PC Gamer is a magazine founded in the United Kingdom in 1993 devoted to PC gaming and published monthly by Future plc. The magazine has several regional editions, with the UK and US editions becoming the best selling PC games magazines in their respective countries; the magazine features news on developments in the video game industry, previews of new games, reviews of the latest popular PC games, along with other features relating to hardware, mods, "classic" games and various other topics. PC Gamer reviews are written by the magazine's editors and freelance writers, rate games on a percent scale. In the UK edition, no game has yet been awarded more than 96%. In the US edition, no game has yet received a rating higher than 98%. In the UK edition, the lowest numerical score was 2%, awarded to The 4th Golden Satellite Awards for Interactive Media Winner Big Brother 1; the sequel, Big Brother 2, was given an lower score of N/A%, the review explaining that " put as much effort into reviewing it as they did in making the game".
In issue 255, August 2013, the score of 2% was matched by the review of the re-released Leisure Suit Larry: Magna Cum Laude given 3% when it first launched. In the US edition, the lowest score awarded was 4%, given to Mad Dog McCree, unseating the lowest-rated game, Skydive!, given 5%. There are two main editions of PC Gamer, a British version and an American version, both are published by Future plc. Founded in the United Kingdom in November 1993, the American sister version was launched a year in June 1994. There are numerous local editions that use the materials of one of the two editions the British one, including a Malaysian and Russian edition; the Swedish edition, though rooted in its UK counterpart, has grown to be more independent due to the immense popularity of PC games compared to console games in Sweden, now produces most of its own material. An Australian edition was published monthly by Perth-based Conspiracy Publishing since August 1998, but it appears to have been discontinued in mid-late 2004.
A Spanish edition titled "PC Juegos y Jugadores" exists. Both American and British magazines are published thirteen times per year, although there are sometimes variations; the British edition of PC Gamer has been in constant monthly publication since 1993. Subscribers get a special edition of the magazine with no headlines on the front cover. Devoted to PC games, the magazine has a reputation for giving in-depth reviews; the magazine shipped with an accompanying 3.5-inch floppy disc. A CD demo disc was released alongside the floppy disk edition from issue 11 onwards with the first CD Gamer containing all the content from the previous 10 issues' floppy discs; the single CD was expanded to two CDs. An edition with a 9 GB DVD known as DVD Gamer ran alongside the 2CD edition for a couple of years, until production of the CD Gamer edition ceased as of issue 162; the UK Edition only came with a single double-sided DVD. In August 2011, the UK magazine announced it was to be discontinuing the disk as of issue 232, replacing it with more pages of content within the magazine and exclusive free gifts.
The magazine has many regular features. These include sections called ´Eyewitness´, ´Previews´, ´Send´, where letters from the readers are spread over 2 two page spreads, at least one special feature, which reports on gaming related issues such as the effect of PC gaming on the environment, a review section which reviews the latest released PC games and re-reviews titles that have been released on budget and ´Extra Life´ which reports on modding games and gaming culture and revisiting old games. There is a ´Systems´ section, which reviews and recommends hardware such as video cards and monitors; the back page of the magazine is entitled ´It's All Over´ and consists of game related artwork such as a version of Dalí's The Persistence of Memory featuring items from Portal. For a time, one of the magazine's features, ´Gamer Snap´, where amusing pictures sent in by readers were printed in the magazine, however the feature was discontinued and replaced with a ´Guess the game´ where readers sent in drawings of memorable scenes in video games drawn in Microsoft Paint.
The PC Gamer blog was started to coincide with the transfer of the PC Gamer UK site to become part of the Computer and Video Games network which incorporates all of Future plc's gaming magazines. The move brought some controversy, with many long-standing members of the forum leaving due to the new forum's cramped spacing and slow loading times; the introduction of a blog was seen as one of the redeeming features of the switch. The blog has since been updated with contributions from many of the magazine's staff; the topics discussed range from the controversy over violent video games, to the benefits of buying a PC over a console. In 2010, PC Gamer re-launched their website and blog by bringing together the online communities of both the US and UK magazines into one website; as a result, the PC Gamer blog now has contributions from both the US and UK magazines, all hosted at the new website along with the forums for both magazines. The PC Gamer UK podcast was started on 4 May 2007 and ran 93 episodes until its final episode, released on 5 July 2013.
It had a rotating cast made up of members of the staff including Chris Thursten, Tom Senior, Graham Smith, Tom Francis, Marsh Davies. The podca
Kieron Gillen is a British comic book writer and former computer game and music journalist. He is known for his creator-owned comics Phonogram and The Wicked + The Divine, both created with artist Jamie McKelvie and published by Image Comics, for numerous projects for Marvel Comics, such as Journey into Mystery, Uncanny X-Men, Young Avengers. Gillen has worked for publications such as PC Gamer UK, The Escapist, Amiga Power, The Guardian, Games Developer, Develop, MCV, GamesMaster and PC Format, among others. On the web, Gillen was a founder of and major contributor to the PC gaming site Rock, Shotgun and a games reviewer for Eurogamer, he is notable for his manifesto for New Games Journalism, more the model of New Journalism applied to video game journalism. In 2000, Gillen became the first-ever video game journalist to receive an award from the Periodical Publishers Association, for New Specialist Consumer Journalist, he has been invited as a guest speaker at games-industry conferences. He is a fan of the work of video game developer Warren Spector writing positive pieces on Spector's games, most notably the Ion Storm produced games Deus Ex and Thief: Deadly Shadows.
In September 2010, Gillen declared on the website Rock, Shotgun that he was leaving full-time games journalism to better devote his time to comics writing and his contract with Marvel. Gillen has written for online comics, he has worked for Chaos League. Since 2003, Gillen has collaborated with artist Jamie McKelvie on a comic strip for the PlayStation Official Magazine – UK, entitled Save Point, his 2006 project, described by Gillen as "my first real comic" is another collaboration with McKelvie, the pop-music urban fantasy Phonogram. Veteran comics writer Warren Ellis has dubbed it "one of the few essential comics of 2006."The first issue, published by Image Comics, went on sale in August 2006, the first series ran for six issues. The second series ran for seven issues, was launched in December 2008. A third six-issue series, The Immaterial Girl, exploring the character of "Emily Aster", was published in Aug 2015 On 14 April 2008 it was announced he would be collaborating with the artist Greg Scott to expand the Warren Ellis's newuniversal mythos with "a story about killing the future" set in 1959 and he wrote Crown of Destruction, a Warhammer Fantasy comic.
The Phonogram sequel "The Singles Club" started in December 2008, a series of one-shots, all about the same night. He got a new assignment at Marvel with a Beta Ray Bill one-shot and mini-series, his workload at Marvel increased in late 2009. At HeroesCon it was announced he would be writing a Dark Reign tie-in with the Dark Avengers: Ares mini-series. During the 2009 Chicago Comic Con it was announced that Gillen will collaborate with Steven Sanders on a new ongoing series known as S. W. O. R. D from Marvel Comics. Gillen had a run on Thor, following J. Michael Straczynski, from issues No. 604 to 614. In late 2010 he started his own ongoing series, Generation Hope, an X-Men spin-off that leads on from the end of the "Second Coming" storyline. Gillen continued on this title until issue No. 12, being followed by James Asmus. After collaborating as co-writer with Matt Fraction on Uncanny X-Men beginning with issue No. 531, Gillen became sole writer of that title starting with issue #534.1 in 2011. His time on the title saw the book through the 2011 "Fear Itself" storyline, a renumbering to No. 1 in the wake of "Schism" storyline, a tie in with "Avengers vs. X-Men" with issue No. 20.
He wrote a five-issue miniseries AvX: Consequences. In 2011 Gillen returned to Marvel's Asgard, with a run on Journey into Mystery, starting with issue No. 622. This run finished with No. 645 in October 2012. As part of the Marvel NOW relaunch, Gillen will be writing two books – Invincible Iron Man, with art provided by Greg Land, his penciller on Uncanny, Young Avengers, with McKelvie, he has written a series for Avatar Press called Mercury Heat, a series for Image called Three, about the helots of Sparta, planned for 2013. Phonogram collected as: Rue Britannia The Singles Club The Immaterial Girl This is a Souvenir: "Sweeping the Nation" The CBLDF Presents Liberty Annual'12: "Unleashed" Three #1–5 collected as Three The Wicked + The Divine: collected as: The Faust Act Fandemonium Commercial Suicide Rising Action Imperial Phase Imperial Phase Mothering Invention Old is the New New Okay Die newuniversal: 1959 X-Men: Manifest Destiny #5: "Dazzler: Solo" collected in X-Men: Manifest Des
Interactive fiction abbreviated IF, is software simulating environments in which players use text commands to control characters and influence the environment. Works in this form can be understood as literary narratives, either in the form of Interactive narratives or Interactive narrations; these works can be understood as a form of video game, either in the form of an adventure game or role-playing game. In common usage, the term refers to text adventures, a type of adventure game where the entire interface can be "text-only", graphical text adventure games, where the text is accompanied by graphics still fall under the text adventure category if the main way to interact with the game is by typing text; some users of the term distinguish between interactive fiction, known as "Puzzle-free", that focuses on narrative, "text adventures" that focus on puzzles. Due to their text-only nature, they sidestepped the problem of writing for divergent graphics architectures; this feature meant that interactive fiction games were ported across all the popular platforms at the time, including CP/M.
The number of interactive fiction works is increasing as new ones are produced by an online community, using available development systems. The term can be used to refer to digital versions of literary works that are not read in a linear fashion, known as gamebooks, where the reader is instead given choices at different points in the text; the most famous example of this form of printed fiction is the Choose Your Own Adventure book series, the collaborative "addventure" format has been described as a form of interactive fiction. The term “interactive fiction” is sometimes used to refer to visual novels, a type of interactive narrative software popular in Japan. Text adventures are one of the oldest types of computer games and form a subset of the adventure genre; the player uses text input to control the game, the game state is relayed to the player via text output. Interactive fiction relies on reading from a screen and on typing input, although text-to-speech synthesizers allow blind and visually impaired users to play interactive fiction titles as audio games.
Input is provided by the player in the form of simple sentences such as "get key" or "go east", which are interpreted by a text parser. Parsers may vary in sophistication. Parsers, such as those built on ZIL, could understand complete sentences. Parsers could handle increasing levels of complexity parsing sentences such as "open the red box with the green key go north"; this level of complexity is the standard for works of interactive fiction today. Despite their lack of graphics, text adventures include a physical dimension where players move between rooms. Many text adventure games boasted their total number of rooms to indicate how much gameplay they offered; these games are unique in that they may create an illogical space, where going north from area A takes you to area B, but going south from area B did not take you back to area A. This can create mazes that do not behave as players expect, thus players must maintain their own map; these illogical spaces are much more rare in today's era of 3D gaming, the Interactive Fiction community in general decries the use of mazes claiming that mazes have become arbitrary'puzzles for the sake of puzzles' and that they can, in the hands of inexperienced designers, become immensely frustrating for players to navigate.
Interactive fiction shares much in common with Multi-User Dungeons. MUDs, which became popular in the mid-1980s, rely on a textual exchange and accept similar commands from players as do works of IF. MUDs focus gameplay on activities that involve communities of players, simulated political systems, in-game trading, other gameplay mechanics that are not possible in a single player environment. Interactive fiction features two distinct modes of writing: the game output; as described above, player input is expected to be in simple command form. A typical command may be:> PULL Lever The responses from the game are written from a second-person point of view, in present tense. This is because, unlike in most works of fiction, the main character is associated with the player, the events are seen to be happening as the player plays. While older text adventures identified the protagonist with the player directly, newer games tend to have specific, well-defined protagonists with separate identities from the player.
The classic essay "Crimes Against Mimesis" discusses, among other IF issues, the nature of "You" in interactive fiction. A typical response might look something like this, the response to "look in tea chest" at the start of Curses: "That was the first place you tried and hours ago now, there's nothing there but that boring old book. You pick it up anyway, bored as you are." Many text adventures those designed for humour, address the player with an informal tone, sometimes including sarcastic remarks. The late Douglas Adams, in designing the IF version of his'Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy', created a unique solution to the final puzzle of the game: the game requires the one solitary ite
Bryan Lee O'Malley
Bryan Lee O'Malley is a Canadian cartoonist, best known for the Scott Pilgrim series. He is a musician using the alias Kupek. Bryan Lee O'Malley attended St. Thomas Aquinas Catholic Secondary School in London, Canada, he went on to start in Film Studies at the University of Western Ontario, but dropped out before completing. Prior to having his own material published, O'Malley illustrated the Oni Press miniseries Hopeless Savages: Ground Zero, written by Jen Van Meter, he lettered many Oni comics, including the majority of Chynna Clugston's output between 2002 and 2005. His first original graphic novel was Lost at Sea. On July 20, 2010, he released the final volume for the Scott Pilgrim series. All have been published by Oni Press. In July 2014, his graphic novel Seconds was released by Ballantine Books. O'Malley created the cover art work for the 2012 video game Fez; the film adaptation of his Scott Pilgrim series, Scott Pilgrim vs. the World, directed and co-written by Edgar Wright, was released by Universal Pictures on August 13, 2010.
He is a songwriter and musician and in several short-lived Toronto bands such as Imperial Otter and Honey Dear. In mid 2016, O'Malley revealed the title of his next major graphic novel Worst World, which has no release date, he is the co-creator of the ongoing comic book Snotgirl with Leslie Hung. He is billed as its writer. O'Malley is half French-Canadian. In 2004, O'Malley married fellow cartoonist Hope Larson, they lived together in Toronto in 2004, Halifax in 2005, North Carolina from 2008 to 2010, Los Angeles. They divorced in 2014. 2005 Doug Wright Award for Best Emerging Talent 2005 Harvey Award nominations for Best New Talent, Best Cartoonist, Best Graphic Album of Original Work 2005 Eagle Awards nomination for Favourite Comics Writer/Artist. The World Scott Pilgrim & The Infinite Sadness Scott Pilgrim Gets It Together Scott Pilgrim vs; the Universe Scott Pilgrim's Finest Hour Seconds Worst World Hopeless Savages: Ground Zero Sex Criminals #11 Young Avengers #1 Sacrifice #5 The Wicked + The Divine #1 Kaijumax #1 Jonesy #1 Snotgirl "Lost At Sea", a two-page full-color comic in the Oni Press Color Special 2002 "Monica Beetle" in Project: Superior "Smiling Is Something Other People Do", in The SPX 2003 Anthology Credited as Kupek This is Intolerable Nameless, Faceless Compilation Awkward Songz Before the Beginning and After the End B is for Bupek: Miscellany by Kupek Tries Again Good Time Singles Club Official website Kupek at PureVolume Bryan Lee O'Malley at the Grand Comics Database Bryan Lee O'Malley on IMDb
Portal 2 is a first-person puzzle-platform video game developed by Valve Corporation. It was released in April 2011 for Windows, OS X, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360; the digital PC version is distributed online by Valve's Steam service, while all retail editions were distributed by Electronic Arts. Like the original Portal, players solve puzzles by teleporting between them. Portal 2 adds features including tractor beams, light bridges, paint-like gels that alter player movement or allow portals to be placed on any surface. In the single-player campaign, players control Chell, who navigates the dilapidated Aperture Science Enrichment Center during its reconstruction by the supercomputer GLaDOS. In the new cooperative mode, players solve puzzles together as robots P-Body. Jonathan Coulton and the National produced songs for the game. Valve announced Portal 2 in March 2010, promoted it with alternate reality games including the Potato Sack, a collaboration with several independent game developers. After release, Valve released downloadable content and a simplified map editor to allow players to create and share levels.
Portal 2 received acclaim for its gameplay, balanced learning curve, dark humor and acting. It has been described as one of the greatest video games of all time by numerous publications and critics. Portal 2 is a first-person perspective puzzle game; the player takes the role of Chell in the single-player campaign, as one of two robots—Atlas and P-Body—in the cooperative campaign, or as a simplistic humanoid icon in community-developed puzzles. These four characters can interact with the environment. Characters will die after sustained injury. There is no penalty for falling onto a solid surface, but falling into bottomless pits or toxic pools kills the player character immediately; when Chell dies in the single-player game, the game restarts from a recent checkpoint. The goal of both campaigns is to explore the Aperture Science Laboratory—a complicated, malleable mechanized maze. While most of the game takes place in modular test chambers with defined entrances and exits, other parts occur in behind-the-scenes areas where the objective is less clear.
The initial tutorial levels guide the player through the general movement controls and illustrate how to interact with the environment. The player must solve puzzles using the'portal gun' or'Aperture Science Handheld Portal Device', which can create two portals connecting two distant surfaces depicted as matte white and flat. Characters can use these portals to move between rooms or to "fling" objects or themselves across a distance. Outlines of placed portals are visible through other obstacles for easy location. Game elements include Thermal Discouragement Beams, Excursion Funnels, Hard Light Bridges, all of which can be transmitted through portals. Aerial Faith Plates launch the player or objects through the air and sometimes into portals; the player must avoid their line of sight. The Weighted Storage Cube has been redesigned, there are new types: Redirection Cubes, which have prismatic lenses that redirect laser beams, spherical Edgeless Safety Cubes, an antique version of the Weighted Storage Cube used in the underground levels, a cube-turret hybrid created by Wheatley after taking control of Aperture.
The heart-decorated Weighted Companion Cube reappears briefly. Early demonstrations included Pneumatic Diversity Vents, shown to transport objects and transfer suction power through portals, but these do not appear in the final game. All of these game elements open locked doors, or help or hamper the character from reaching the exit. Paint-like gels impart certain properties to objects coated with them. Players can use orange Propulsion Gel to cross surfaces more blue Repulsion Gel to bounce from a surface, white Conversion Gel to allow surfaces to accept portals. Only one type of gel can affect a certain surface at a time; some surfaces, such as grilles, cannot be coated with a gel. Water can wash away gels, returning the surface or object to its normal state; the game includes a two-player cooperative mode. Two players can use a separate computer or console. Both player-characters are robots that control separate portal guns and can use the other character's portals; each player's portals are of a different color scheme, whereof one is blue and purple and the other is orange and red.
A calibration chamber separates the characters to teach the players to use the communication tools and portals. Most chambers are less structured and require players to use both sets of portals for laser or funnel redirection and other maneuvers; the game provides voice communication between players, online players can temporarily enter a split-screen view to help coordinate actions. Players can "ping" to draw the other player's attention to walls or objects, start countdown timers for synchronized actions, perform joint gestures such as waving or hugging; the game tracks which chambers each player has completed and allows players to replay chambers they have completed with new partners. Portal 2's lead writer Erik Wolpaw estimates each campaign to be about six hours long. Portal 2 contains in-game commentary from
Starhawk (2012 video game)
Starhawk is a third-person shooter video game released for the PlayStation 3 on May 8, 2012 in North America, May 10, 2012 in Japan and May 11, 2012 in Europe and Australia. It is the spiritual successor to 2007's Warhawk; the most notable change from Warhawk is the addition of a single-player story mode, intended to be included in Warhawk but was removed. The gameplay is similar to Warhawk. A new system called "Build and Battle" allows players to build structures such as bunkers and armories in the midst of battle, giving the game a real-time strategy feel while remaining a third-person shooter; the game includes. A player respawns into a landing craft which they can steer with in a limited range to reach the battle field. Like Warhawk, there are 32-player online battles. Starhawk has a co-operative mode similar in concept to the Horde Mode in the Gears of War franchise. In the distant future, humans are colonizing other planets across the galaxy. At the same time, humans are mining a valuable energy source called Rift Energy.
The rift energy miners, known as Rifters, began mining the Rift Energy from the planets of the Outer Spur, but some of the Rifters were exposed to the Rift Energy, which transformed them into savage-like mutants known as Outcasts. The Outcasts, protective of the Rift Energy, attacked Rifter mining sites, including an outpost on the broken planet of Sever, owned by brothers Emmett and Logan Graves. An Outcast war party destroyed their rig, both brothers became exposed to Rift Energy. Logan mutated into an Outcast, but Emmett was able to remain human thanks to his friend Sydney Cutter, who created a regulator to implant into Emmett’s spine to keep him from transforming into an Outcast. Emmett and Cutter soon become hired gunslingers who travel from planet to planet to protect the Rifter mining sites from Outcast war bands. In the small town of White Sands on the planet of Dust, Mayor Jonas asks for Emmett and Cutter’s help to protect the town from an upcoming attack by the Outcast while they fulfill their rift energy quota for the Union, the main authority in the Outer Spur.
They agree to help for a price, are able to push back the attacking Outcasts. The two find out that the Outcast war party was being led by the notorious Outcast known as the Outlaw, who turns out to be Emmett’s brother Logan; the Outcast appear to be retreating in their ships, White Sands celebrates. However, the Outlaw and his Outcast group attack a Rifter freight way, resulting in the captain of the cargo ship to self-destruct the freight way. Emmett and Cutter discover that the citizens of White Sands were taken prisoners by the Outlaw to a nearby moon to be converted into Outcasts. Emmett is able to rescue Mayor Jonas, the two head back to White Sands, under attack. Emmett and the remaining White Sands folks are able to defeat the attacking Outcasts, but Jonas is killed in the battle. Emmett and Cutter head to the Outlaw's hideout, to put an end to Logan's atrocities. Emmett confronts his brother, he subdues the Outlaw. However, Logan is transformed by the power of the Rift Energy into a monstrous Rift entity.
Emmett defeats the entity, Cutter places a rig on top of the Rift Energy source on Sever. Despite losing his brother and Cutter continue to make a living by being Rift Salvagers. In March 2009, Kotaku received unofficial word that the newly created LightBox Interactive was developing a sequel to Warhawk; the game would be a "Warhawk in space", had been in development for some time at that point. Warhawk game director and LightBox Interactive president Dylan Jobe would not confirm the rumor, but told Kotaku "It's way too early to comment on anything but I can say that we have some exciting stuff in development that our Warhawk fans *and* new players will love." In April 2009, Sony trademarked the name "Starhawk". In June 2010, Dylan Jobe tweeted that he was on his way to Sony for a review and playtest of LightBox's next title, that the reviews with Sony had gone well. Jobe stated that Starhawk is "very far away" from beta testing after one eager Hawk fan speculated that we could be seeing a Starhawk beta soon.
In October 2010, Dylan Jobe stated that the developer "won't rush" its unannounced Sony title and "We don't want to show it before its ready", but adds that it's "making fantastic progress". In February 2011, Dylan Jobe hinted. In May 2011, Dylan Jobe tweeted: "The wait is over next Friday..." That was the same day. Further the latest issue of Official PlayStation Magazine speculateed in its rumour column that the PS3 exclusive flight-sim would feature "a story-driven campaign with full co-op support". On May 13, 2011, Sony announced the game as Starhawk, it was revealed that the title is being developed by LightBox Interactive in partnership with Sony's Santa Monica studio and will feature the same third-person shooter experience from Warhawk in a variety of new set space settings. While Warhawk was a multiplayer-only experience, Starhawk would feature a full single-player campaign. Further Dylan Jobe revealed; as of April 2011, there has been an interactive Facebook page for Starhawk, run by the game's chief developer, where Facebook users and Warhawk users alike can suggest ideas on how they would improve gameplay from Warhawk to Starhawk.
The developers ask questions of users, such as "How can we improve the online Multiplayer game experience?" and fans of the page can respond with answers to the question, along with any ideas they may have. Ligh
Portal (video game)
Portal is a puzzle-platform video game developed and published by Valve Corporation. It was released in a bundle package called The Orange Box for Microsoft Windows, Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 in 2007; the game has since been ported to other systems, including OS X, Android. Portal consists of a series of puzzles that must be solved by teleporting the player's character and simple objects using "the Aperture Science Handheld Portal Device", a device that can create inter-spatial portals between two flat planes; the player-character, Chell, is challenged and taunted by an artificial intelligence named GLaDOS to complete each puzzle in the Aperture Science Enrichment Center using the portal gun with the promise of receiving cake when all the puzzles are completed. The game's unique physics allows kinetic energy to be retained through portals, requiring creative use of portals to maneuver through the test chambers; this gameplay element is based on a similar concept from the game Narbacular Drop.
Portal was acclaimed as one of the most original games of 2007, despite criticisms of its short duration and limited story. The game received praise for its originality, unique gameplay and dark story with a humorous series of dialogue. GLaDOS, voiced by Ellen McLain in the English-language version, received acclaim for her unique characterization, the end credits song "Still Alive", written by Jonathan Coulton for the game, was praised for its original composition and humorous twist. Portal is cited as one of the greatest video games of all time. Excluding Steam download sales, over four million copies of the game have been sold since its release, spawning official merchandise from Valve including plush Companion Cubes, as well as fan recreations of the cake and portal gun, a standalone version, titled Portal: Still Alive, on the Xbox Live Arcade service in October 2008, which added an additional 14 puzzles to the gameplay, a sequel, Portal 2, released in 2011, adding several new gameplay mechanics and a cooperative multiplayer mode.
In Portal, the player controls the protagonist, from a first-person perspective as she is challenged to navigate through a series of rooms using the Aperture Science Handheld Portal Device, or portal gun, under the watchful supervision of the artificial intelligence GLaDOS. The portal gun can create two distinct portal ends and blue; the portals create a visual and physical connection between two different locations in three-dimensional space. Neither end is an entrance or exit. An important aspect of the game's physics is momentum redirection; as moving objects pass through portals, they come through the exit portal at the same direction that the exit portal is facing and with the same speed with which they passed through the entrance portal. For example, a common maneuver is to jump down to a portal on the floor and emerge through a wall, flying over a gap or another obstacle; this allows the player to launch objects or Chell over great distances, both vertically and horizontally, referred to as'flinging' by Valve.
As GLaDOS puts it, "In layman's terms: speedy thing goes in, speedy thing comes out." If portal ends are not on parallel planes, the character passing through is reoriented to be upright with respect to gravity after leaving a portal end. Chell and all other objects in the game that can fit into the portal ends will pass through the portal. However, a portal shot cannot pass through an open portal. Creating a portal end deactivates an existing portal end of the same color. Moving objects, special wall surfaces, liquids, or areas that are too small will not be able to anchor portals. Chell is sometimes provided with cubes that she can pick up and use to climb on or to hold down large buttons that open doors or activate mechanisms. Particle fields known as emancipation grills called "fizzlers" in the developer commentary, exist at the end of all and within some test chambers; the fields block attempts to fire portals through them. Although Chell is equipped with mechanized heel springs to prevent damage from falling, she can be killed by various other hazards in the test chambers, such as turret guns, bouncing balls of energy, toxic liquid.
She can be killed by objects falling through portals, by a series of crushers that appear in certain levels. Unlike most action games at the time, there is no health indicator; some obstacles, such as the energy balls and crushing pistons, deal fatal damage with a single blow. GameSpot noted, in its initial review of Portal, that many solutions exist for completing each puzzle, that the gameplay "gets crazier, the diagrams shown in the trailer showed some crazy things that you can attempt". Two additional modes are unlocked upon the completion of the game that challenge the player to work out alternative methods of solving each test chamber. Challenge maps are unlocked near the halfway point and Advanced Chambers are unlocked when the game is completed. In Challenge mode, levels are revisited with the added goal of completing the test chamber either with as little time, with the least number of portals, or with the fewest footsteps possible. In Advanced mode, certain levels are made m