Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories. It has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, with 35,874 people, although it has the largest city in any of the three territories. Whitehorse is Yukon's only city. Yukon was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory; the federal government's Yukon Act, which received royal assent on March 27, 2002, established Yukon as the territory's official name, though Yukon Territory is still popular in usage and Canada Post continues to use the territory's internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT. Though bilingual, the Yukon government recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukon's Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest on the North American continent. Most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by brief warm summers; the Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate. Notable rivers include the Yukon River, as well as the Pelly, Peel and Tatshenshini rivers.
The territory is named after the longest river in Yukon. The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. Long before the arrival of Europeans and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, the area escaped glaciation. Sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human habitation in North America; the sites safeguard the earliest First Nations of the Yukon. The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in 800 AD in what is now the U. S. state of Alaska blanketed southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway, which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations peoples in Yukon and further south in Canada. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks. European incursions into the area began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries.
By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive. This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897; the increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898. The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U. S. state of Alaska to the west and northwest for 1,210 km along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea, its ragged eastern boundary follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of the Yukon River; the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system.
The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canada's highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territory's southwest. Mount Logan and a large part of Yukon's southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Vuntut National Park in the north. Other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea; the two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast. Notable widespread tree species within Yukon are white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of severe climate; the capital, Whitehorse, is the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population.
British Columbia Northwest Territories Alaska, United States While the average winter temperature in Yukon is mild by Canadian arctic standards, no other place in North America gets as cold as Yukon during extreme cold snaps. The temperature has dropped down to −60 °C three times, 1947, 1954, 1968; the most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to −63.0 °C. Unlike most of Canada where the most extreme heat waves occur in July and September, Yukon's extreme heat tends to occur in June and May. Yukon has recorded 36 °C three times; the first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36.1 °C. 14 years this record was beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 °C in May 1983. The old record was broken 21 years in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station, located just northwest of Whitehorse, recorded a temperature of 36.5 °C. The 2016 census reported a Yukon population of 35,874, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. With a land area of 474,712.64 km2, it had a population de
Castoroides, or giant beaver, is an extinct genus of enormous beavers that lived in North America during the Pleistocene. C. leiseyorum and its northern sister species Castoroides ohioensis, were the largest beavers to exist. Species of Castoroides known as giant beavers, were much larger than modern beavers, their average length was 1.9 m, they could grow as large as 2.2 m. The weight of the giant beaver could vary from 90 kg to 125 kg; this makes it the largest known rodent in North America during the Pleistocene and the largest known beaver. However recent analyses suggest that they weighed some 77 kg; the hind feet of the giant beaver were much larger than in modern beavers, while the hind legs were shorter. The tail may have been narrower. However, because soft tissues decay, it is not known whether its tail resembled the tails of modern beavers, it can only be assumed that its feet were webbed as in modern species; the skull structure of the giant beaver shows that it participated in extended underwater activity, thanks to the ability to take in more oxygen into its lungs.
One of the defining characteristics of the giant beaver were their incisors, which differ in size and shape from those of modern beavers. Modern beavers have chisel-like incisor teeth for gnawing on wood, while the teeth of the giant beaver were bigger and broader, grew to about 15 cm long; these incisors were not as efficient at cutting wood. One other major difference between the giant beaver and the modern beaver is that the size of its brain was proportionally smaller; as a result, the giant beaver may have had inferior interactions in its environment, as well as less complex patterns of thoughts and behavior. There are two known species: Castoroides leiseyorum Castoroides ohioensis, synonym Castoroides nebrascensis These two species of giant beaver are not close relatives to modern beavers; this genus typifies the extinct subfamily Castoroidinae, which forms a North American lineage beginning with the Hemingfordian genus Monosaulax, followed by Eucastor and Procastoroides, to culminate and go extinct with Castoroides.
The Castoroides fossils were discovered in 1837 in a peat bog in Ohio, hence its species epithet ohioensis. Catalogue no.1195, Mus. North. Ind. Hist. Soc. Well- preserved skull of Castoroides ohioensis but with the mandibles lost, both zygomatic arches missing, the facial portions of the maxillae broken away. Castoroides had cutting teeth up to 15 cm-long with prominently-ridged outer surfaces; these strong enamel ridges would have acted as girders to support such long teeth. Further, the deep masseteric fossa of the lower jaw suggests a powerful bite, their teeth could have acted as both wood-cutters and gouges. There is no clear evidence that the giant beaver felled trees or built dams, but a possible lodge was discovered near New Knoxville, Ohio around 1912. Part of a giant beaver skull and the lodge were located in a peaty layer surrounded by loam. In Ohio, there have been claims of a possible giant beaver lodge four feet high and eight feet in diameter, formed from small saplings; the recent discovery of clear evidence for lodge building in the related genus Dipoides indicates that the giant beaver also built lodges.
Fossils of Castoroides are concentrated around the midwestern United States in states near the Great Lakes Illinois and Indiana, but specimens are recorded from Alaska and Canada to Florida. In Canada, fossils of this species are found in the Old Crow Basin and single specimens are known from Toronto and Indian Island, New Brunswick. A hitherto overlooked 1891 record of a Castoroides skull from near Highgate, Ontario is the earliest for Canada. In Old Crow region, Castoroides fossils occur in deposits of the Sangamonian interglacial; the discovery of giant beaver remains in New Brunswick adds to the Quaternary terrestrial mammal fauna of New Brunswick, suggest that the terrestrial fauna was richer than earlier evidence indicated. The known North American distribution of giant beaver is not changed by this occurrence. Specimens from Florida have been placed in a subspecies, Castoroides ohioensis dilophidus, based on differences in premolar and molar features. Castoroides, the giant beaver, is recorded from 25 Pleistocene localities in Florida, 23 of Rancholabrean age, one of Irvingtonian age, one of late Blancan age.
Castoroides leiseyorum specimens have been unearthed in South Carolina. The latter site was dated at 1.8 million—11,000 years ago. The Florida specimens were dated by John Alroy, Ph. D. using appearance event ordination for an age of 2.1 million years ago. Castoroides leiseyorum was named by S. Morgan and J. A. White in 1995 for the Leisey family, phosphate quarry-owners who found the first skull. Specimens were found in Leisey Shell Pit 1A and 3B, Hillsborough County, Florida, in paleontological sites about 2.1 Mya. Specimens were found at the Strawberry Hill site, Charleston County, South Carolina from about 1.8 Mya to 11,000 years ago. Fossils of the older species, C. leiseyorum, from Florida are from 1.4 Mya, while fossils of the younger species, C. ohioensis, from Toronto and the Old Crow Basin, Yukon Territory, are 130,000 years old, but Castoroides may have died out about 10,000 years ago, along with several other American species, such as mammoths, mas
Vuntut National Park
Vuntut National Park is a national park located in northern Yukon, Canada. It was established in 1995. Due to land claims negotiations, this national park is still undeveloped, it has no roads or developed trails. Animals that inhabit this park include caribou, peregrine falcons, grizzly bears, Alaskan moose, gyrfalcons, black bears, golden eagles, pine martens, ground squirrels, muskrats and minks. Vuntut National Park is adjacent to Ivvavik National Park; the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge lies just across the Canada–US border in Alaska. National Parks of Canada List of National Parks of Canada List of Yukon parks Official site
The American lion – known as the North American cave lion – is an extinct pantherine cat related to the lion that lived in North America during the Pleistocene epoch. Genetic analysis has revealed, it was part of a wide variety of large mammals that lived at the time. The majority of American lion fossils have come from the La Brea Tar Pits; the American lion was about 25% larger than the modern lion, making it one of the largest known felids. The American lion was designated by American paleontologist Joseph Leidy as Felis atrox in 1853. Hemmer proposed the trinomen Panthera leo atrox in 1974, supported by Kurten in 1985; the American lion was considered a distinct species of Pantherinae, designated as Panthera atrox, which means "cruel" or "fearsome panther" in Latin. Some paleontologists accepted this view, but others considered it to be a type of lion related to the modern lion and its extinct relative, the Eurasian cave lion, it was assigned as a subspecies of P. leo rather than as a separate species.
Most both spelaea and atrox have been treated as full species. Cladistic studies using morphological characteristics have been unable to resolve the phylogenetic position of the American lion. One study considered the American lion, along with the cave lion, to be most related to the tiger, citing a comparison of the skull. Another study suggested that the American lion and the Eurasian cave lion were successive offshoots of a lineage leading to a leopard-extant lion clade. A more recent study comparing the skull and jaw of the American lion with other pantherines concluded that it was not a lion but a distinct species, it was proposed that it arose from pantherines that migrated to North America during the mid-Pleistocene and gave rise to American lions and jaguars. Another study grouped the American lion with P. leo and P. tigris, ascribed morphological similarities to P. onca to convergent evolution, rather than phylogenetic affinity. However, mitochondrial DNA sequence data from fossil remains suggests that the American lion represents a sister lineage to the Eurasian cave lion, arose when an early cave lion population became isolated south of the North American continental ice sheet about 340,000 years ago.
The most recent common ancestor of the P. atrox lineage is estimated to have lived about 200,000 years ago. This implies that it became genetically isolated from P. spelaea before the start of the Illinoian glaciation. This separation was maintained during the interstadials of the Illinoian and following Wisconsin glaciations as well as during the Sangamon interglacial between them. Boreal forests may have contributed to the separation during warmer intervals; the study indicates that the modern lion is the closest living relative of P. atrox and P. spelaea. The lineages leading to extant lions and atrox/spelaea are thought to have diverged about 1.9 million years ago. The American lion is estimated to have measured 1.6 to 2.5 m from the tip of the nose to the base of the tail and stood 1.2 m at the shoulder. Thus, it was smaller than its contemporary competitor, the giant short-faced bear, the largest carnivoran of North America at the time, larger than the saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, which may have weighed up to 280 kg.
In 2008, the American lion was estimated to weigh up to 420 kg. A study in 2009 showed an average weight of 256 kg for males and 351 kg for the largest specimen analyzed. A study in 2012 estimated a range of 235–523 kg for males and 175–365 kg for females, which suggests that the lion was heavier than Smilodon. About 80 American lion individuals have been recovered from the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, so their morphology is well known, their features resemble those of modern lions, but they were larger, are believed to have been the largest subspecies of lion. Preserved skin remains found with skeletal material thought to be from the American lion in caves in the Argentine Patagonia indicate that the animal was reddish in color. Cave paintings from El Ceibo in the Santa Cruz Province of Argentina seem to confirm this, reduce the possibility of confusion with fossil jaguars, as similar cave paintings depict the jaguar as yellow in color; the earliest lions known in the Americas south of Alaska are from the Sangamonian Stage - the last interglacial period - following which, the American lion spread from Alberta to Maryland, reaching as far south as Chiapas, Mexico.
It was not found in the same areas as the jaguar, which favored forests over open habitats. It was absent from eastern Canada and the northeastern United States due to the presence of dense boreal forests in the region; the American lion was believed to have colonized northwestern South America as part of the Great American Interchange. However, the fossil remains found in the tar pits of Talara, Peru belong to an unusually large jaguar. On the other hand, fossils of a large felid from late Pleistocene localities in southern Chile and Argentina traditionally identified as an extinct subspecies of jaguar, Panthera onca mesembrina, hav
Migratory Birds Convention Act
The Migratory Birds Convention Act is a Canadian law established in 1917 and updated in June 1994 which contains regulations to protect migratory birds, their eggs, their nests from hunting and commercialization. A permit is required to engage in any of these activities. In 1909 the federal government established the Advisory Board on Wildlife Protection, which notably included C. G. Hewitt and James Harkin as prominent members; this board would go on to sign the Migratory Bird Convention with the United States because of concern both countries had regarding the uncontrolled hunting of waterfowl and shorebirds. The original MBCA law was passed to satisfy the terms of this agreement with the United States; the updated version includes greater penalties. A geographical area may be designated as a Migratory Bird Refuge under this convention. To establish complete habitat protection, the more stringent requirements of the Canada Wildlife Act are necessary. List of Migratory Bird Sanctuaries of Canada Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, the American law implementing the treaty Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994
Canadian Bank of Commerce
The Canadian Bank of Commerce was a Canadian bank, founded in 1867, had hundreds of branches throughout Canada. It merged in 1961 with the Imperial Bank of Canada to form the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce. In 1866 a group of businessmen, including William McMaster, purchased a charter from the defunct Bank of Canada, which had folded in 1858; the Canadian Bank of Commerce was founded the following year issued stock, opened its headquarters in Toronto, Ontario. The bank soon opened branches in St. Catharines and Barrie. During the following years, the bank opened more branches in Ontario, took over the business of the local Gore Bank, before expanding across Canada through the acquisition of the Bank of British Columbia in 1901 and the Halifax Banking Company in 1903. By 1907 the Canadian Bank of Commerce had 172 branches. By the beginning of World War II, this had expanded to 379 branches, including a large building at Darling and Pearson, Manitoba, built in 1910 in beaux-arts classic style.
During World War I, 1,701 staff from the Canadian Bank of Commerce enlisted in the war effort. A memorial on the East and West Memorial Buildings in Ottawa, Ontario is dedicated to the memory of 1701 Men of the Canadian Bank of Commerce who served in the First World War A War Memorial at Commerce Court in Toronto, Ontario commemorates their service. In 1931, the Toronto headquarters of the bank, designed by architects John Pearson and Frank Darling, was completed. At 34 stories, for many years it was the tallest building in the British Empire. Once again, during World War II, 2,300 staff members enlisted in the armed forces; the Canadian Bank of Commerce merged with the Imperial Bank of Canada in 1961 to form the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, now one of the Big Five Canadian banks. The following are on the Registry of Historical Places of Canada; the Bank of Commerce in Nanaimo, British Columbia, built in 1914. The Canadian Bank of Commerce in New Westminster, British Columbia built in 1910 to 1911.
The Bank of Commerce in Vancouver, British Columbia, built in 1914 to 1915 the Canadian Bank of Commerce in Watson, Saskatchewan built in 1906 to 1907. The Bank of Commerce in Nokomis, built in 1910; the Bank of Commerce in Winnipeg, completed in 1912. The Bank of Commerce in Kelsey, built in The Pas in 1912; the Canadian Bank of Commerce in Innisfree, built in 1905. The Canadian Bank of Commerce in Dawson, built in 1901; the Canadian Bank of Commerce grew through acquisitions of other banks in Canada: Halifax Banking Company Established in 1825 and merged with the Commerce in 1903. Gore Bank Formed in 1836 and merged with the Commerce in 1870. Eastern Townships Bank Formed in 1859 and merged with the Commerce in 1912. Bank of British Columbia Established with a Royal Charter in 1862 and merged with the Commerce in 1901. Merchants Bank of Prince Edward Island Formed Oct 6, 1871 and merged with the Commerce in 1906. Bank of Hamilton Bank of Hamilton merged with the Commerce in 1924; the Standard Bank of Canada Formed in 1876 and merged with the Commerce in 1928.
List of Canadian banks Charles Peers Davidson `A Compilation Of The Statutes Passed Since Confederation Relating To Banks And Banking, Government And Other Savings Banks, Promissory Notes And Bills` BiblioLife | January 10, 2010
Chignecto Bay is an inlet of the Bay of Fundy located between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and separated from the waters of the Northumberland Strait by the Isthmus of Chignecto. It is a unit within the greater Gulf of Maine Watershed. Chignecto Bay forms the northeastern part of the Bay of Fundy which splits at Cape Chignecto and is delineated on the New Brunswick side by Martin Head. Chignecto bay was the site of an unsuccessful railway and canal project of the 1880s and 1890s that would have intersected the landmass, thereby providing a transit passage between New England and Prince Edward Island. After several investigations into the feasibility of a new canal project, including most by the Chignecto Canal Commission, the proposed Chignecto Canal was deemed commercially and economically unjustifiable and the project was abandoned; some of the physical remnants of the 1880s project still continue to dot the landscape of Chignecto Bay today. At its head, Chignecto Bay itself subdivides into two basins, separated by Cape Maringouin: Cumberland Basin - the northeast arm of Chignecto Bay between the two provinces, terminating at the Tantramar Marshes and the estuaries of the Tantramar River and Maccan River.
Shepody Bay - the north arm of Chignecto Bay and is wholly within New Brunswick. Its northern limit is formed at the estuaries of the Memramcook Rivers. Many small named bays line the Bay's coast including Salisbury Bay at the mouths of the Upper Salmon River and Cleveland Brook, site of the Village of Alma, NB. Chignecto Bay is a northern extension of a rift valley; the name "Chignecto" derives from the Mi'kmaq name Siknikt, meaning "drainage place", the name of the Mi'kmaq District in which the bay is located. The head of Cumberland Basin is an important migrating area for many shorebirds. A large portion of it is protected as a wildlife sanctuary known as the Chignecto National Wildlife Area, it includes the 10.2 km² John Lusby National Wildlife Area, recognized as a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance since October 1985