In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
James Albert Bowen is an American record producer and former rockabilly singer. He is a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School of Business and holds an MBA with honors from Belmont University, he lives with his wife Ginger in Arizona. Bowen is responsible for bringing Nancy Lee Hazlewood together, he is responsible for teaming Nancy up with Mel Tillis for their album, Mel & Nancy. Bowen was born in New Mexico, his family moved to Dumas, when he was eight years old. Bowen began as a teenage recording star in 1957 with "I'm Stickin' with You"; the song started as the flip side of the hit record "Party Doll" by Buddy Knox, but hit the charts on its own, peaking at No. 14 on Billboard's Hot 100 chart. Bowen's version sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold record. Bowen's singing career did not take off as well as that of Knox, his partner in the Rhythm Orchids, he abandoned a singing career, choosing to stay in the production end of the music industry. In the early 1960s, in Los Angeles, California, he bucked the 1960s rock phenomenon when Frank Sinatra hired him as a record producer for Reprise Records, Bowen showed a strong knack for production, getting chart hits for Sinatra, Dean Martin, Bert Kaempfert and Sammy Davis, Jr. regarded as too old-fashioned for the sixties market.
Among the songs Bowen produced for Sinatra was the 1966 "Strangers in the Night", which went to No. 1 in the US and UK, won three Grammy Awards in 1967, including Record of the Year for Bowen. Bowen produced Dino, Desi & Billy, a group which included Dean Martin's son. In mid-1968, Bowen launched an independent record label, Amos Records, which lasted until 1971. Leaving Los Angeles for Nashville, Bowen became president of a series of record labels, took each one to country music preeminence, his success stories during the second half of the 1970s included Glen Campbell, Kenny Rogers, Hank Williams, Jr. The Oak Ridge Boys, Reba McEntire, George Strait, Suzy Bogguss, Kim Carnes and Garth Brooks in the 1980s. Bowen helped Conway Twitty make the album titled "Merry Twismas" in 1983, one of Conway's number one selling albums. Bowen revolutionized the way music was recorded in Nashville, introducing digital technology and modernizing the way instruments such as drums, for example, were recorded and mixed.
In 1988, Bowen founded a label named Universal Records, which he sold to Capitol Records a year later. Bowen produced his first movie soundtrack in 1970, for Vanishing Point, released in 1971; that soundtrack contains three songs which he composed, as well as music from the band Mountain and from Big Mama Thorton. The three Bowen pieces are an incidental theme called "Love Theme", credited to Jimmy Bowen Orchestra, two others, "Super Soul Theme" and the hard-rock piece "Freedom of Expression", credited to The J. B. Pickers. Other soundtracks include the movies Smokey and the Bandit II, The Slugger's Wife, the soundtrack of the theater play Big River. | 2002 |"Vanishing Point Original Soundtrack" |Harkit Records Bowen, Jimmy. Rough Mix. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0684807645. "Jimmy Bowen: Nashville Powerhouse". Mix. October 2, 2007. ISSN 0164-9957. Jimmy Bowen at AllMusic Jimmy Bowen discography at Discogs Jimmy Bowen on IMDb
High Notes is a studio album by American country music artist Hank Williams, Jr. It was released by Elektra/Curb Records in April 1982, making it Williams' eighth studio album for Elektra/Curb and his ninth overall for the label. While not as successful or acclaimed as some of Williams' more recent recordings, High Notes was still a commercial success, it peaked at number 3 on the Billboard Top Country Albums chart and was certified Gold by the RIAA, becoming Williams' seventh album to do so. The album generated two hit singles, "If Heaven Ain't a Lot Like Dixie" and "Honky Tonkin'". "If Heaven Ain't a Lot Like Dixie" peaked at number 5 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart while "Honky Tonkin'", a song, a number 14 hit written and performed by his father, Hank, Sr. became Hank, Jr.'s sixth Number One hit on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart. "If Heaven Ain't a Lot Like Dixie" – 2:43 "Whiskey on Ice" – 2:40 "High and Pressurized" – 2:22 "I Can't Change My Tune" – 3:12 "The South's Gonna Rattle Again" – 3:26 "Ain't Makin' No Headlines" – 3:02 "I've Been Down" – 3:39 "If You Wanna Get to Heaven" – 2:19 "Norwegian Wood" – 3:27 "Honky Tonkin'" – 2:14 Kenny Bell - acoustic guitar Harold Bradley - classical guitar Roger Clark - drums Vernon Derrick - mandolin, fiddle Sonny Garrish - steel guitar Jim Glaser - backing vocals Paul Hatfield - keyboards David Hungate - bass Kieran Kane - mandolin Mike Lawler - organ Eddie Long - steel guitar Randy McCormick - synthesizer Terry McMillan - harmonica Terry Mead - trumpet Farrell Morris - percussion, congas Steve Nathan - keyboards Fred Newell - electric guitar Hargus "Pig" Robbins - keyboards Brent Rowan - electric guitar, acoustic guitar Randy Scruggs - banjo, acoustic guitar Denis Solee - saxophone, flute Jo-El Sonnier - accordion Buddy Spicher - fiddle Bobby Thompson - banjo Harvey Thompson - saxophone Wayne Turner - electric guitar Billy Joe Walker Jr. - electric guitar Tommy Williams - fiddle Reggie Young - electric guitar Hank Williams Jr. - vocals, acoustic guitar
Blues My Name
Blues My Name is an album by American country music singer and songwriter Hank Williams, Jr. The album was issued by MGM Records as number E/SE 4344 and re-issued by Polydor Records as 833 069-1 Y-1. "Salt Lake City" "A Good Leavin' Alone" "Weary Blues from Waitin'" "Wrong Doin' Man" "These Boots Are Made for Walkin'" "Cry, Darling" "It's Written All Over Your Face" "When You're Tired of Breaking Other Hearts" "Blues My Name" "Low As a Man Can Go" "Old Frank" "So Easy to Forgive Her" Hank Williams, Jr. - guitar, vocals The Jordanaires - vocal accompaniment Mort Thomasson - engineer Val Valentin - director of engineering Acy Lehman - cover, design Walden S. Fabry - photography Hank Williams, Jr's Official Website
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
Stormy is an album by American country music singer and songwriter Hank Williams, Jr. It was released on August 1999 on the Curb Records label. "They All Want to Go Wild" – 3:11 "I'd Love to Knock the Hell Out of You" – 3:06 "Gibbonsville Gold" – 4:59 "Where Would We Be Without Yankees" – 3:20 "Naked Women and Beer" – 4:02 "I Like It When It's Stormy" – 3:47 "Southern Thunder" – 4:59 "Hank Hill Is the King" – 2:45 "All Jokes Aside" – 4:06 "Sometimes I Feel Like Joe Montana" – 4:01 Eddie Bayers - drums, percussion Mike Chapman - bass guitar J. T. Corenflos - 7-string acoustic guitar, acoustic guitar Dan Dugmore - pedal steel guitar Stuart Duncan - fiddle Paul Franklin - pedal steel guitar Kenny Greenberg - electric guitar John Hobbs - keyboards, piano Jim Horn - saxophone Bill Hullett - 7-string acoustic guitar, acoustic guitar Michael Landau - 7-string electric guitar, electric guitar Brent Mason - 7-string electric guitar, electric guitar Greg Morrow - drums, percussion Michael Rhodes - bass guitar Mike Rojas - keyboards, piano Brent Rowan - 7-string electric guitar, electric guitar John Wesley Ryles - background vocals Michael Spriggs - acoustic guitar Neil Thrasher - background vocals Hank Williams Jr. - lead vocals Dennis Wilson - background vocals Glenn Worf - bass guitar Curtis Young - background vocals Hank Williams, Jr's Official Website Record Label