Run-of-river hydroelectricity or run-of-the-river hydroelectricity is a type of hydroelectric generation plant whereby little or no water storage is provided. Run-of-the-river power plants may have no water storage at all or a limited amount of storage, in which case the storage reservoir is referred to as pondage. A plant without pondage is subject to seasonal river flows, thus the plant will operate as an intermittent energy source. Conventional hydro uses reservoirs, which regulate water for flood control and dispatchable electrical power. Run-of-the-river or ROR hydroelectricity is considered ideal for streams or rivers that can sustain a minimum flow or those regulated by a lake or reservoir upstream. A small dam is built to create a headpond ensuring that there is enough water entering the penstock pipes that lead to the turbines which are at a lower elevation. Projects with pondage, as opposed to those without pondage, can store water for daily load demands. In general, projects divert some or most of a river's flow through a pipe and/or tunnel leading to electricity-generating turbines return the water back to the river downstream.
ROR projects are different in design and appearance from conventional hydroelectric projects. Traditional hydro dams store enormous quantities of water in reservoirs, sometimes flooding large tracts of land. In contrast, run-of-river projects do not have the disadvantages associated with reservoirs, why they have less environmental impact; the use of the term "run-of-the-river" for power projects varies around the world. Some may consider a project ROR if power is produced with no water storage while limited storage is considered ROR by others. Developers may mislabel a project ROR to soothe public perception about its environmental or social effects; the Bureau of Indian Standards describes run-of-the-river hydroelectricity as: A power station utilizing the run of the river flows for generation of power with sufficient pondage for supplying water for meeting diurnal or weekly fluctuations of demand. In such stations, the normal course of the river is not materially altered. Many of the larger ROR projects have been designed to a scale and generating capacity rivaling some traditional hydro dams.
For example, the Beauharnois Hydroelectric Generating Station in Quebec is rated at 1,853 MW. Some run of the river projects are downstream of other reservoirs; the run of the river project didn't build the reservoir, but does take advantage of the water supplied by it. An example would be the 1995 1,436 MW La Grande-1 generating station. Previous upstream dams and reservoirs are part of the 1980s James Bay Project; when developed with care to footprint size and location, ROR hydro projects can create sustainable energy minimizing impacts to the surrounding environment and nearby communities. Advantages include: Like all hydro-electric power, run-of-the-river hydro harnesses the natural potential energy of water, eliminating the need to burn coal or natural gas to generate the electricity needed by consumers and industry. Moreover, run-of-the-river hydro-electric plants do not have reservoirs thus eliminating the methane and carbon dioxide emissions caused by the decomposition of organic matter in the reservoir of a conventional hydro-electric dam.
This is a particular advantage in tropical countries. Without a reservoir, flooding of the upper part of the river does not take place; as a result, people remain living at or near the river and existing habitats are not flooded. Any pre-existing pattern of flooding will continue unaltered, presenting a flood risk to the facility and downstream areas. Run-of-the-River power is considered an "unfirm" source of power: a run-of-the-river project has little or no capacity for energy storage and hence can't co-ordinate the output of electricity generation to match consumer demand, it thus generates much more power during times when seasonal river flows are high, depending on location, much less during drier summer months or frozen winter months. The potential power at a site is a result of the flow of water. By damming a river, the head is available to generate power at the face of the dam. Where a dam may create a reservoir hundreds of kilometres long, in run of the river the head is delivered by a canal, pipe or tunnel constructed upstream of the power house.
Due to the cost of upstream construction, a steep drop is desirable, such as rapids. Small, well-sited ROR projects can be developed with minimal environmental impacts. Larger projects have more environmental concerns. In the case of fish-bearing rivers a ladder may be required and dissolved gases downstream may affect fish. In British Columbia the mountainous terrain and wealth of big rivers have made it a global testing ground for 10–50 MW run-of-river technology; as of March 2010, there were 628 applications pending for new water licences for the purposes of power generation – representing more than 750 potential points of river diversion. Diverting large amounts of river water reduces river flows, affecting water velocity and depth, reducing habitat quality for fish and aquatic organisms. In undeveloped areas, new access roads and transmission lines can cause habitat fragmentation, allowing the introduction of invasive species; the lack of reservoir storage may result in intermittent operation, reducing the project's viability.
Belo Monte Dam, 11,233 megawatts, Pará, Brazil Chief Joseph Dam, 2,620 megawatts Beauharnois Hydroelectric Power Station, 1,903 megawatts Bonneville Dam, 1,092 megawatts Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Ltd, Sa
Davidson County, Tennessee
Davidson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 626,681, making it the second-most populous county in Tennessee, its county seat is the state capital. In 1963, the City of Nashville and the Davidson County government merged, so the county government is now known as the "Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County," or "Metro Nashville" for short. Davidson County has the largest population in the 14-county Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin Metropolitan Statistical Area. Nashville has always been the region's center of commerce, industry and culture, but it did not become the capital of Tennessee until 1827 and did not gain permanent capital status until 1843. Davidson County is the oldest county in the 41-county region of Middle Tennessee, it dates to 1783, when the North Carolina legislature created the county and named it in honor of William Lee Davidson, a North Carolina general, killed opposing General Cornwallis and the British Army's crossing of the Catawba River on February 1, 1781.
The county seat, Nashville, is the oldest permanent European settlement in Middle Tennessee, founded by James Robertson and John Donelson during the winter of 1779–80. The first white settlers established the Cumberland Compact in order to establish a basic rule of law and to protect their land titles. Through much of the early 1780s, the settlers faced a hostile response from Native American tribes who resented their encroaching on their territory and competing for resources; as the county's many known archaeological sites attest, Native American cultures had occupied areas of Davidson County for thousands of years. The first whites to enter the area were fur traders. Long hunters came next, having learned about the large salt lick, known as French Lick, where they hunted game and traded with Native Americans. In 1765, Timothy Demonbreun, a hunter and former Governor of Illinois under the French, his wife lived in a small cave on the south side of the Cumberland River near present-day downtown Nashville.
The first white child to be born in Middle Tennessee was born there. During the June 8, 1861, the divided population of Davidson County voted narrowly in favor of secession: 5,635 in favor, 5,572 against. Middle Tennessee was occupied by Union troops from 1862, which caused widespread social disruption in the state. See List of people from Nashville, Tennessee for notable people that were residents of both Nashville and Davidson County. Newman Haynes Clanton - Democrat, western cattle rustler and outlaw According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 526 square miles, of which 504 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water; the Cumberland River flows from east to west through the middle of the county. Two dams within the county are Old Hickory Lock and Dam and J. Percy Priest Dam, operated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Important tributaries of the Cumberland in Davidson County include Whites Creek, Manskers Creek, Stones River, Mill Creek, the Harpeth River.
Robertson County, Tennessee – north Sumner County, Tennessee – northeast Wilson County, Tennessee – east Rutherford County, Tennessee – southeast Williamson County, Tennessee – south Cheatham County, Tennessee – west Natchez Trace Parkway Bicentennial Mall State Park Couchville Cedar Glade State Natural Area Harpeth River State Park Hill Forest State Natural Area Long Hunter State Park Mount View Glade State Natural Area Percy Priest Wildlife Management Area Radnor Lake State Natural Area I-24 I-40 I-65 I-440 US 31 US 31A US 31E US 31W US 41 US 41A US 70 US 70S US 431 SR 12 SR 45 SR 96 SR 100 SR 155 SR 171 SR 174 SR 251 SR 253 SR 254 SR 255 SR 265 SR 386 As of the census of 2000, there were 569,891 people, 237,405 households, 138,169 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,135 people per square mile. There were 252,977 housing units at an average density of 504 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 67.0% White, 26.0% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.4% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races.
4.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2005 the racial makeup of the county was 61.7% non-Hispanic white, 27.5% African-American, 6.6% Latino and 2.8% Asian. In 2000 there were 237,405 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.9% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.8% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 34.0% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,797, the median income for a family was $49,317.
Males had a median income of $33,844 versus $27,770 for females. The per capita income for the county was $23,069. About 10.0% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.1% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. U. S. Senators: Lamar Alexander and Marsha Blackburn U. S. Representatives: Jim Cooper State Senators: Brenda Gilmore, Steven Dickerson, Jeff Yarbro, Ferrell Haile State Represent
A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built for river and canal transport of heavy goods. Some barges are not self-propelled and must be towed or pushed by towboats, canal barges or towed by draft animals on an adjacent towpath. Barges contended with the railway in the early Industrial Revolution, but were outcompeted in the carriage of high-value items due to the higher speed, falling costs and route flexibility of railways. Barge is attested from Old French barge, from Vulgar Latin barga; the word could refer to any small boat. Bark, "small ship", is attested from Old French barque, from Vulgar Latin barca; the more precise meaning "three-masted ship" arose in the 17th century, takes the French spelling for disambiguation. Both are derived from the Latin barica, from Ancient Greek: βάρις, translit. Báris, lit.'Egyptian boat', from Coptic: ⲃⲁⲁⲣⲉ bāri "small boat", hieroglyphic Egyptian and similar ba-y-r for "basket-shaped boat". By extension, the term "embark" means to board the kind of boat called a "barque".
The long pole used to maneuver or propel a barge has given rise to the saying "I wouldn't touch that with a barge pole." On the British canal system, the term'barge' is used to describe a boat wider than a narrowboat, the people who move barges are known as lightermen. On the UK canal system, boats wider than seven feet are referred to as widebeam. In the United States, deckhands are supervised by a leadman or the mate; the captain and pilot steer the towboat, which pushes one or more barges held together with rigging, collectively called'the tow'. The crew live aboard the towboat as it travels along the inland river system or the intracoastal waterways; these towboats travel between ports and are called line-haul boats. Poles are used on barges to fend off the barge as it nears a wharf; these are called'pike poles'. Barges are used today for low-value bulk items, as the cost of hauling goods by barge is low. Barges are used for heavy or bulky items; the most common European barge can carry up to about 2,450 tonnes.
As an example, on June 26, 2006, a 565-short-ton catalytic cracking unit reactor was shipped by barge from the Tulsa Port of Catoosa in Oklahoma to a refinery in Pascagoula, Mississippi. Large objects are shipped in sections and assembled onsite, but shipping an assembled unit reduced costs and avoided reliance on construction labor at the delivery site. Of the reactor's 700-mile journey, only about 40 miles were traveled overland, from the final port to the refinery. Self-propelled barges may be used as such when traveling upstream in placid waters. Canal barges are made for the particular canal in which they will operate. Many barges Dutch barges, which were designed for carrying cargo along the canals of Europe, are no longer large enough to compete in this industry with larger newer vessels. Many of these barges have been renovated and are now used as luxury hotel barges carrying holidaymakers along the same canals on which they once carried grain or coal. In primitive regions today and in all pre-development regions worldwide in times before industrial development and highways, barges were the predominant and most efficient means of inland transportation in many regions.
This holds true today, for many areas of the world. In such pre-industrialized, or poorly developed infrastructure regions, many barges are purpose-designed to be powered on waterways by long slender poles – thereby becoming known on American waterways as poleboats as the extensive west of North America was settled using the vast tributary river systems of the Mississippi drainage basin. Poleboats use muscle power of "walkers" along the sides of the craft pushing a pole against the streambed, canal or lake bottom to move the vessel where desired. In settling the American west it was faster to navigate downriver from Brownsville, Pennsylvania, to the Ohio River confluence with the Mississippi and pole upriver against the current to St. Louis than to travel overland on the rare primitive dirt roads for many decades after the American Revolution. Once the New York Central and Pennsylvania Railroads reached Chicago, that time dynamic changed, American poleboats became less common, relegated to smaller rivers and more remote streams.
On the Mississippi riverine system today, including that of other sheltered waterways, industrial barge trafficking in bulk raw materials such as coal, timber, iron ore and other minerals is common. Such barges need to be pushed by towboats. Canal barges, towed by draft animals on a waterway adjacent towpath were of fundamental importance in the early Industrial Revolution, whose major early engineering projects were efforts to build viaducts and canals to fuel and feed raw materials to nascent factories in the early industrial takeoff and take their goods to ports and cities for distribution; the barge and ca
The Cumberland River is a major waterway of the Southern United States. The 688-mile-long river drains 18,000 square miles of southern Kentucky and north-central Tennessee; the river flows west from a source in the Appalachian Mountains to its confluence with the Ohio River near Paducah and the mouth of the Tennessee River. Major tributaries include the Obey, Caney Fork and Red rivers. Although the Cumberland River basin is predominantly rural, there are some large cities on the river, including Nashville and Clarksville, both in Tennessee. In addition, the river system has been extensively developed for flood control, with major dams impounding both the main stem and many of its important tributaries, its headwaters are three separate forks that begin in Kentucky and converge in Baxter, KY, located in Harlan County. Martin's Fork starts near Hensley Settlement on Brush Mountain in Bell County and snakes its way north through the mountains to Baxter. Clover Fork starts on Black Mountain in Holmes Mill, near the Virginia border, flows west in parallel with Kentucky Route 38 until it reaches Harlan.
Clover Fork once flowed through downtown Harlan and merged with Martins Fork at the intersection of Kentucky Route 38 and US Route 421 until a flood control project began in 1992 diverted it through a tunnel under Little Black Mountain from which it emerges in Baxter and converges with Martins Fork. Poor Fork begins as a small stream on Pine Mountain in Letcher County near Virginia, it flows southwest in parallel with Pine Mountain until it merges with the other two forks in Baxter. From there, the wider, now named Cumberland River continues flowing west through the mountains of Kentucky before turning northward toward Cumberland Falls; the 68-foot falls is one of the largest waterfalls in the southeastern United States and is one of the few places in the Western Hemisphere where a moonbow can be seen. Beyond Cumberland Falls, the river turns abruptly west once again and continues to grow as it converges with other creeks and streams, it receives the Laurel and Rockcastle rivers from the northeast and the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River from the south.
From here it flows into the man-made Lake Cumberland, formed by Wolf Creek Dam. The more than 100-mile reservoir is one of the largest artificial lakes in the eastern US. Near Celina, the river crosses south into Tennessee, where it is joined by the Obey River and Caney Fork. Northeast of Nashville, the river is dammed twice more, forming Cordell Hull Lake and Old Hickory Lake. After flowing through Nashville and picking up the Stones River, the river is dammed to form Cheatham Lake; the river turns northwest toward Clarksville, where it is joined by the Red River, flows back into Kentucky at the Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area, a section of land nestled between Lake Barkley, fed by the Cumberland River, Kentucky Lake. The river flows north and merges with the Ohio River at Smithland, northeast of Paducah; the explorer Thomas Walker of Virginia in 1758 named the river, but whether for the Duke of Cumberland or the English county of Cumberland is not known. The Cumberland River was called Wasioto by the Shawnee Native Americans.
French traders called it the Riviere des Chaouanons, or "River of the Shawnee" for this association. The river was known as the Shawnee River for years after Walker's trip. Important first as a passage for hunters and settlers, the Cumberland River supported riverboat trade, which traveled to the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Villages and cities were located at landing points along its banks. Through the middle of the 19th century, settlers depended on rivers as the primary transportation routes for trading and travel. In more recent history, a number of severe floods have struck various regions that the river flows through. In April 1977, Harlan and many surrounding communities were inundated with floodwaters, destroying most of the homes and businesses within the floodplain of the river; this event led to the building of the Martins Fork Dam for flood control and the diversion of the Clover Fork around the city of Harlan. In addition, the river was diverted through a mountain cut in Kentucky.
In late April and early May 2010, due to the 2010 Tennessee floods, the river overflowed its banks and flooded Nashville and Clarksville, Tennessee. The downtown area was ordered to evacuate. Quadrula tuberosa — Cumberland River endemic'Rough rockshell' freshwater mussel. List of longest rivers of the United States List of rivers of Kentucky List of rivers of Tennessee Media related to Cumberland River at Wikimedia Commons "Cumberland River"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Cumberland River". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914
United States Army Corps of Engineers
The United States Army Corps of Engineers is a U. S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering and construction management agencies. Although associated with dams and flood protection in the United States, USACE is involved in a wide range of public works throughout the world; the Corps of Engineers provides outdoor recreation opportunities to the public, provides 24% of U. S. hydropower capacity. The corps' mission is to "Deliver vital military engineering services. Other civil engineering projects include flood control, beach nourishment, dredging for waterway navigation. Design and construction of flood protection systems through various federal mandates. Design and construction management of military facilities for the Army, Air Force, Army Reserve and Air Force Reserve and other Defense and Federal agencies. Environmental regulation and ecosystem restoration.
The history of United States Army Corps of Engineers can be traced back to 16 June 1775, when the Continental Congress organized an army with a chief engineer and two assistants. Colonel Richard Gridley became General George Washington's first chief engineer. One of his first tasks was to build fortifications near Boston at Bunker Hill; the Continental Congress recognized the need for engineers trained in military fortifications and asked the government of King Louis XVI of France for assistance. Many of the early engineers in the Continental Army were former French officers. Louis Lebègue Duportail, a lieutenant colonel in the French Royal Corps of Engineers, was secretly sent to America in March 1777 to serve in Washington's Continental Army. In July 1777 he was appointed colonel and commander of all engineers in the Continental Army, in November 17, 1777, he was promoted to brigadier general; when the Continental Congress created a separate Corps of Engineers in May 1779 Duportail was designated as its commander.
In late 1781 he directed the construction of the allied U. S.-French siege works at the Battle of Yorktown. From 1794 to 1802 the engineers were combined with the artillery as the Corps of Artillerists and Engineers; the Corps of Engineers, as it is known today, came into existence on 16 March 1802, when President Thomas Jefferson signed the Military Peace Establishment Act whose aim was to "organize and establish a Corps of Engineers... that the said Corps... shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York and shall constitute a military academy." Until 1866, the superintendent of the United States Military Academy was always an officer of engineer. The General Survey Act of 1824 authorized the use of Army engineers to survey canal routes; that same year, Congress passed an "Act to Improve the Navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers" and to remove sand bars on the Ohio and "planters, sawyers, or snags" on the Mississippi, for which the Corps of Engineers was the responsible agency.
Separately authorized on 4 July 1838, the U. S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers consisted only of officers and was used for mapping and the design and construction of federal civil works and other coastal fortifications and navigational routes, it was merged with the Corps of Engineers on 31 March 1863, at which point the Corps of Engineers assumed the Lakes Survey District mission for the Great Lakes. In 1841, Congress created the Lake Survey; the survey, based in Detroit, Mich. was charged with conducting a hydrographical survey of the Northern and Northwestern Lakes and preparing and publishing nautical charts and other navigation aids. The Lake Survey published its first charts in 1852. In the mid-19th century, Corps of Engineers' officers ran Lighthouse Districts in tandem with U. S. Naval officers; the Army Corps of Engineers played a significant role in the American Civil War. Many of the men who would serve in the top leadership in this institution were West Point graduates who rose to military fame and power during the Civil War.
Some of these men were Union Generals George McClellan, Henry Halleck, George Meade, Confederate generals Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, P. G. T. Beauregard; the versatility of officers in the Army Corps of Engineers contributed to the success of numerous missions throughout the Civil War. They were responsible for building pontoon and railroad bridges and batteries, the destruction of enemy supply lines, the construction of roads; the Union forces were not the only ones to employ the use of engineers throughout the war, on 6 March 1861, once the South had seceded from the Union, among the different acts passed at the time, a provision was included that called for the creation of a Confederate Corps of Engineers. The progression of the war demonstrated the South's disadvantage in engineering expertise. To overcome this obstacle, the Confederate Congress passed legislation that gave a company of engineers to every division in the field. One of the main projects for the Army Corps of Engineers was constructing railroads and bridges, which Union forces took advantage of because railroads and bridges provided access to resources and industry.
One area where the Confederate engineers were able to outperform the Union Army was in the ability to build fortification
Sumner County, Tennessee
Sumner County is a county located on the central northern border of the U. S. state in what is called Middle Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 160,645, its county seat is Gallatin, its largest city is Hendersonville. The county is named for American Revolutionary War hero General Jethro Sumner. Sumner County is part of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is made up of eight cities, including Gallatin, Hendersonville, Mitchellville, Portland and White House. Sumner County is 25 miles northeast of Tennessee. Prior to the European colonization of North America, the county had been inhabited by various cultures of Native Americans for several thousand years. Nomadic Paleo and Archaic hunter-gatherer campsites, as well as substantial Woodland and Mississippian-period occupation sites and burial grounds, can be found scattered throughout the county along the waterways; the majority of these sites exist along natural waterways, with the highest concentration occurring along what is now known as the Cumberland River.
Mississippian period earthwork mounds can still be seen in Hendersonville, most notably, at Castalian Springs. Long before Europeans entered the area, Native Americans made use of the natural hot springs for their medicinal and healing properties. British colonial longhunters traveled into the area as early as the 1760s, following existing Indian and buffalo trails. By the early 1780s, they had erected several trading posts in the region; the most prominent was Mansker's Station, built by Kasper Mansker near a salt lick. Another was Bledsoe's Station, built by Isaac Bledsoe at Castilian Springs. Sumner County was organized in 1786, just 3 yeears after the end of the American Revolutionary War, when Tennessee was still the western part of North Carolina; the county was developed for agriculture: tobacco and hemp, blooded livestock. Numerous settlers came from central Kentucky's Bluegrass Region, where these were the most important products. Middle Tennessee had fertile lands that could be used for similar crops and supported high-quality livestock as well.
The larger planters depended on the labor of enslaved African Americans, but Middle Tennessee had a lower proportion of slaves in the population than in West Tennessee, the plantation area of Memphis and the Delta, where cotton was cultivated. During the American Civil War, most of Tennessee was occupied by Union troops from 1862; this led to a breakdown in civil order in many areas. The Union commander, Eleazer A. Paine, was based at the county seat, he had suspected spies publicly executed without trial in the town square. He was replaced because of his mistreatment of the people. In 1873 the county was hit hard by the fourth cholera pandemic of the century, which had begun about 1863 in Asia, it reached North America and was spread by steamboat passengers who traveled throughout the waterways in the South on the Mississippi River and its tributaries. An estimated 120 persons died of cholera in Sumner County in 1873 during the summer; the disease was spread through contaminated water, due to the lack of sanitation.
About four-fifths of the county's victims were African Americans. Many families, both black and white, lost multiple members. In the United States overall, about 50,000 persons died of cholera in the 1870s. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 543 square miles, of which 529 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Sumner County is located in Middle Tennessee on the state's northern border with Kentucky; the Cumberland River was important in early trade and transportation for this area, as it flows into the Ohio River to the west. That leads to the Mississippi River, downriver to the major port of New Orleans. Sumner County is in the Greater Nashville metropolitan area. Davidson County Macon County Robertson County Trousdale County Wilson County Allen County, Kentucky Simpson County, Kentucky Bledsoe Creek State Park Cragfont State Historic Site Gallatin Steam Plant Wildlife Management Area Old Hickory Lock and Dam Wildlife Management Area Rock Castle State Historic Site Taylor Hollow State Natural Area Wynnewood State Historic Site As of the census of 2000, there were 130,449 people, 48,941 households, 37,048 families residing in the county.
The population density was 246 people per square mile. There were 51,657 housing units at an average density of 98 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.49% White, 5.78% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.80% from other races, 0.96% from two or more races. 1.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2000 there were 48,941 households out of which 36.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.10% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.30% were non-families. 20.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.30% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 30.70% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 10.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females, there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was
The Hermitage (Nashville, Tennessee)
The Hermitage is a historical plantation and museum located in Davidson County, United States, 10 miles east of downtown Nashville. The plantation was owned by Andrew Jackson, the seventh President of the United States, from 1804 until his death at the Hermitage in 1845. Jackson only lived at the property until he retired from public life in 1837. Enslaved men and children, numbering nine at the plantation's purchase in 1804 and 110 at Jackson's death, worked at the Hermitage and were principally involved in growing cotton, its major cash crop, it is a National Historic Landmark. The Hermitage is built in a secluded meadow, chosen as a house site by Rachel Jackson, wife of Andrew Jackson. From 1804 to 1821, Jackson and his wife lived in a log cabin, with slaves occupying two additional log structures. Together, the complex formed the First Hermitage, with the structures known as the West and Southeast cabins. Jackson commissioned construction of a more refined house, the original mansion was a two-story, Federal-style building built with bricks manufactured onsite using skilled slave labor.
Construction took place between 1819 and 1821. The house had four rooms on the ground floor and four rooms on the second level, each with a fireplace and chimney; the large central hallways opened in warm weather from front to back to form a breezeway. A simple portico was added later. In 1831, while Jackson was residing in the White House, he had the mansion remodeled under the direction of architect David Morrison; the new structure included flanking one-story wings, a one-story entrance portico with 10 columns, a small rear portico that gave the house a Classical appearance. In 1834, a chimney fire damaged the house, with the exception of the dining room wing; this led to Jackson having the current 13-room, Greek Revival structure built on the same foundation as the former house. It was completed two years later; the architects for the house were Joseph Reiff and William C. Hume, who built Tulip Grove across the road; the mansion has a rectangular layout 104 feet from east to west and 54 feet from north to south.
The south front is the location of the main entrance and includes a central block with a five-bay, two-story structure with a portico supported by six modified Corinthian style, wooden columns with a simple entablature resting on the capitals. Within the portico is a second-story balcony with simple square balusters. One-story wings with single fenestrations flank the mansion and extend beyond it to the front of the portico, enclosing it on three sides. While the southern façade gives the appearance of a flat roof, the three other elevations show that the tin-covered roof is pitched; the front façade was painted a light tan, a sand coating was added to the columns and trim to simulate the appearance of stone. A near replica of the front portico is found on the north end of the house, although it features Doric-style columns and is capped with a pediment; the layout of the main block of the house consists of four large rooms separated by a center hall. The entry hall with plank flooring painted dark is decorated with block-printed wallpaper by Joseph Dufour et Cie of Paris, depicting scenes from Telemachus' visit to the island of Calypso.
At the far end of the hall is the elliptical cantilevered staircase with mahogany handrail that leads to the second level. To the left of the hall are the front and back parlors, featuring crystal chandeliers and Italian marble mantels. Leading from the front parlor is the dining room in the east wing. Decorated with a high-gloss paint to reflect as much light as possible, the fireplace features a rustic mantelpiece called the "Eighth of January", it was carved by a veteran of the Battle of New Orleans, who worked on the mantelpiece on each anniversary of the battle until he finished on January 8, 1839. Jackson installed the piece on the next anniversary a year on January 8, 1840. Adjacent to the dining room is a pantry and storage room that leads to an open passageway to the kitchen; this was built separate from the house to reduce the risk of fire to the main house as well as eliminate the noise and odors of cooking. To the right of the entrance hall, accessible via a side hall, are two bedrooms that were occupied by President Jackson and his son, Andrew Jackson, Jr.
A spacious library and office used by Jackson and others to manage the plantation are located in the west wing. On the second level are four bedrooms used by family members and guests, including Sam Houston, the Marquis de Lafayette, Presidents James K. Polk and Martin Van Buren; the site today covers 1,120 acres, which includes the original 1,050-acre tract of Jackson's plantation. It is overseen and managed by The Andrew Jackson Foundation called the Ladies' Hermitage Association; the mansion is approached by a cedar-lined, 10-foot wide, guitar-shaped carriage drive designed by Ralph E. W. Earl; the design made it easier to maneuver carriages in the narrow space. To the east of the house was a 1-acre formal garden designed by Philadelphia-based gardener William Frost in 1819. Laid out in the English four-square kitchen garden style, it consists of four quadrants and a circular center bed contained by unusually long, beveled bricks and pebbled pathways; the garden was used to produce food for the mansion and secondarily as an ornamental pleasure garden.
It is surrounded by a white picket fence. On the north perimeter stands a brick privy that served as a status symbol as well as a garden feature. After Rachel Jackson died in 1828, Jackson had her buried in the garden; when he had the house remodeled in 1831, Jackson had a Classicizing "temple & monument" constructed for Rachel's grave