Toronto streetcar system
The Toronto streetcar system is a network of ten streetcar routes in Toronto, Canada, operated by the Toronto Transit Commission. It is the second busiest light-rail system in North America; the network is concentrated in Downtown Toronto and in proximity to the city's waterfront. Much of the streetcar route network dates from the 19th century. Most of Toronto's streetcar routes operate on street trackage shared with vehicular traffic, streetcars stop on demand at frequent stops like buses. Toronto's streetcars provide most of the downtown core's surface transit service. Four of the TTC's five most used surface routes are streetcar routes. In 2016, ridership on the streetcar system totalled more than 95 million. In 1861, the City of Toronto issued a thirty-year transit franchise for a horse-drawn street railway, after the Williams Omnibus Bus Line had become loaded. Alexander Easton's Toronto Street Railway opened the first street railway line in Canada on September 11, 1861, operating from Yorkville Town Hall to the St. Lawrence Market.
At the end of the TSR franchise, the City government ran the railway for eight months, but ended up granting a new thirty-year franchise to the Toronto Railway Company in 1891. The TRC was the first operator of horseless streetcars in Toronto; the first electric car ran on August 15, 1892, the last horse car ran on August 31, 1894, to meet franchise requirements. There came to be problems with interpretation of the franchise terms for the City. By 1912, the city limits had extended with the annexation of communities to the north and the east and the west. After many attempts to force the TRC to serve these areas, the City created its own street railway operation, the Toronto Civic Railways to do so, built several routes. Repeated court battles forced the TRC to build new cars; when the TRC franchise ended in 1921, the Toronto Transportation Commission was created, combining the city-operated Toronto Civic Railways lines into its new network. The TTC began in 1921 as a streetcar operation, with the bulk of the routes acquired from the private TRC and merged with the publicly operated Toronto Civic Railways.
In 1923, the TTC took over the Lambton and Weston routes of the Toronto Suburban Railway and integrated them into the streetcar system. In 1925, routes were operated on behalf of the Township of York, but the TTC was contracted to operate them. One of these routes was the former TSR Weston route. In 1927, the TTC became the operator of three radial lines of the former Toronto and York Radial Railway; the TTC connected these lines to the streetcar system in order to share equipment and facilities, such as carhouses, but the radials had their own separate management within the TTC's Radial Department. The last TTC-operated radial closed in 1948. After the Second World War, many cities across North America and Europe began to eliminate their streetcar systems in favour of buses. During the 1950s, the TTC continued to invest in streetcars and the TTC took advantage of other cities' streetcar removals by purchasing extra PCC cars from Cleveland, Kansas City, Cincinnati. In 1966, the TTC announced plans to eliminate all streetcar routes by 1980.
Streetcars were considered out of date, their elimination in all other cities made it hard to buy new vehicles and maintain the existing ones. Metro Toronto chair William Allen claimed in 1966 that "streetcars are as obsolete as the horse and buggy". Many streetcars were removed from service when Line 2 Bloor–Danforth opened in February 1966; the plan to abolish the streetcar system was opposed by many people in the city, a group named "Streetcars for Toronto" was formed to work against the plan. The group was led by transit advocate Steve Munro, it had the support of city councillors William Kilbourn and Paul Pickett, urban advocate Jane Jacobs. Streetcars for Toronto presented the TTC board with a report that found retaining the streetcar fleet would in the long run be cheaper than converting to buses; this combined with a strong public preference for streetcars over buses changed the decision of the TTC board. The busiest north–south and east–west routes were replaced by the Yonge–University and the Bloor–Danforth subway line, the northernmost streetcar lines, including the North Yonge and Oakwood routes, were replaced by trolley buses.
Two lines that operated north of St. Clair Avenue were abandoned for other reasons; the Rogers Road route was abandoned to free up streetcars for expanded service on other routes. The Mount Pleasant route was removed because of complaints that streetcars slowed automobile traffic. Earlier, the TTC had contemplated abandonment because replacement by trolley buses was cheaper than replacing the aging tracks. However, the TTC maintained most of its existing network, purchasing new custom-designed Canadian Light Rail Vehicles and Articulated Light Rail Vehicles, with the first CLRV entering service in 1979, it continued to rebuild and maintain the existing fleet of PCC streetcars until they were no longer roadworthy. When Kipling station opened in 1980 as the new western terminus of Line 2 Bloor–Danforth, it had provision for a future streetcar or LRT platform opposite the bus platforms. However, there was no further development for a surface rail connection there. In the early 1980s, a streetcar line was planned to connect Kennedy station to Scarborough Town Centre.
However, as that line was being built, the P
Old Mill Toronto
The Old Mill Toronto is a historic event venue with a boutique hotel and restaurant, in The Kingsway neighbourhood of Toronto, Canada. It includes facilities for business meetings, special celebrations and weddings, with an on-site chapel and wedding garden, its restaurant has served afternoon tea since it opened in 1914, it is well known for the Sunday family brunch and dinner buffets. It is located at 21 Old Mill Road off Bloor Street; the Old Mill subway station is a short distance away. The Old Mill is near the site of Toronto's first sawmill, built c. 1793. A series of mill complexes were destroyed by fire; the last one was built in 1848 by William Tyrell and burned down in 1881. The Old Mill Tea Garden restaurant was founded by Robert Home Smith in 1914, next to the ruins of an old grist mill on the Humber River, it was part of the Kingsway residential development by Smith. Over the ensuing decades, 16 banquet rooms were added. In the 1980s, a wedding chapel was built in the old grist mill's ruins.
A hotel and spa opened with 45 rooms and 13 suites. The addition cost $20 million to build; the Tea Garden was a place for dancing to big band music in the 1920s, still today this tradition carries on. It was designated as a heritage property in 1983 by the former city of Etobicoke and retains that designation with Toronto. An historical plaque of Étienne Brûlé is near the main entrance, it has changed owners three times, was bought by the Kalmar family in 1991. In 2015, the property was sold to OMT Hospitality. Media related to Old Mill Toronto at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Humber Bay Park
Humber Bay Park is a waterfront park located in Etobicoke, part of Toronto, Canada. The park consists of two landspits situated at the mouth of Mimico Creek; the park is south of Lake Shore Boulevard West, near Park Lawn Road. Humber Bay Park East is 19 hectares; the park maintains a recreational focus for residents and visitors established during the mid-19th century when a number of motels were built in the Humber Bay area. Watersports were enjoyed here during the summer and town council meetings were held in the Humber Bay motels. Boat building was the earliest trade practiced in. Humber Bay Park was developed by the former Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority with 5.1 million cubic metres of lakefill, at a cost of $6.56 million. Lieutenant-Governor John Black Aird opened the park on June 11, 1984. Several habitat restoration projects have been initiated at Humber Bay Park, including the planting of Carolinian trees and shrubs, the establishment of wildflower meadows and the creation of a warm-water fish habitat and wetland on the east peninsula.
The park is a popular destination to view migrating birds. The Eastern Gap Lighthouses were located along waterway; the larger of two lighthouses is the smaller two storey building. Removed in 1973 during the widening of the Eastern Gap, both the large and small lighthouses were relocated to Marine Terminal 51 and offered to the Etobicoke Yacht Club, they were relocated to Humber Bay Park in 1981 and restored for use by the Mimico Cruising Club in 1982. The park has a number of amenities such as picnic tables, a beach front. There are fly casting and model boating ponds and a accessible fishing pier; the Humber Bay Park Boating Federation and historic old Eastern Gap Lighthouse are located at Humber Bay West, along with public boat launch ramps and moorings. Humber Bay Park East is home to Toronto's memorial to the victims of the bombing of Air India Flight 182. Humber Bay Park East Humber Bay Park West Humber Bay Butterfly Habitat
Toronto Transit Commission
The Toronto Transit Commission is a public transport agency that operates bus, subway and paratransit services in Toronto, Canada. It is the oldest and largest of the urban transit service providers in the Greater Toronto Area, with numerous connections to systems serving its surrounding municipalities. Established as the Toronto Transportation Commission in 1921, the TTC owns and operates four rapid transit lines with 75 stations, over 149 bus routes, 11 streetcar lines. On an average weekday in 2019, 1.69 million passengers made 2.76 million unlinked trips on the TTC, with the number of trips about evenly divided between the subways and buses and streetcars. The TTC operates door-to-door paratransit service for the elderly and disabled, known as Wheel-Trans; the TTC is the most used urban mass transit system in all of Canada, the third largest in North America, after the New York City Transit Authority and Mexico City Metro. Public transit in Toronto started in 1849 with a operated transit service.
In years, the city operated some routes, but in 1921 assumed control over all routes and formed the Toronto Transportation Commission to operate them. During this period, streetcars provided the bulk of the service. In 1954, the TTC adopted its present name, opened the first subway line, expanded its service area to cover the newly formed municipality of Metropolitan Toronto; the system has evolved to feature a wide network of surface routes with the subway lines as the backbone. On February 17, 2008, the TTC made many service improvements, reversing more than a decade of service reductions and only minor improvements. In addition to buses and subways, the TTC operated the Toronto Island ferry service from 1927 to 1962, when it was transferred to the Metro Parks and Culture department; the TTC operated a suburban and regional intercity bus operator, Gray Coach Lines, from 1927 to 1990. Gray Coach used interurban coaches to link Toronto to points throughout southern Ontario. In addition, Gray Coach operated tour buses in association with Gray Line Tours.
The main terminal was the Metropolitan Toronto Bus Terminal on Elizabeth Street north of Dundas Street, downtown. In 1954, Gray Coach expanded further when it acquired suburban routes from independent bus operators not merged with the TTC as it expanded to cover Metro Toronto. By the 1980s, Gray Coach faced fierce competition in the interurban service in the GTA; the TTC sold Gray Coach Lines in 1990 to Stagecoach Holdings, which split the operation between Greyhound Canada and the government of Ontario three years later. The Gloucester subway cars, the first version of TTC subway cars, known as "red rockets" because of their bright red exterior, have been retired; the name lives on as the TTC uses the phrase to advertise the service, such as "Ride the Rocket" in advertising material, "Rocket" in the names of some express buses, the new "Toronto Rocket" subway cars, which began revenue operation on July 21, 2011. Another common slogan is "The Better Way"; the TTC has recovered about 70% of its operating costs from the fare box in recent years.
From its creation in 1921 until 1971, the TTC was self-supporting both for capital and operations. Through the Great Depression and World War II, it accumulated reserves that allowed it to expand after the war, both with subways and major steady growth of its bus services into the suburbs, it was not until 1971 that the Metro government and the province started to provide operational subsidies, required due to rising costs of delivering transit to low-density suburbs in Metro Toronto and large wage increases. Deficits and subsidies soared throughout the 1970s and 1980s, followed by service cuts and a period of ridership decline in the 1990s attributable to recession; when the Harris Progressive Conservatives ended the provincial subsidies, the TTC cut back service with a significant curtailment put into effect on February 18, 1996, an increased financial burden was placed on the municipal government. Since the TTC has been in financial difficulties. Service cuts were averted in 2007, when Toronto City Council voted to introduce new taxes to help pay for city services, including the TTC.
As a result, the TTC became the largest transit operator in Anglo-America not to receive provincial/state subsidies. The TTC has received federal funding for capital projects from as early as 2009; the TTC is considered one of the costliest transit systems per fare price in North America. For the 2011 operating year, the TTC had a projected operating budget of $1.45 billion. Revenue from fares covered 70% of the budget, whereas the remaining 30% originated from the city. In 2009 through 2011, provincial and federal subsidies amounted to 0% of the budget. In contrast to this, STM Montreal receives 10% of its operating budget from the provincial government, Ottawa Transpo receives 9% of its funding from the province; the fairness of preferentially subsidizing transit in specific Canadian cities has been questioned by citizens. Buses are a large part of TTC operations today. Before about 1960 however, they played a minor role compared to streetcars. Buses began to operate in the city in 1921, became necessary for areas without streetcar service.
After an earlier experiment in the 1920s, trolley buses were used on a number of routes starting in 1947, but all trolley bus routes were converted to bus operation between 1991 and 1993. The TTC always used the term "trolley coach" to refer to its trackless electric vehicles. Hundreds of old buses have been replaced with the low-floor Orion V
Runnymede is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Canada located north of Bloor Street West between Jane Street and Runnymede Road north to Dundas Street West. It is located directly north of the former village of Swansea and west of the High Park North neighbourhood; the immediate area around Bloor Street is known as Bloor West Village after the shopping area along Bloor Street, whereas the area to the north is considered the Runnymede neighbourhood. Houses in this neighbourhood are two story brick houses, however renovations are becoming popular and many of the traditional homes are being torn down to create larger, more modern homes; the tree-lined streets in this area, annexed by the city of Toronto in 1909 make this a popular residential neighbourhood. Much of its development was due to the creation of a streetcar line along Bloor Street, which the TTC replaced by the Bloor-Danforth subway line, built in the 1960s. In the Toronto Official Plan, Runnymede is predominantly designated as a neighbourhood.
In addition to housing, this classification allows for uses which meet resident needs such as schools, small shops, etc. Great care is taken to ensure the character of Toronto neighbourhoods is preserved, thus the addition of high-rise apartments is not permitted, new businesses in the community must prove that they will not produce adverse effects to residents, such as noise pollution or increased traffic, they must fit well with existing businesses, reduce frequency of automobile use in the neighbourhood. The name Runnymede originates with the estate of an early land owner in the area. Scarlett owned land in the area as early as 1817, he gave the name Runnymede to his house on Dundas Street. In 1856, Scarlett's holdings bounded by Jane, St. Clair and Annette were purchased by Marcus Rossin, who sub-divided the lands as the "Runnymede Estate"; the sub-division was vacant until 1878. The neighourhood's first residents were Irish and Anglo-Saxon, followed by immigrants of Eastern European origin.
The neighbourhood has a history of opposing large scale redevelopment. In 1966, Romark Developments proposed the construction of a giant apartment complex at Bloor and Jane streets; the plan proposed the construction of shopping centres and open space. The project was estimated to cost $60 million to construct, it would have ranged from Bloor and Jane Street north to Colbeck Street. Over 1,000 ratepayers came out at a public meeting on March 7, 1966 at Runnymede School to oppose the project. A great furor accompanied the arrival of a Chapters bookstore at the Runnymede Theatre in the late 1990s. Aside from discontent about the effect of a large bookstore undermining older local businesses, many residents were upset that the local historic movie theatre was going to be gutted to make room for the new store. However, the arrival of Chapters allowed restoration of the historical Runnymede Theatre. At the time, Chapters was the only company willing to make the $5 million investment necessary to restore the building.
The movie theatre closed in February 1999. The neighbourhood has two Toronto Public Library locations and Annette, there is a nearby location in Swansea; the BIA hosts: Annual Ukrainian Festival in September. July Festival, a local fair of amusements and entertainment. Halloween Festival on Armadale Avenue, Beresford Avenue and Glendonwynne Road. Participates in the Toronto citywide "Cavalcade of Lights" Bloor West Village is a shopping district in Toronto, Canada. Bloor West is perceived as a district because the elements and characteristics that make it up make it identifiable both from the inside and from the outside; these same characteristics make it give it a different feel from adjacent areas. Located along Bloor Street, it encompasses all businesses along Bloor Street between Jane Street and Ellis Park Road, consisting of more than 400 shops and services; the mix of stores, which include specialty clothing stores, book stores and cafes, creates a vibrant, positive space for residents to fulfill basic needs and interact with the rest of the community.
The district includes many features. It promotes pedestrian activity through the use of wide sidewalks, tree-lined streets, used outdoor cafes; this atmosphere makes Bloor St. West the predominant public space in the neighbourhood, it is full of activity at any given time during the day. Bloor West Village caters to neighbourhood residents, it has a number of small-scale, resident-owned stores which meet needs of community members, but lacks the uniqueness which would generate significant activity from non-residents. In the 2006 Census of Canada, 10.7% of immigrants identified their place of Origin as the United Kingdom, 11.4% said Polish, 9.6% said Ukrainian. 18.8% of residents identified Ukrainian as their first language. This is the most common non-official language spoken in the neighbourhood; this census estimated the number of residents within the neighbourhood as 9,565. 37% are between the ages of 30 to 49, 26% between the ages of 0 to 19, 11% between the ages of 20-29 and 15% are 60+. From the total population only 13% of the residents do not belong to a census family.
This indicates that one of the main characteristics of Bloor West is that it is made up of young families. The Toronto District School Board is an English secular public school board tha