him to the Zillertal. From there, two travelling families of folk singers, the Strassers and the Rainers, included the tune in their shows; the Rainers were singing it around Christmas 1819, once performed it for an audience that included Franz I of Austria and Alexander I of Russia, as well as making the first performance of the song in the U. S. in New York City in 1839. By the 1840s the song was well known in Lower Saxony and was reported to be a favourite of Frederick William IV of Prussia. During this period, the melody changed to become the version, played today. Over the years, because the original manuscript had been lost, Mohr's name was forgotten and although Gruber was known to be the composer, many people assumed the melody was composed by a famous composer, it was variously attributed to Haydn, Mozart, or Beethoven.
However, a manuscript was discovered in 1995 in Mohr's handwriting and dated by researchers as c. 1820. It states that Mohr wrote the words in 1816 when he was assigned to a pilgrim church in Mariapfarr and shows that the music was composed by Gruber in 1818; this is the only one in Mohr's handwriting. The first edition was published by Friese in 1833 in a collection of Four Genuine Tyrolean Songs, with the following musical text: The contemporary version, as in the choral example below, is: In 1859, the Episcopal priest John Freeman Young serving at Trinity Church, New York City and published the English translation, most sung today, translated from three of Mohr's original six verses; the version of the melody, used today is a slow, meditative lullaby or pastorale, differing from Gruber's original, a "moderato" tune in 68 time and siciliana rhythm. Today, the lyrics and melody are in the public domain, although newer translations are not. In 1998 the Silent Night Museum in Salzburg commissioned a new English translation by Bettina Klein of Mohr's German lyrics.
Whenever possible, Klein leaves the Young translation unchanged, but Klein varies markedly. For example, Nur das traute hochheilige Paar, Holder Knabe im lockigen Haar is translated by Young: "Round yon Virgin mother and child, Holy infant so tender and mild" whereas Klein rewords it: "Round yon godly tender pair, Holy infant with curly hair", a translation closer to the original; the carol has been translated into about 140 languages. Max Reger quotes the tune in the Christmas section of his organ pieces Sieben Stücke, Op. 145. Alfred Schnittke composed an arrangement of "Stille Nacht" for violin and piano in 1978, as a holiday greeting for violinist Gidon Kremer. Due to its dissonant and nightmarish character, the miniature caused a scandal in Austria. Several theatrical and television films depict. Most of them however are based on a spurious legend about the organ breaking down at the church in Oberndorf, which appeared in a fictional story published in the U. S. in the 1930s. The Legend of Silent Night TV film directed by Daniel Mann Silent Night, Holy Night animated short film by Hanna-Barbera.
Silent Mouse television special directed and produced by Robin Crichton and narrated by Lynn Redgrave. Buster & Chauncey's Silent Night direct-to-video animated featurette Silent Night directed by Christian Vuissa The First Silent Night, documentary narrated by Simon Callow Song of peace “Silent Night” as a message of peace Translation of all six verses of the German original Free arrangements for piano and voice from Cantorion.org Silent Night Chapel, origin of song Schnittke's version on YouTube
Francis P. Fleming
Francis Philip Fleming was an American politician and the 15th Governor of Florida from 1889 to 1893. Fleming was strong supporter of segregation and an opponent of civil rights for blacks. Fleming was a Confederate lawyer before he became governor. Fleming was born in Panama Park in Florida, he spent his early years with his parents, Lewis Fleming and his second wife Margaret Seton, on their St. Johns River plantation, "Hibernia"; the plantation narrowly escaped destruction at the hands of the Independent Battalion, Massachusetts Cavalry in mid-April 1864 when Colonel Guy V. Henry, a relative of the Fleming family, ordered it spared. During the American Civil War, Fleming served the Confederate cause by enlisting as a private in the 2nd Florida Regiment and received a battlefield promotion to first lieutenant, subsequently to the rank of captain. After being wounded, Fleming returned to Florida and enlisted new volunteers, commanding a volunteer company at the Battle of Natural Bridge at St.
Marks on March 6, 1865. By the end of the war, Fleming had served under four generals: John Magruder, Joseph Johnston, John Bell Hood, Robert E. Lee. After the war, Francis Fleming studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1868, becoming a partner in the firm of Fleming and Daniel Fleming and Fleming. In 1871, he married Floride Lydia Pearson, the daughter of Florida Supreme Court justice Bird M. Pearson. Together the couple had three children: Francis Philip Jr. Elizabeth Fleming, Charles Seton. Francis P. Fleming authored a book memorializing his brother, titled The Florida Troops/A Memoir of Captain C. Seton Fleming C. S. A. Originally published by Times-Union Publishing House, Florida, 1884, its preface includes: "The preparation of the following pages was not commenced with the design of publication. Original copies are quite rare. Fleming entered politics, became the fifteenth Governor of Florida on January 8, 1889, serving until January 3, 1893, the sole term provided by state law at that time.
Fleming, a segregationist, Southern nationalist, partisan Democrat, sought to limit the power of the carpetbagger- and blacks-dominated Republican Party. Fleming signed into law restrictive poll taxes and "literacy" tests designed to limit the voting rights of blacks and carpetbaggers not protected by the grandfather clause. Fleming removed from office Florida's only black judge, James Dean of Monroe County, because he had married a white man to a black woman, an action which violated the Florida Constitution. Other notable events during Fleming's term include: The creation of a state Board of Health to stop a yellow fever epidemic, sweeping the state. Fleming advocated adding a red saltire, or diagonal cross, to the Florida flag, in order to distinguish it from a flag of surrender; this proposal was adopted in 1900 by a statewide referendum. Fleming began the tradition of having an official portrait painted and hung in the Florida State Capitol. After he left office, Fleming served on the board of trustees of the new Florida Old Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Home.
On December 20, 1908, Fleming died following a long illness. He is buried at the Old City Cemetery in Jacksonville. Francis P. Fleming was his second wife, Margaret Seton. Fleming Island, Florida (an un-incorporated community in between Orange Park and Green Cove Springs in Clay County, Florida was part of the Fleming family's Spanish Land Grants; the area has since retained the name Fleming Island. The former governor and his wife, are buried in The Old City Cemetery, Florida. University Athletic Field, the original football facility at the University of Florida, was renamed Fleming Field in 1915 at the urging of the late governor's son, Francis P. Fleming Jr. who served on the university's Board of Control, was an alumnus of the class of 1922. The venue was replaced by much larger Florida Field in 1930, but the grassy area to the north of the current stadium is still known as Fleming Field. Fleming Biography Biography from Florida Department of State, Office of Cultural and Historical Programs Buccellato, Robert.
"Florida Governors Lasting Legacies." South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. 2015 Fleming Family Letters A collection of 113 letters and other writings of Francis P. Fleming and the Fleming Family from 1879 to 1930. Compiled by the University of North Florida. Francis P. Fleming at Find a Grave
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States. The seat of the eponymous county, it is on Lake Michigan's western shore. Ranked by its estimated 2014 population, Milwaukee was the 31st largest city in the United States; the city's estimated population in 2017 was 595,351. Milwaukee is the main cultural and economic center of the Milwaukee metropolitan area which had a population of 2,043,904 in the 2014 census estimate, it is the second-most densely populated metropolitan area in the Midwest, surpassed only by Chicago. Milwaukee is considered a Gamma global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network with a regional GDP of over $105 billion; the first Europeans to pass through the area were French Catholic Jesuit missionaries, who were ministering to Native Americans, fur traders. In 1818, the French Canadian explorer Solomon Juneau settled in the area, in 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring towns to incorporate as the city of Milwaukee.
Large numbers of German immigrants arrived during the late 1840s, after the German revolutions, with Poles and other eastern European immigrants arriving in the following decades. Milwaukee is known for its brewing traditions, begun with the German immigrants. Beginning in the early 21st century, the city has been undergoing its largest construction boom since the 1960s. Major new additions to the city in the past two decades include the Milwaukee Riverwalk, the Wisconsin Center, Miller Park, the Milwaukee Streetcar, an expansion to the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Pier Wisconsin, as well as major renovations to the UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena; the Fiserv Forum opened in late 2018. The name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word millioke, meaning "good", "beautiful" and "pleasant land" or "gathering place "; the name has a less pleasant connotation in the Menominee language, where it is called Māēnāēwah, "some misfortune happens". Indigenous cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years.
The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the historic Menominee, Mascouten, Sauk and Ojibwe. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact. In the second half of the 18th century, the Native Americans living near Milwaukee played a role in all the major European wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far Michigan" joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela. In the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans around Milwaukee were some of the few groups to ally with the rebel Continentals. After the Revolutionary War, the Native Americans fought the United States in the Northwest Indian War as part of the Council of Three Fires. During the War of 1812, they held a council in Milwaukee in June 1812, which resulted in their decision to attack Chicago in retaliation against American expansion.
This resulted in the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the only known armed conflict in the Chicago area. This battle convinced the American government that the Native Americans had to be removed from their land. After being attacked in the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Native Americans in Milwaukee signed the Treaty of Chicago with the United States in 1833. In exchange for their ceding their lands in the area, they were to receive monetary payments and lands west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. Europeans had arrived in the Milwaukee area prior to the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 18th centuries. Alexis Laframboise, in 1785, coming from Michilimackinac settled a trading post. Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Mahn-a-waukie and Milwaucki, in efforts to transliterate the native terms. For many years, printed records gave the name as "Milwaukie". One story of Milwaukee's name says, ne day during the thirties of the last century a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, Milwaukee it has remained until this day.
The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted. Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau was the first of the three to come to the area, in 1818, he founded. In competition with Juneau, Byron Kilbourn established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River, he ensured. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or the river's east side was uninhabited and thus undesirable; the third prominent developer was George H. Walker, he claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area became known as Walker's Point; the first large wave of settlement to the areas that would become Milwaukee County and the City of Milwaukee began in 1835, following removal of the tribes in the Co
Alice Elizabeth Nunn was an American film and theatre actress. She was born in Jacksonville and died at her apartment in West Hollywood, California. Although she played many roles across her 31-year career, she is remembered for her role as Large Marge, the scary truck driver, in Tim Burton's 1985 film Pee-wee's Big Adventure, number 5 on the IFC list of the 25 scariest moments in non-horror film history. Alice Nunn was born in Jacksonville in 1927, her parents were N. G. Nunn and Alice Bush, she showed an early interest in the performing arts and took part in school productions of My Sister Eileen. She studied at School of Fine Arts. Subsequently she attended the American Theater Wing, she did some radio work and she got an acting part in New Faces of 1956. She played in the theatre alongside Shelley Berman and Nancy Walker, she became a character actress and first appeared on television in episodes of Petticoat Junction...1967's episode "Shoplifter at the Shady Rest", 1968's episode "Mae's Helping Hand", as well as 1969's episodes "The Other Woman" and "Kathy Joe's First Birthday Party".
She went on to appear in numerous sitcoms such as Camp Runamuck where she played Mahala May Gruenecker, the head counselor of Camp Divine, the chief opponent of Commander Wivenhoe played by series star Arch Johnson. In her sitcom appearances during the 1960s, Nunn played strong-willed and edgy women but in a humorous vein. Nunn's first film appearance was in 1971 in Johnny Got His Gun, where she played the role of a nurse, she was a regular cast member of the Tony Orlando and Dawn variety show and played small parts in films such as the "Fat Lady" in Mame in 1974 and Airport 1975 where she appeared as the "Passenger with a Dog". In 1978, she appeared. In 1980, she played the role of Duffy the Cook in Alan Beattie's slasher/mystery Delusion, with Patricia Pearcy and Joseph Cotten. In 1981, she played the role of the maid Helga in Mommie Dearest, her most memorable role was as Large Marge, a truck driver who frightens Pee-wee Herman in the 1985 film Pee-wee's Big Adventure, providing one of the scariest moments in non-horror film history.
In the 1986 film Trick or Treat, she played Mrs. Sylvia Cavell, in 1987, she appeared in Who's That Girl with Madonna, her last role was that of Nurse Palmer in the 1987 film Three O'Clock High. In 1988, Nunn died at her apartment in West Hollywood, California, of a heart attack at age 60. Alice Nunn on IMDb Alice Nunn at the TCM Movie Database Alice Nunn at AllMovie
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana
Joseph Finegan, sometimes Finnegan, was an Irish-born American businessman and brigadier general for the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. From 1862 to 1864 he commanded Confederate forces operating in Middle and East Florida leading the Confederate victory at the Battle of Olustee, the state's only major battle, he subsequently led the Florida Brigade in the Army of Northern Virginia until near the end of the war. Before the war, Finegan was a politician, lumber mill operator, slave owner, railroad builder, he returned to business after the war, worked as a cotton broker. Finegan was born November 1814 at Clones in County Monaghan, Ireland, he came to Florida in the 1830s, first establishing a sawmill at Jacksonville and a law practice at Fernandina. At the latter place, he became the business partner of David Levy Yulee and began construction of the Florida Railroad to speed transportation of goods and people from the new state's east coast to the Gulf of Mexico. Finegan's successes are attributable to his first marriage on July 28, 1842, to the widow Rebecca Smith Travers.
Her sister Mary Martha Smith was the wife of Florida's territorial governor Robert Raymond Reid, an appointee of President Martin Van Buren. At a courthouse auction in 1849, Finegan paid just forty dollars for five miles of shoreline along Lake Monroe. In 1852, he was a member of the Committee of Vigilance and Safety of Florida. By the outbreak of the American Civil War, Finegan had built his family a forty-room mansion in Fernandina, bounded by 11th and 12th Streets and Broome and Calhoun Avenues, the site of the modern Atlantic Elementary School, his family included his three stepdaughters Maria and Martha Travers. At Florida's secession convention, Finegan represented Nassau County alongside James G. Cooper. In April 1862, Finegan assumed command of Middle and East Florida from Brigadier General James H. Trapier. Soon thereafter, he suffered some embarrassment surrounding the wreck of the blockade runner Kate at Mosquito Inlet, her cargo of rifles, medical supplies and shoes was plundered by civilians.
Attempts to recover these items took months. Most of the rifles were found, but the other supplies were never recovered. In 1862, recognizing the importance of Florida beef to the Confederate cause, Finegan gave cattle baron Jacob Summerlin permission to select thirty men from the state troops under his command to assist in rounding up herds to drive north. At this time, the principal Confederate military post in east Florida was dubbed "Camp Finegan" to honor the state's highest-ranking officer, it was about seven miles west of Jacksonville, south of the rail line near modern Marietta. In 1863, Finegan complained of the large quantity of rum making its way from the West Indies into Florida. Smugglers were buying it in Cuba for a mere seventeen cents per gallon, only to sell it in the blockaded state for twenty-five dollars per gallon, he urged Governor John Milton to confiscate the "vile article" and destroy it before it could impact army and civilian morals. In February 1864, General P. G. T. Beauregard began rushing reinforcements to Finegan after Confederate officials became aware of a build-up of Federal troops in the occupied city of Jacksonville.
As Florida was a vital supply route and source of beef to the other southern states, they could not allow it to fall into Union hands. On February 20, 1864, Finegan stopped a Federal advance from Jacksonville under General Truman Seymour, intent upon capturing the state capitol at Tallahassee, their two armies clashed at the Battle of Olustee, where Finegan's men defeated the Union Army and forced them to flee back beyond the Saint Johns River. Critics have faulted Finegan for failing to exploit his victory by pursuing his retreating enemy, contenting himself by salvaging their arms and ammunition from the battlefield. But, his victory was one rare bright spot in an otherwise gloomy year for the dying Confederacy; some Finegan detractors believe he did little more to contribute to the Confederate victory at Olustee than to shuttle troops forward to General Alfred H. Colquitt of Georgia, whom they credit for thwarting the Federal advance, they point out that Finegan was relieved of his command over the state troops, replaced by Major General James Patton Anderson.
But this change in command was necessary as Finegan was ordered to lead the "Florida Brigade" in the Army of Northern Virginia, where he served until near the end of the war. Col David Lang was the brigade's last commander before the surrender after the Battle of Appomattox Court House. General Finegan returned to Fernandina after the war to discover his mansion had been seized by the Freedmen's Bureau for use as an orphanage and school for black children, it took some legal wrangling, but he was able to recover this property. He had to sell most of his lands along Lake Monroe to Henry Sanford for $18,200 to pay his attorneys and other creditors, he did retain a home site at Silver Lake. Adding to his sorrows was the untimely death of his son Rutledge died April 4, 1871, precipitating a move to Savannah, Georgia. There, Finegan worked as a cotton broker, it was while living in Savannah that Finegan married his second wife, the widow Lucy C. Alexander, a Tennessee belle, they settled on a large orange grove in Orange County, Florida.
Finegan died October 1885, at Rutledge, Florida. According to the Florida Times Union, his death was the result of "severe cold, inducing chills, to which he