The Times-Picayune is an American newspaper published in New Orleans, since January 25, 1837. The current publication is the result of the 1914 merger of The Picayune with the Times-Democrat. However, under competitive pressure from a new New Orleans edition of The Advocate, the Times-Picayune resumed daily publication in 2014; the paper and the NOLA.com website form the NOLA Media Group division of Advance Publications. The paper was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service in 2006 for its coverage of Hurricane Katrina. Four of The Times-Picayune’s staff reporters received Pulitzers for breaking-news reporting for their coverage of the storm; the paper funds the Edgar A. Poe Award for journalistic excellence, presented annually by the White House Correspondents' Association. Established as The Picayune in 1837 by Francis Lumsden and George Wilkins Kendall, the paper's initial price was one picayune, a Spanish coin equivalent to 6¼¢. Under Eliza Jane Nicholson, who inherited the struggling paper when her husband died in 1876, the Picayune introduced innovations such as society reporting, children's pages, the first women's advice column, written by Dorothy Dix.
Between 1880 and 1890, the paper more than tripled its circulation. The paper became The Times-Picayune after merging in 1914 with its rival, the New Orleans Times-Democrat. In 1962, Samuel Irving Newhouse, Sr. bought the morning daily The Times-Picayune and the other remaining New Orleans daily, the afternoon States-Item. The papers were merged on June 2, 1980 and were known as The Times-Picayune/States-Item until September 30, 1986. In addition to the flagship paper, specific community editions of the newspaper are circulated and retain the Picayune name, such as the Gretna Picayune for nearby Gretna, Louisiana; the paper is a part of Advance Publications, owned by the Newhouse family, is operated through Advance's NOLA Media Group unit along with its sister website, NOLA.com. In the vernacular of its circulation area, the newspaper is called the T-P. Hurricane Katrina became a significant part of the newspaper's history, not only during the storm and its immediate aftermath, but for years afterward in repercussions and editorials.
As Hurricane Katrina approached on Sunday, August 28, 2005, dozens of the newspaper's staffers who opted not to evacuate rode out the storm in their office building, sleeping in sleeping bags and on air mattresses. Holed up in a small, sweltering interior office space—the photography department—outfitted as a "hurricane bunker," the newspaper staffers and staffers from the paper's affiliated website, NOLA.com, posted continual updates on the internet until the building was evacuated on August 30. With electrical outages leaving the presses out of commission after the storm and web staffers produced a "newspaper" in electronic PDF format. On NOLA.com, tens of thousands of evacuated New Orleans and Gulf Coast residents began using the site's forums and blogs, posting pleas for help, offering aid, directing rescuers. NOLA's nurturing of so-called citizen journalism on a massive scale was hailed by many journalism experts as a watershed, while a number of agencies credited the site with leading to life-saving rescues and reunions of scattered victims after the storm.
After deciding to evacuate on Tuesday, August 30, because of rising floodwaters and possible security threats, the newspaper and web staff set up operations at The Houma Courier and in Baton Rouge, on the Louisiana State University campus. A small team of reporters and photographers volunteered to stay behind in New Orleans to report from the inside on the city's struggle and desperation, they worked out of a private residence. The August 30, August 31, September 1 editions were not printed, but were available online, as was the paper's breaking news blog: Hurricane Katrina struck metropolitan New Orleans on Monday with a staggering blow, far surpassing Hurricane Betsy, the landmark disaster of an earlier generation; the storm flooded huge swaths of the city, as well as Slidell on the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain, in a process that appeared to be spreading as night fell. After three days of online-only publication, the paper began printing again, first in Houma, La. and beginning September 15, 2005, in Mobile, Ala..
The paper was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service in 2006 for its coverage of the storm, four of its staff reporters received the award for breaking news reporting for their coverage of Hurricane Katrina, marking the first time a Pulitzer had been awarded for online journalism. In a January 14, 2006 address to the American Bar Association Communications Lawyers Forum, Times-Picayune editor Jim Amoss commented on the greatest challenge that the staff faced and continued to face as the future of New Orleans is contemplated: For us, Katrina is and will be a defining moment of our lives, a story we'll be telling till the day we die. Being a part of the plot is both riveting and unsettling. We don't yet know the end of this story... It's the story of our lives, we must both live and chronicle it. On May 24, 2012, the paper's owner, Advance Publications, announced that the print edition of the Times-Picayune would be published three days a week beginning at the end of September. News of the change was first revealed the night before in a blog post by New York Times media writer Dav
American popular music
American popular music has had a profound effect on music across the world. The country has seen the rise of popular styles that have had a significant influence on global culture, including ragtime, jazz, rock, country, R&B, doo wop, soul, heavy metal, disco, techno, salsa and hip hop. In addition, the American music industry is quite diverse, supporting a number of regional styles such as zydeco and slack-key. Distinctive styles of American popular music emerged early in the 19th century, in the 20th century the American music industry developed a series of new forms of music, using elements of blues and other genres of American folk music; these popular styles included R&B, jazz and rock. The 1960s and 1970s saw a number of important changes in American popular music, including the development of a number of new styles, such as heavy metal, punk and hip hop. Though these styles were not in the sense of mainstream, they were commercially recorded and are thus examples of popular music as opposed to folk or classical music.
The earliest songs that could be considered American popular music, as opposed to the popular music of a particular region or ethnicity, were sentimental parlor songs by Stephen Foster and his peers, songs meant for use in minstrel shows, theatrical productions that featured singing and comic performances. Minstrel shows used African instruments and dance, featured performers with their faces blackened, a technique called blackface. By the middle of the 19th century, touring companies had taken this music not only to every part of the United States, but to the UK, Western Europe, to Africa and Asia. Minstrel shows were advertised as though the music of the shows was in an African American style, though this was not true. Black people had taken part in American popular culture prior to the Civil War era, at least dating back to the African Grove Theatre in New York in the 1820s and the publication of the first music by a black composer, Francis Johnson, in 1818. However, these important milestones still occurred within the conventions of European music.
The first popular minstrel song was "Jump Jim Crow" by Thomas "Daddy" Rice, first performed in 1832 and was a sensation in London when Rice performed it there in 1836. Rice used a dance; the African elements included the use of the banjo, believed to derive from West African string instruments, accented and additive rhythms. Many of the songs of the minstrel shows are still remembered today those by Daniel Emmett and Stephen Foster, the latter being, according to David Ewen, "America's first major composer, one of the world's outstanding writers of songs". Foster's songs were typical of the minstrel era in their unabashed sentimentality, in their acceptance of slavery. Foster did more than most songwriters of the period to humanize the blacks he composed about, such as in "Nelly Was a Lady", a plaintive, melancholy song about a black man mourning the loss of his wife; the minstrel show marked the beginning of a long tradition of African American music being appropriated for popular audiences, was the first distinctly American form of music to find international acclaim, in the mid-19th century.
As Donald Clarke has noted, minstrel shows contained "essentially black music, while the most successful acts were white, so that songs and dances of black origin were imitated by white performers and taken up by black performers, who thus to some extent ended up imitating themselves". Clarke attributes the use of blackface to a desire for white Americans to glorify the brutal existence of both free and slave blacks by depicting them as happy and carefree individuals, best suited to plantation life and the performance of simple, joyous songs that appealed to white audiences. Blackface minstrel shows remained popular throughout the last part of the 19th century, only dying out near the beginning of the 20th century. During that time, a form of lavish and elaborate theater called the extravaganza arose, beginning with Charles M. Barras' The Black Crook. Extravaganzas were criticized by the newspapers and churches of the day because the shows were considered sexually titillating, with women singing bawdy songs dressed in nearly transparent clothing.
David Ewen described this as the beginning of the "long and active careers in sex exploitation" of American musical theater and popular song. Extravaganzas took elements of burlesque performances, which were satiric and parodic productions that were popular at the end of the 19th century. Like the extravaganza and the burlesque, the variety show was a comic and ribald production, popular from the middle to the end of the 19th century, at which time it had evolved into vaudeville; this form was innovated by producers like Tony Pastor who tried to encourage women and children to attend his shows. By the early 20th century, vaudeville was a respected entertainment for women and children, songwriters like Gus Edwards wrote songs that were popular across the country; the most popular vaudeville shows were, like the Ziegfeld Follies, a series of songs and skits that had a profound effect on the subsequent development of Broadway musical theater and the songs of Tin Pan Alley. Tin Pan Alley was an area called Union Square in New York City, which became the major center for music publishing by the mid-1890s.
The songwriters of this era wrote many of them sentimental ballads. During this era, a sense of national consciousness w
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
A clown is a comic performer who employs slapstick or similar types of physical comedy in a mime style. Clowns have a varied tradition with significant variations in performance; the most recognisable modern clown character is the Auguste or "red clown" type, with outlandish costumes featuring distinctive makeup, colourful wigs, exaggerated footwear, colourful clothing. Their entertainment style is designed to entertain large audiences. Modern clowns are associated with the tradition of the circus clown, which developed out of earlier comedic roles in theatre or Varieté shows during the 19th to mid 20th centuries. Many circus clowns are a key circus act in their own right; the first mainstream clown role was portrayed by Joseph Grimaldi. In the early 1800s, he expanded the role of Clown in the harlequinade that formed part of British pantomimes, notably at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane and the Sadler's Wells and Covent Garden theatres, he became so dominant on the London comic stage that harlequinade Clowns became known as "Joey", both the nickname and Grimaldi's whiteface make-up design were, still are, used by other types of clowns.
The comedy that clowns perform is in the role of a fool whose everyday actions and tasks become extraordinary—and for whom the ridiculous, for a short while, becomes ordinary. This style of comedy has a long history in many cultures across the world; some writers have argued that due to the widespread use of such comedy and its long history it is a need, part of the human condition. The "fear of clowns," circus clowns in particular as a psychiatric condition has become known by the term coulrophobia; the "clown" character developed out of the zanni "rustic fool" characters of the early modern commedia dell'arte, which were themselves directly based on the "rustic fool" characters of ancient Greek and Roman theatre. Rustic buffoon characters in Classical Greek theater were known as sklêro-paiktês or deikeliktas, besides other generic terms for "rustic" or "peasant". In Roman theater, a term for clown was fossor "digger; the English word clown was first recorded c. 1560 in the generic meaning "rustic, peasant".
The origin of the word is uncertain from a Scandinavian word cognate with clumsy. It is in this sense that "Clown" is used as the name of fool characters in Shakespeare's Othello and The Winter's Tale; the sense of clown as referring to a professional or habitual fool or jester developed soon after 1600, based on Elizabethan "rustic fool" characters such as Shakespeare's. The harlequinade developed in England in the 17th century, it was here. A foil for Harlequin's slyness and adroit nature, Clown was a buffoon or bumpkin fool who resembled less a jester than a comical idiot, he was a lower class character dressed in tattered servants' garb. The now-classical features of the clown character were developed in the early 1800s by Joseph Grimaldi, who played Clown in Charles Dibdin's 1800 pantomime Peter Wilkins: or Harlequin in the Flying World at Sadler's Wells Theatre, where Grimaldi built the character up into the central figure of the harlequinade; the circus clown developed in the 19th century.
The modern circus derives from Philip Astley's London riding school, which opened in 1768. Astley added a clown to his shows to amuse the spectators between equestrian sequences. American comedian George L. Fox became known for his clown role, directly inspired by Grimaldi, in the 1860s. Tom Belling senior developed the "red clown" or "Auguste" character c. 1870, acting as a foil for the more sophisticated "white clown". Belling worked for Circus Renz in Vienna. Belling's costume became the template for the modern stock character of circus or children's clown, based on a lower class or "hobo" character, with red nose, white makeup around the eyes and mouth, oversized clothes and shoes; the clown character as developed by the late 19th century is reflected in Ruggero Leoncavallo's 1892 opera Pagliacci. Belling's Auguste character was further popularized by Nicolai Poliakoff's Coco in the 1920s to 1930s; the English word clown was borrowed, along with the circus clown act, from many other languages, such as French clown, Russian кло́ун, Greek κλόουν, Danish/Norwegian klovn, Romanian clovn etc.
Italian retains Pagliaccio, a Commedia dell'arte zanni character, derivations of the Italian term are found in other Romance languages, such as French Paillasse, Spanish payaso, Catalan/Galician pallasso, Portuguese palhaço, Greek παλιάτσος, Turkish palyaço, German Pajass, Yiddish פּאַיאַץ, Russian пая́ц. In the early 20th century, with the disappearance of the rustic simpleton or village idiot character of everyday experience, North American circuses developed characters such as the tramp or hobo. Examples include Marceline Orbes, who performed at the Hippodrome Theater, Charlie Chaplin's The Tramp, Emmett Kelly's Weary Willie based on hobos of the Depression era. Another influential tramp character was played by Otto Griebling during the 1930s to 1950s. Red Skelton's Dodo the Clown in The Clown, depicts the circus clown as a tragicomic stock character, "a funny man with a drinking problem". In the United States, Bozo the Clown was an influential Auguste character since the late 1950s; the Bozo Show premiered in 1960 and appeared nationally on cable television in 1978.
McDonald's derived Ronald McDonald, from the Bozo character in the 1960s. Willard Scott, who h
Bass describes tones of low frequency and range from 16 to 256 Hz and bass instruments that produce tones in the low-pitched range C2-C4. They can cover a wide range of musical roles. Since producing low pitches requires a long air column or string, for stringed instruments, a large hollow body, the string and wind bass instruments are the largest instruments in their families or instrument classes. In musical compositions, such as songs and pieces, these are the lowest-pitched parts of the harmony. In choral music without instrumental accompaniment, the bass is supplied by adult male bass singers. For an accompanied choir, the bass is provided by pipe organ or piano. In an orchestra, the basslines are played by the double bass and cellos, bassoon or contrabassoon, low brass such as the tuba and bass trombone, the timpani. In many styles of traditional music such as Bluegrass, in styles such as Rockabilly and Big Band and Bebop jazz, the bass role is filled by the upright bass. In most rock and pop bands and in jazz fusion groups, the bass role is filled by the electric bass.
In some 20th and 21st century pop genres, such as 1980s pop, hip hop music and Electronic Dance Music, the bass role may be filled with a bass synthesizer. When bass notes are played in a musical ensemble such an orchestra, they are used to provide a counterpoint or counter-melody, in a harmonic context either to outline or juxtapose the progression of the chords, or with percussion to underline the rhythm. In popular music, the bass part, called the "bassline" provides harmonic and rhythmic support to the band; the bass player is a member of the rhythm section in a band, along with the drummer, rhythm guitarist, and, in some cases, a keyboard instrument player. The bass player emphasizes the root or fifth of the chord in her basslines and accents the strong beats. In classical music, different forms of bass are: basso recitante. Basso continuo was an approach to writing music during the Baroque music era. With basso continuo, a written-out bassline served to set out the chord progression for an entire piece, with the bassline being played by pipe organ or harpsichord and the chords being improvised by players of chordal instruments.
"The bass differs from other voices because of the particular role it plays in supporting and defining harmonic motion. It does so at levels ranging from immediate, chord-by-chord events to the larger harmonic organization of a entire work." As seen in the musical instrument classification article, categorizing instruments can be difficult. For example, some instruments fall into more than one category; the cello is considered a tenor instrument in some orchestral settings, but in a string quartet it is the bass instrument. Examples grouped by general form and playing technique include: Double bass from the viol or violin family Bass guitar and acoustic bass guitar, instruments shaped and held like guitars, that play in the bass range; the electric bass guitar is the instrument referred to as a "bass" in pop and rock music. A bass horn, such as a tuba and sousaphone from the wind family and low-tuned versions of specific types of brass and woodwind instruments, such as bassoon, bass clarinet, bass trombone and bass saxophone, etc.
Keyboard bass, a keyboard alternative to the bass guitar or double bass Washtub bass, a simple folk instrumentA musician playing one of these instruments is known as a bassist. Other more specific terms such as'bass guitarist','double bassist','bass player', etc. may be used. Keyboard bass Pedal keyboard Bass drum Timpani Double bass Bass guitar Washtub bass Bassoon Bass clarinet Bass saxophone Contrabassoon Baritone Saxophone Tuba Bass trombone Euphonium With recorded music playback, for owners of 33 rpm LPs and 45 singles, the availability of loud and deep bass was limited by the ability of the phonograph record stylus to track the groove. While some hi-fi aficionados had solved the problem by using other playback sources, such as reel-to-reel tape players which were capable of delivering accurate deep bass from acoustic sources, or synthetic bass not found in nature, with the popular introduction of the compact cassette in the late 1960s it became possible to add more low frequency content to recordings.
By the mid-1970s, 12" vinyl singles, which allowed for "more bass volume", were used to record disco, reggae and hip-hop tracks.
Thomas D. Rice
Thomas Dartmouth Rice, known professionally as Daddy Rice, was an American performer and playwright who performed blackface and used African American vernacular speech and dance to become one of the most popular minstrel show entertainers of his time. He is considered the "father of American minstrelsy", his act drew on aspects of African American culture and popularized them with a national, international audience. Rice's "Jim Crow" persona was an ethnic depiction in accordance with contemporary Caucasian ideas of African Americans and their culture; the character was based on a folk trickster named Jim Crow, long popular among black slaves. Rice adapted and popularized a traditional slave song called "Jump Jim Crow". Thomas Dartmouth Rice was born in the lower east side of New York, his family resided in the commercial district near the East River docks. Rice received some formal education in his youth, but ceased in his teenage years when he acquired an apprenticeship with a woodcarver named Dodge.
Despite this occupational training, Rice made a career as a performer. By 1827, Rice was a traveling actor, appearing not only as a stock player in several New York theaters, but performing on frontier stages in the coastal South and the Ohio River valley. According to a former stage colleague, Rice was "tall and wiry, a great deal on the build of Bob Fitzsimmons, the prizefighter". According to another account he was at least six feet tall, he told stories of George Washington, whom he claimed had been a friend of his father. Rice had made the Jim Crow character his signature act by 1832. Rice went from one theater to another, he became known as "Jim Crow Rice". There had been other blackface performers before Rice, there were many more afterwards, but it was "Daddy Rice" associated with a single character. Rice claimed to have been inspired by a crippled black stable groom, who sang and danced as he did his work, claimed to have bought the man's clothes for "authenticity." The time and truth of this claim have been disputed.
He soon expanded his repertoire, with his most popular routine being his "shadow dance." Rice would appear on stage carrying a sack slung over his shoulder sing the song "Me and My Shadow". As Rice began to dance, a child actor in blackface would crawl out of the sack, emulate each of Rice's moves and steps. Rice performed as the "Yankee" character, an already-established stage stereotype who represented rural America and dressed in a long blue coat and striped pants. Rice's greatest prominence came in the 1830s, before the rise of full-blown blackface minstrel shows, when blackface performances were part of a variety show or as an entr'acte in another play. During the years of his peak popularity, from 1832 to 1844, Rice encountered sold-out houses, with audiences demanding numerous encores. In 1836 he popularized blackface entertainment with English audiences when he appeared in London, although he and his character were known there by reputation at least by 1833. Rice not only performed in more than 100 plays, but created plays of his own, providing himself slight variants on the Jim Crow persona—as Cuff in Oh, Hush!, Ginger Blue in Virginia Mummy, Bone Squash in Bone Squash Diavolo.
Shortly after making his first hit in London in Oh, Rice starred in a more prestigious production, a three-act play at the Adelphi Theatre in London. Moreover, Rice starred in Otello. Starting in 1854 he played in one of the more prominent "Tom shows", loosely based on Harriet Beecher Stowe's book.. "The Virginny Cupids" was the most popular of the time. It is centered on a song "Coal Black Rose". Rice played Cuff, boss of the bootblacks, he wins the girl, away from the black dandy Sambo Johnson, a former bootblack who made money by winning a lottery. According to Broadbent, "T. D. Rice, the celebrated negro comedian, performed "Jump Jim Crow" with witty local allusions" at Ducrow's Royal Amphitheatre, England. At least blackface could give voice to an oppositional dynamic, prohibited by society; as early as 1832, Rice was singing, "An' I caution all white dandies not to come in my way, / For if dey insult me, dey'll in de gutter lay." It on occasion equated lower-class white and lower-class black audiences.
On one of his stage tours in England, Rice married Charlotte Bridgett Gladstone in 1837. She died in 1847, none of their children survived infancy. Rice enjoyed displaying his wealth, on his return from London wore a blue dress coat with gold guineas for buttons, a vest on which each gold button bore a solitaire diamond; as early as 1840 Rice suffered from a type of paralysis which began to limit his speech and movements, led to his death on September 19, 1860. He is interred at Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn. A reminiscence of him in the New York Times suggests his death was alcohol-related, states that although he had made a considerable fortune in his time, his years were spent in a liquor saloon and his burial was paid for by public subscription. In the half of the 19th century a wooden statue of Rice in his'Jim Crow' character stood in various New York locations, including outside the Chatham Garden Theatre, it was painted and made in four p
Blackface is a form of theatrical make-up used predominantly by non-black performers to represent a caricature of a black person. The practice gained popularity during the 19th century and contributed to the spread of racial stereotypes such as the "happy-go-lucky darky on the plantation" or the "dandified coon". By the middle of the century, blackface minstrel shows had become a distinctive American artform, translating formal works such as opera into popular terms for a general audience. Early in the 20th century, blackface branched off from the minstrel show and became a form in its own right. In the United States, blackface had fallen out of favor by the turn of the 21st century, is now considered offensive and disrespectful, though the practice continues in other countries. Blackface was a performance tradition in the American theater for 100 years beginning around 1830, it became popular elsewhere so in Britain, where the tradition lasted longer than in the U. S. occurring on primetime TV, most famously in The Black and White Minstrel Show, which ended in 1978, in Are You Being Served?'s Christmas specials in 1976 and in 1981.
In both the United States and Britain, blackface was most used in the minstrel performance tradition, which it both predated and outlasted. Early white performers in blackface used burnt cork and greasepaint or shoe polish to blacken their skin and exaggerate their lips wearing woolly wigs, tailcoats, or ragged clothes to complete the transformation. Black artists performed in blackface. Stereotypes embodied in the stock characters of blackface minstrels not only played a significant role in cementing and proliferating racist images and perceptions worldwide, but in popularizing black culture. In some quarters, the caricatures that were the legacy of blackface persist to the present day and are a cause of ongoing controversy. Another view is that "blackface is a form of cross-dressing in which one puts on the insignias of a sex, class, or race that stands in opposition to one's own."By the mid-20th century, changing attitudes about race and racism ended the prominence of blackface makeup used in performance in the U.
S. and elsewhere. Blackface in contemporary art remains in limited use as a theatrical device and is more used today as social commentary or satire; the most enduring effect of blackface is the precedent it established in the introduction of African-American culture to an international audience, albeit through a distorted lens. Blackface's appropriation and assimilation of African-American culture – as well as the inter-ethnic artistic collaborations that stemmed from it – were but a prologue to the lucrative packaging and dissemination of African-American cultural expression and its myriad derivative forms in today's world popular culture. There is no consensus about a single moment; the journalist and cultural commentator John Strausbaugh places it as part of a tradition of "displaying Blackness for the enjoyment and edification of white viewers" that dates back at least to 1441, when captive West Africans were displayed in Portugal. White people portrayed the black characters in the Elizabethan and Jacobean theater, most famously in Othello.
However and other plays of this era did not involve the emulation and caricature of "such supposed innate qualities of Blackness as inherent musicality, natural athleticism", etc. that Strausbaugh sees as crucial to blackface. Lewis Hallam, Jr. a white blackface actor of American Company fame, brought blackface in this more specific sense to prominence as a theatrical device in the United States when playing the role of "Mungo", an inebriated black man in The Padlock, a British play that premiered in New York City at the John Street Theatre on May 29, 1769. The play attracted notice, other performers adopted the style. From at least the 1810s, blackface clowns were popular in the United States. British actor Charles Mathews toured the U. S. in 1822–23, as a result added a "black" characterization to his repertoire of British regional types for his next show, A Trip to America, which included Mathews singing "Possum up a Gum Tree", a popular slave freedom song. Edwin Forrest played a plantation black in 1823, George Washington Dixon was building his stage career around blackface in 1828, but it was another white comic actor, Thomas D. Rice, who popularized blackface.
Rice introduced the song "Jump Jim Crow" accompanied by a dance in his stage act in 1828 and scored stardom with it by 1832. First on de heel tap, den on the toeEvery time I wheel about I jump Jim Crow. I wheel about and turn about an do just so. Rice traveled the U. S. performing under the stage name "Daddy Jim Crow". The name Jim Crow became attached to statutes that codified the reinstitution of segregation and discrimination after Reconstruction. In the 1830s and early 1840s, blackface performances mixed skits with comic songs and vigorous dances. Rice and his peers performed only in disreputable venues, but as blackface gained popularity they gained opportunities to perform as entr'actes in theatrical venues of a higher class. Stereotyped blackface characters developed: buffoonish, superstitious and lascivious characters, who stole, lied pathologically, mangled the English language. Early blackface minstrels were all male, so cross-dressing white men played black women who were portrayed as unappealingly and grotesquely mannish, in the matronly mammy mold, or as sexually provocative.
The 1830s American stage, where blackfa