The Arzachena culture was a late Neolithic pre-Nuragic culture occupying the northeastern part of Sardinia and part of southern Corsica from the 4th to the 3rd millennium BC. It takes its name from the Sardinian town of Arzachena; the Arzachena culture is best known for its megalithic structures, suchs as the characteristic "circular graves" and menhir. Both the funerary architecture and the material culture show similarities with contemporary contexts of Catalonia, Languedoc and Corsica. Differently from the people of the contemporary Ozieri culture of the rest of Sardinia, the people of the Arzachena culture were organized in an aristocratic and individualistic society focused on pastoralism rather than farming agriculture; the aristocratic groups buried their dead in megalithic monuments in the shape of a circle, with a central chamber containing a single individual, while on the rest of the island the Ozieri people buried their dead in collective hypogeum tombs called Domus de Janas. Pre-Nuragic Sardinia Ozieri culture AA.
VV. La civiltà in Sardegna nei secoli - Torino - Edizioni ERI
The Amratian culture called Naqada I, was a culture of prehistoric Upper Egypt. It lasted from 4000 to 3500 BC; the Amratian culture is named after the archaeological site of el-Amra, located around 120 km south of Badari in Upper Egypt. El-Amra was the first site where this culture group was found without being mingled with the Gerzeh culture. However, this period is better attested at the Nagada site, thus it is referred to as the Naqada I culture. Black-topped ware continued to be produced, but white cross-line ware, a type of pottery, decorated with close parallel white lines being crossed by another set of close parallel white lines, begins to be produced during this time; the Amratian falls between S. D. 30 and 39 in Flinders Petrie's sequence dating system. The Amratians possessed slaves, constructed rowboats of bundled papyrus in which they could sail the Nile. Trade between the Amratian culture bearers in Upper Egypt and populations of Lower Egypt is attested during this time through new excavated objects.
A stone vase from the north has been found at el-Amra. The predecessor Badarian culture had discovered that malachite could be heated into copper beads. Obsidian and a small amount of gold were both imported from Nubia during this time. Trade with the oases was likely. Cedar was imported from marble from Paros, as well as emery from Naxos. New innovations such as adobe buildings, for which the Gerzeh culture is well known begin to appear during this time, attesting to cultural continuity. However, they did not reach nearly the widespread use that they were known for in times. Additionally and theriomorphic cosmetic palettes appear to be used in this period. However, the workmanship was still rudimentary and the relief artwork for which they were known is not yet present; each Amratian village had an animal deity. Food, statuettes, decorations and dogs were buried with the deceased. 5.9 kiloyear event Prehistoric Egypt Naqada culture Gerzeh culture Naqada III Footnotes Citations
Prehistory of Transylvania
The Prehistory of Transylvania describes what can be learned about the region known as Transylvania through archaeology, comparative linguistics and other allied sciences. Transylvania proper is a tableland in northwest central Romania, it is bounded and defined by the Carpathian Mountains to the east and south, the Apuseni Mountains to the west. As a diverse and protected region, the area has always been rich in wildlife, remains one of the more ecologically diverse areas in Europe; the mountains contain a large number of caves, which attracted both animal residents. The Peştera Urşilor, the "Bears Cave", was home to a large number of cave bears whose remains were discovered when the cave was discovered in 1975. Other caves in the area sheltered early humans. Prehistory is the longest period in the history of mankind, throughout of which writing was still unknown. In Transylvania this applies to the Paleolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age; the Paleolithic epoch, the oldest and longest period in the history of mankind, is divided by specialists into three stages of development: Lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic.
The chronological frame of the Paleolithic coincides with that of the Pleistocene, is marked by four great glaciations, as established in the Alps. While an ever-increasing amount of data has become available on the evolution of the climate and vegetation of present-day Romania, there is little in the fossil record to give researchers an idea of what Paleolithic man in Romania looked like. To date, no human skeletal remains dating from the Low Paleolithic have been found, while the only Middle Paleolithic remains that have been discovered were a number of phalanges unearthed by M. Roska in the Bordu Mare Cave at Ohaba Ponor. A skull capsule discovered by Roska in the Cioclovina Cave displays features attributed to Homo sapiens sapiens, dates back to the Upper Paleolithic as indicated by three flint objects peculiar to the Aurignacian discovered next to them. In the Ciurul Mare Cave in the Pǎdurea Craiului Mountains speleologists have discovered some distinctively male and child footprints.
An anthropological analysis has identified Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal characteristics in these footprints. The economy of the Paleolithic communities consisted of exploiting natural resources: gathering and hunting were the main pursuits of the diverse human groups; as early as the Lower Paleolithic, human groups either trapped game. We can assume that in Transylvania, alongside mammoths or deer, horses were a important food source, if our dating of the painting on the ceiling of the cave at Cuciulat is correct; the Lower Paleolithic in Transylvania, because data are scarce, is a mystery. If the discovery of an Acheulean lithic item at Căpuşu Mic and of several Pre-Mousterian lithic items at Tălmaciu are a certain fact, their precise stratigraphic position remains to be established; the same cannot be said about the discoveries in the Ciucului Basin at Sândominic where several tools, a rich fauna, have been encountered in certified stratigraphic positions, belonging to the geo-chronological interval covering the late Mindel to the early Riss.
The Middle Paleolithic – Mousterian – covers a time period much shorter than that of the prior epoch. It is a period set in Early Upper Pleistocene, corresponds within the alpine glacial chronology to the interval covering the late Riss-Würm interglacial, or rather the Lower Würm, through middle Würm, as indicated by the dating of the late Mousterian dwellings in the Gura Cheii Cave — Râşnov, the Spurcată Cave — Nandru; the Mousterian period is closest to the alpine Paleolithic. Both periods were characterized by the presence of numerous quartzite slivers and chips, with the bones of hunted game outnumbering the tools. Specialists consider this Mousterian to be an "Eastern Charentian”. North-Western and Northern Transylvania with the settlements at Boineşti and Remetea have revealed several Mousterian tools, some of which have been associated with a stage of the Mousterian, or with a transition stage to the Upper Paleolithic, at the onset of the Aurignacian culture of the Upper Paleolithic.
The process of regional diversification among cultures was accelerated in the Upper Paleolithic through the middle to upper Würm. The beginnings of the Upper Paleolithic on the territory of Romania is dated somewhere between 32,000/30,000 – 13,000 BP, corresponding paleoclimatically to the onset of the Arcy oscillation, is marked by the development of the two great civilizations: the Aurignacian and the Gravettian both featuring several stages of development as established by stratigraphy; the onset of the Aurignacian culture seems to have paralleled the late Mousterian facies in the Carpathian caves, if we accept as valid the C14 dating of level IIb in the cave of Gura Cheii – Râşnov. Northwestern Transylvania is the site where layers of the Middle Aurignacian culture have been identified, as signaled by the presence of blade scrapers, refitted core, burins. In Banat, the settlements of Tincova, Coşova and Româneşti-Dumbrăviţa, have produced flint tools demonstrating that the Aurignacian in this area evolved with that in Central Europe.
Aurignician items were found in the caves in the Western Carpathians, the most f
Shepherd Neolithic is a name given by archaeologists to a style of small flint tools from the Hermel plains in the north Beqaa Valley, Lebanon. The Shepherd Neolithic industry has been insufficiently studied and was provisionally named based on a limited typology collected by Jesuit archaeologist "Père" Henri Fleisch. Lorraine Copeland and Peter J. Wescombe suggested it was "of quite late date". Shepherd Neolithic material can be found dispersed over a wide area of the north Beqaa Valley in low concentrations. M. Billaux and Henri Fleisch suggested that the flints were of a higher quality than the brittle flint in the nearby conglomerates indicating origin from elsewhere. Three groups of flint could be determined. Characteristics of the industry include smallness in size between 2.5 cm and 4 cm and being quite thick, unlike geometric microliths. The small number of tools within the assemblage is another distinguishable characteristic, including short denticulated or notched blades, end scrapers, transverse racloirs on thin flakes and borers with strong points.
They display a lack of recognizable typology although Levallois technique was observed to have been used. They show signs of having been worked with cores being re-used and turned into scrapers. Fleisch suggested the industry was Epipaleolithic as it is evidently not Paleolithic, Mesolithic or Pottery Neolithic, he further suggested. The relationship and dividing line between the related Heavy Neolithic zone of the south Beqaa Valley could not be defined but was suggested to be in the area around Douris and Qalaat Tannour. Not enough exploration had been carried out to conclude whether the bands of Neolithic surface sites continues south into the areas around Zahle and Rayak; the type sites of the Shepherd Neolithic are at Qaa and Maqne I, with other sites with Shepherd Neolithic finds include Douris, Hermel II, Hermel III, Kamouh el Hermel, Qalaat Tannour, Wadi Boura I and at Rayak North, Riha Station and Serain
The Gumelniţa–Karanovo VI culture was a Neolithic culture of the 5th millennium BC, named after the Gumelniţa site on the left bank of the Danube. At its full extent the culture extended along the Black Sea coast to central Bulgaria and into Thrace; the aggregate "Kodjadermen-Gumelnita-Karanovo VI" evolved out of the earlier Boian and Karanovo V cultures. In the East it was supplanted by Cernavodă I in the early 4th millennium BC. One of the most flourishing civilizations from the last half of the 5th millenium BC is Gumelniţa Culture... absolute chronology, still under discussion, according to the latest calibrated data, assigns this culture to the limits of the last half of the 5th millenium BC and maybe to early 4th millenium BC. —Silvia Marinescu-Bîlcu, "Gumelniţa Culture" This matches the view of Blagoje Govedarica. The first periodization of Gumelnita culture was suggested by VI. Dumitrescu who split the civilization of Gumelniţa into two phases: A and B. On, Dinu V. Rosetti divided the civilization into Al, A2 and B1, B2.
With a centric evolution from geographic point of view, the intensity of the cultural trends decreased from the center towards peripheral area. Having a strong Boian background at the origins, mixed with Maritza elements, the Gumelnita culture lasted short of a millennium from the beginning of Chalcolithic to the start of the fourth millennium BC. 4700-4350 Gumelnita-Karanovo VI-Kodjadermen is aggregated with Varna culture, still are debates along historians considering the distinctive character of Varna culture. 4500-3950 The regional characteristics of A1 phase are diminished, a more uniform characteristics is identified in discovered artifacts. The evolution of the Gumelniţa-Kodjadermen-Karanovo VI is ended on the north bank of the Danube after the arrival of Cernavoda cultures population; the layers at Karanovo are employed as a chronological system for Balkans prehistory. The Gumelniţa is remarkable by the richness of its zoomorphic representations; some consider the achievements of prehistoric craftsmen to be true masterpieces.
The representation from Gumelnița art differ by other cultures by the following: statuettes morphology characterised by expressivity and attitude. Modelling technique arms pozitions on the belly, stretched laterally, in the position of the “thinker” sex representation decoration patternSeashell ornament is common. At least some of the shellfish used come from the Aegean regions, for example the spondylas and the dentals; as evidence from archaeology, thousands of artifacts from Neolithic Europe have been discovered in the form of female figurines. As a result a goddess theory has occurred; the leading historian was Marija Gimbutas, still this interpretation is a subject of great controversy in archaeology due to her many inferences about the symbols on artifacts. Gumelniţa culture has some sign of work specialisation:...we do not have enough data on the internal organization of the community, but next to the dwellings themselves, arranged or not in a certain order, we encounter workshop-dwellings for processing lithic material, horns, statuettes, etc.).
—Gumelniţa Culture by Silvia Marinescu-Bîlcu During the Middle Copper Age, the Danube script appears in three horizons: The Karanovo VI–Gumelniţa–Kodžadermen cultural complex, the Cucuteni A3-A4–Trypillya B, Coțofeni I. The first, rates 68.6% of the frequencies. Old Europe Vinča culture Tărtăria tablets Vinča symbols Sesklo culture Cucuteni–Trypillia culture Hamangia culture Butmir Culture Tisza culture Linear Pottery culture Lengyel culture Funnelbeaker culture Stefan Hiller, Vassil Nikolov, Karanovo III. Beiträge zum Neolithikum in Südosteuropa Österreichisch-Bulgarische Ausgrabungen und Forschungen in Karanovo, Band III, Vienna, ISBN 3-901232-19-2. Cimec.ro Cimec.ro Brukenthalmuseum.ro Civa.uv.ro Civa.uv.ro Bulgariatravel.org Worldmuseumofman.org Culture.gouv.fr Cimec.ro Cimec.ro Arheologie.ulbsibiu.ro Pnas.org Arheologie.ro
Linear Pottery culture
The Linear Pottery culture is a major archaeological horizon of the European Neolithic, flourishing c. 5500–4500 BC. It is abbreviated as LBK, is known as the Linear Band Ware, Linear Ware, Linear Ceramics or Incised Ware culture, falls within the Danubian I culture of V. Gordon Childe; the densest evidence for the culture is on the middle Danube, the upper and middle Elbe, the upper and middle Rhine. It represents a major event in the initial spread of agriculture in Europe; the pottery after which it was named consists of simple cups, bowls and jugs, without handles, but in a phase with lugs or pierced lugs and necks. Important sites include Nitra in Slovakia. Two variants of the early Linear Pottery culture are recognized: The Early or Western Linear Pottery Culture developed on the middle Danube, including western Hungary, was carried down the Rhine, Elbe and Vistula; the Eastern Linear Pottery Culture flourished in eastern Hungary. Middle and late phases are defined. In the middle phase, the Early Linear Pottery culture intruded upon the Bug-Dniester culture and began to manufacture musical note pottery.
In the late phase, the Stroked Pottery culture moved down the Elbe. A number of cultures replaced the Linear Pottery culture over its range, but without a one-to-one correspondence between its variants and the replacing cultures; the culture map, instead, is complex. Some of the successor cultures are the Hinkelstein, Großgartach, Rössen, Cucuteni-Trypillian, Boian-Maritza cultures; the term "Linear Band Ware" derives from the pottery's decorative technique. The "Band Ware" or Bandkeramik part of it began as an innovation of the German archaeologist, Friedrich Klopfleisch; the earliest accepted name in English was the Danubian of V. Gordon Childe. Most names in English are attempts to translate Linearbandkeramik. Since Starčevo-Körös pottery was earlier than the LBK and was located in a contiguous food-producing region, the early investigators looked for precedents there. Much of the Starčevo-Körös pottery features decorative patterns composed of convolute bands of paint: spirals, converging bands, vertical bands, so on.
The LBK appears to imitate and improve these convolutions with incised lines. The LBK only reached it toward the end of its time, it began in regions of densest occupation on the middle Danube and spread over about 1,500 km along the rivers in 360 years. The rate of expansion was therefore about 4 km per year, which can hardly be called an invasion or a wave by the standard of current events, but over archaeological time seems rapid; the LBK was concentrated somewhat inland from the coastal areas. The northern coastal regions remained occupied by Mesolithic cultures exploiting the fabulously rich Atlantic salmon runs. There are lighter concentrations of LBK in the Netherlands, such as at Elsloo, with the sites of Darion, Fexhe, or Waremme-Longchamps and at the mouths of the Oder and Vistula. Evidently, the Neolithics and Mesolithics were not excluding each other; the LBK at maximum extent ranged from about the line of the Seine–Oise eastward to the line of the Dnieper, southward to the line of the upper Danube down to the big bend.
An extension ran through the Southern Bug valley, leaped to the valley of the Dniester, swerved southward from the middle Dniester to the lower Danube in eastern Romania, east of the Carpathians. A good many C-14 dates have been acquired on the LBK, making possible statistical analyses, which have been performed on different sample groups. One such analysis by Stadler and Lennais sets 68.2% confidence limits at about 5430–5040 BC. The 95.4% confidence interval is 5600–4750 BC. Data continue to be acquired and therefore any one analysis should be taken as a rough guideline only. Overall, it is safe to say that the Linear Pottery culture spanned several hundred years of continental European prehistory in the late sixth and early fifth millennia BC, with local variations. Data from Belgium indicate a late survival of LBK there, as late as 4100 BC; the Linear Pottery culture is not the only food-producing player on the stage of prehistoric Europe. It has been necessary, therefore, to distinguish between it and the Neolithic, most done by dividing the Neolithic of Europe into chronological phases.
These have varied a great deal. An approximation is: Early Neolithic, 6000–5500; the first appearance of food-producing cultures in the south of the future Linear Pottery culture range: the Körös of southern Hungary and the Bug-Dniester culture in Ukraine. Middle Neolithic, 5500–5000. Early and Middle Linear Pottery culture. Late Neolithic, 5000–4500. Late Linear Pottery and legacy cultures; the last phase is no longer the end of the Neolithic. A "Final Neolithic" has been added to the transition between the Bronze Age. All numbers depend to some extent on the geographic region; the pottery styles of the LBK allow some division of its window in time. Conceptual schemes have varied somewhat. One is: Early: The
The Hamangia culture is a Late Neolithic archaeological culture of Dobruja between the Danube and the Black Sea and Muntenia in the south. It is named after the site of Baia-Hamangia, discovered in 1952 along Golovița Lake; the Hamangia culture began around 5250/5200 BC and lasted until around 4550/4500 BC. It was absorbed by the expanding Boian culture in its transition towards the Gumelniţa, its cultural links with Anatolia suggest that it was the result of a settlement by people from Anatolia, unlike the neighbouring cultures, which appear descended from earlier Neolithic settlement. The Hamangia culture attracted and attracts the attention of many art historians because of its exceptional clay figures. Painted vessels with complex geometrical patterns based on spiral-motifs are typical; the shapes include: cylindric glasses. They are decorated with dots, staight parallel lines and zig-zags, which make Hamangia pottery original. Pottery figurines are extremely stylized and show standing naked faceless women with emphasized breasts and buttocks.
Two figurines known as "The Thinker" and "The Sitting woman" are considered masterpieces of Neolithic art. Settlements consist of rectangular houses with one or two rooms, built of wattle and daub, sometimes with stone foundations, they are arranged on a rectangular grid and may form small tells. Settlements are located along the coast, at the coast of lakes, on the lower and middle river-terraces, sometimes in caves. Crouched or extended inhumation in cemeteries. Grave-goods tend to be without pottery in Hamangia I. Grave-goods include flint, worked shells, bone tools and shell-ornaments; the Durankulak lake settlement commenced on a small island 7000 BC and around 4700/4600 BC the stone architecture was in general use and became a characteristic phenomenon, unique in Europe. Cernavodă, the necropolis where the famous statues “The Thinker” and “The Sitting Woman” were discovered The eponymous site of Baia-Hamangia, discovered in 1953 along Lake Golovița, close to the Black Sea coast, in the Romanian province of Dobrogea.
Cycladic art Varna culture Vinča culture Cucuteni-Trypillia culture Old Europe History of Bulgaria Prehistoric Romania Prehistoric art List of Stone Age art Media related to Hamangia culture at Wikimedia Commons