Pays de Caux
The Pays de Caux is an area in Normandy occupying the greater part of the French département of Seine Maritime in Normandy. It is a chalk plateau to the north of the Seine Estuary and extending to the cliffs on the English Channel coast. In the east, it borders on the Pays de Bray. Cauchois is a notable dialect of the Norman language; the Pays de Caux is one of the remaining strongholds of the Norman language outside the Cotentin. The principal settlements are Le Dieppe, Fécamp, Yvetot and Étretat. In the Norman language caux means lime, calcium carbonate. In French, for comparison, the word is chaux; the name of the neighbouring Pays de Bray comes from an Old French word of Gaulish origin for mud. They appear to be so named. In fact, according to something common in the former Gaul, the name derives from the Celtic tribe that lived here in ancient time: the Caletes and this land was their territory, they are sometimes considered as Armoricans. The word Caletes shifted to *Caltes *Calz, Cauz, to be spelled "Caux" in modern time.
The Pays de Caux is a plateau of Upper Cretaceous chalk, like that which forms the North and South Downs in southern England. Its surface is an undulating plateau but the seaward side has been eroded by the waves so that the coast is formed of high white cliffs in which the small valleys which inland, form the undulations, are truncated leaving what are known locally as valleuses, steep-sided notches in the face of the cliff, they are more or less cut and some form the sites of small towns such as Étretat. The formations left. See the photograph where Étretat lies to the right, in the valleuse beyond the first ridge; the main towns in the north are on Fécamp and Étretat. Dieppe, is towards the margin of the region, lying as it does on the same geological fault as formed the Pays de Bray; this fault gave rise to the deep harbour. The towns on the plateau are small. Of these, the larger, such as Yvetot and Lillebonne are towards the south, on the Rouen-Le Havre axis; the site of Le Havre was once of the Pays de Caux but the town has developed into an entity with a separate nature.
The population density of the Pays de Caux is a little above the French average having developed fisheries, on the coast, flax growing and weaving, on the plateau, as traditional industries. The estuarine ports to the south developed trade up-river towards Rouen, once hostilities between the Normans and the French had been settled, with Paris. In more recent times, urbanization has spread from Le Havre and more still, from the new industrial polder in the Seine Estuary; the plateau's exposure to the winds of the sea may account for one of the features of the rural architecture of the region. Pays de Bray to the East Vexin normand to the South-east Lower Seine valley to the South Julius Caesar’s account of his military campaigns gives details of the Caletes ancestors of the Cauchois Rescue archaeology undertaken on the line of the A29 autoroute revealed several Gallo-Roman villas. One of the most important is that of Sainte-Marguerite-sur-Mer, on the coast to the west of Dieppe; the archaeologists found a complex of several rooms, organised around a square court.
Several of the rooms had been furnished with mosaics. To the north, the baths and other rooms were heated by hypocausts; the materials used were pisé, cob and timber framing, typical materials of Normandy’s building tradition. Lillebonne is on the site of the main town of the Gaulish tribe of the region; the Gallo-Roman town was established with the name Juliobona, under Caesar Augustus and is famous for its Roman theatre. According to a common use in Roman Gaul, the bona was dedicated to the Roman emperor, like Augustodunum, Augustonemetum or Augustodurum, etc; the phonetic evolution from the element Julio- to Lille- can be explained by the analogy with the French word for island: île, with the article agglutination l' = the, that makes sense with the word bona > bonne, which means "good" in French, so "l'île bonne" = the good island. Their original main oppidum could have been Caudebec-en-Caux or Fécamp, according to the archeological excavations and the numerous Gaulish artefacts, that were discovered in both towns.
In the Merovingian period, the Pays de Caux became distinct from Talou: the ancient city of the Caletes separated into entities or ‘countries’ in the sense of the Latin pagus. From the creation of the county of Rouen and of the Duchy of Normandy in 911, the Vikings settled a great number of people in the region and left an enduring legacy in the Cauchois dialect but in the ethnic makeup of the Cauchois Normans. A manoir is in principle, the residence of a seigniorial lord though, in practice, the term now includes country houses of the gentry; as a ru
Sark is an island in the Channel Islands in the southwestern English Channel, off the coast of Normandy, France. It is a royal fief, which forms part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, with its own set of laws based on Norman law and its own parliament, it has a population of about 500. Sark has an area of 2.10 square miles. Sark is one of the few remaining places in the world where cars are banned from roads and only tractors and horse-drawn vehicles are allowed. In 2011, Sark was designated as the first Dark Sky Island in the world. Sark consists of two main parts, Greater Sark, located at about 49°25′N 2°22′W, Little Sark to the south, they are connected by a narrow isthmus called La Coupée, 300 feet long and has a drop of 330 feet on each side. Protective railings were erected in 1900. There is a narrow concrete road covering the entirety of the isthmus, built in 1945 by German prisoners of war under the direction of the Royal Engineers. Due to its isolation, the inhabitants of Little Sark had their own distinct form of Sercquiais, the native Norman dialect of the island.
The highest point on Sark is 374 feet above sea level. A windmill, dated 1571, is found there, the sails of which were removed during World War 2; this high point is named Le Moulin, after the windmill. The location is the highest point in the Bailiwick of Guernsey. Little Sark had a number of mines accessing a source of galena. At Port Gorey, the ruins of silver mines may be seen. Off the south end of Little Sark are the Venus Pool and the Adonis Pool, both natural swimming pools whose waters are refreshed at high tide; the whole island is extensively penetrated at sea level by natural cave formations that provide unique habitats for many marine creatures, notably sea anemones, some of which are only safely accessible at low tide. Sark is made up of amphibolite and granite gneiss rocks, intruded by igneous magma sheets called quartz diorite. Recent geological studies and rock age dating by geologists from Oxford Brookes University shows that the gneisses formed around 620–600 million years ago during the Late Pre-Cambrian Age Cadomian Orogeny.
The quartz diorite sheets were intruded during metamorphic event. All the Sark rocks formed during geological activity in the continental crust above an ancient subduction zone; this geological setting would have been analogous to the modern-day subduction zone of the Pacific Ocean plate colliding and subducting beneath the North and South American continental plate. Sark exercises jurisdiction over the island of Brecqhou, only a few hundred feet west of Greater Sark, it is a private island, but it has been opened to some visitors. Since 1993, Brecqhou has been owned by David Barclay, one of the Barclay brothers who are co-owners of The Daily Telegraph, they contest Sark's control over the island. The candidates endorsed by their various business interests on the island failed to win any seats in the elections held in 2008 and 2010; the etymology of Sark is unknown. Richard Coates has suggested that in the absence of a Proto-Indo-European etymology it may be worthwhile looking for a Proto-Semitic source for the name.
This is because the British Isles were repopulated from the Iberian Peninsula following the last Ice Age. He proposes a comparison between the probable root of Sark, *Sarg-, Proto-Semitic *śrq "redden. In ancient times, Sark was certainly occupied by the Veneti; these people were subdued by the Roman Empire about the island annexed. After the Roman retreat during the fifth century AD, Sark was an outpost of one or other Breton-speaking kingdoms until 933, when it became part of the Duchy of Normandy. Following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, the island was united with the Crown of England. In the thirteenth century, the French pirate Eustace the Monk, having served King John, used Sark as a base of operations. During the Middle Ages, the island was populated by monastic communities. By the 16th century, the island was uninhabited and used by pirates as a refuge and base. In 1565, Helier de Carteret, Seigneur of St. Ouen in Jersey, received letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I granting him Sark as a fief in perpetuity on condition that he kept the island free of pirates and occupied by at least forty men who were of her English subjects or swore allegiance to the Crown.
This he duly did, leasing 40 parcels of land at a low rent to forty families from St. Ouen, on condition that a house was built and maintained on each parcel and that "the Tenant" provided one man, armed with a musket, for the defence of the island; the 40 tenements survive to this day, albeit with minor boundary changes. A subsequent attempt by the families to endow a constitution under a bailiff, as in Jersey, was stopped by the Guernsey authorities who resented any attempt to wrest Sark from their bailiwick. In 1844, desperate for funds to continue the operation of the silver mine on the island, the incumbent Seigneur, Ernest le Pelley, obtained Crown permission to mortgage Sark's fief to local privateer John Allaire. After the company running the mine went bankrupt, le Pelley was unable to keep up the mortgage payments and, in 1849, his son Pierre Carey le Pelley, the new Seigneur, was forced to sell the fief to Marie Collings for a total of £1,383 (£6,000 less the sum borrowed and an accumulated interest of £616.13
Jersey Legal French
Jersey Legal French known as Jersey French, was the official dialect of French used administratively in Jersey. Since the anglicisation of the island, it survives as a written language for some laws and other documents. Jersey's parliament, the States of Jersey, is part of the Assemblée parlementaire de la Francophonie; the use of the English language has been allowed in legislative debates since 2 February 1900. By common custom and usage, the sole official language of Jersey in present times is the English language. Jersey Legal French is not to be confused with Jèrriais, a variety of the Norman language called Jersey Norman-French, spoken on the island; the French of Jersey differs little from that of France. It is characterised by several terms particular to Jersey administration and a few expressions imported from Norman, it is notable that the local term for the archipelago is îles de la Manche — îles anglo-normandes is a somewhat recent invention in continental French. As in Swiss French and Belgian French, the numbers 70 and 90 are septante and nonante not soixante-dix and quatre-vingt-dix.
Initial capital letters are used in writing the names of the days of the week and months of the year. Messire is used for the title of knighthood – for example, the former Bailiff of Jersey, Sir Philip Bailhache is addressed in French as Messire Philip Bailhache. Jersey English has imported a number of terminology. Many of these, in turn, derive from Jèrriais; the following are examples to be encountered in daily life and in news reports in Jersey: rapporteur, en défaut, en désastre, au greffe, greffier, bâtonnier, autorisé, vraic, côtil, temps passé, vin d'honneur, Vingtenier, Chef de Police, Ministre Desservant, Seigneur. A Glossary for the Historian of Jersey, Chris Aubin, 2000, ISBN 978-0-9538858-0-0
Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France. It has been in decline over the past century as English has become the language of education and administration. There are few people who speak Jèrriais as a mother tongue and, owing to the age of the remaining speakers, their numbers decrease annually. Despite this, efforts are being made to keep the language alive. A similar language, Guernésiais, is spoken in neighbouring Guernsey; the language of Sark, Sercquiais, is a descendant of the Jèrriais brought by the Jersey colonists who settled Sark in the 16th century. Jèrriais is called "Jersey French" or "Jersey Norman French" in English and "jersiais" or "normand de Jersey" in French. Jèrriais is distinct from the Jersey Legal French used for legal contracts and official documents by the government and administration of Jersey. For this reason, some prefer using the term "Jersey Norman" to avoid ambiguity and to dissociate the language from standard French.
The latest figures come from the Jersey Annual Social Survey issued on 5 December 2012. The survey of 4200 households resulted in 2400 returns, it showed that 18% of the population could speak some Jèrriais words and phrases with more than 7% of those over 65 being fluent or able to speak a lot of Jèrriais. Two-thirds of adults said that they could not understand spoken Jèrriais, but more than a quarter are able to understand some, 5% can or understand someone speaking Jèrriais. 4 % of people said although under 1 % could write fluently. Just under a third said; these figures update those of the census which showed that 3% of the island's population speak Jèrriais in their personal interactions, although research suggests that up to 15% of the population have some understanding of the language. The latest census figures showed an increase in declarations of children speaking the language: the first such increase recorded in census figures, doubtless encouraged by the introduction of a Jèrriais teaching programme into Jersey schools.
The parish with the highest proportion of Jèrriais speakers is Saint Ouen, that with the lowest proportion is Saint Helier, although Saint Helier as the largest parish has the highest number of Jèrriais speakers. The number of census respondents who stated that they "usually" spoke Jèrriais was 113. A survey carried out among a sample of Jèrriais speakers in 1996 found that 18% spoke Jèrriais more than English, 66% spoke Jèrriais as as English, 16% spoke Jèrriais less than English; the States of Jersey fund the teaching programme in schools and provide some support in terms of signage, e.g. welcome signs at harbours and airport. Ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages is under discussion. In September 2005, the States approved the development of a cultural strategy, one of whose strategic objectives was as follows: Jersey lost its language in the 20th century. By 2001 there were less than 3,000 speakers of Jèrriais. In the 21st century strenuous efforts are being made to re-establish it.
Le Don Balleine, funded by the States, is leading a programme in schools teaching Jèrriais. L'Assembliée d'Jèrriais promotes the language generally. Language brings distinctiveness, a sense of localness and a whole new set of skills all of which are important qualities in attracting the creative economy, it is fundamental to the Island's identity. This objective is to work with these organisations to help in the revival and status of the language. In September 2009 a partnership agreement was signed by the Minister for Education and Culture and the President of Le Don Balleine to formalise the rôle of L'Office du Jèrriais in protecting and promoting Jèrriais and to develop a language plan to help make the language more prominent on a daily basis. Jèrriais is classified as a "Threatened" language by The Endangered Language Project,There is newspaper and radio output in the language. From 2010, Jersey banknotes carry the value of the note written out in Jèrriais. Jèrriais is recognised as a regional language by the British and Irish governments within the framework of the British-Irish Council.
As of February 13, 2019, the States of Jersey adopted Jèrriais as an official language and the language is set to be used on signage and official letter headings The literary tradition is traced back to Wace, the 12th-century Jersey-born poet, although there is little surviving literature in Jèrriais dating to before the introduction of the first printing press in Jersey in the 1780s. The first printed Jèrriais appears in the first newspapers at the end of the 18th century, the earliest identified dated example of printed poetry is a fragment by Matchi L'Gé dated 1795. A boom in competing newspapers and journals throughout the 19th century provided a platform for poets and writers to publish – satirical comment on the week's news, Jersey politicians and notables; the first printed anthology of Jèrriais poetry, Rimes Jersiaises, was published in 1865. Influential writers include "Laelius", "A. A. L. G.", "St.-Luorenchais". Elie was editor of
Cauchois is one of the eastern dialects of the Norman language, spoken in, taking its name from, the Pays de Caux region of the Seine-Maritime départment. The Pays de Caux is one of the remaining strongholds of the Norman language outside the Cotentin. Statistics give a wide range of interpretations as to numbers of speakers: between 0.3% and 19.1% of residents of Seine-Maritime identify themselves as speakers of Cauchois. Among distinguishing features of Cauchois from other Norman dialects are: absence of /h/ loss of Intervocalic /r/ a greater tendency to metathesis than in western dialects. However, the Norman literary revival, which started in the Channel Islands and Cotentin in the 19th century, was not reflected in the Pays de Caux until the early years of the 20th century. From 1910 onwards a range of literature was produced. In Lower Normandy, Norman literature since the revival period has tended to be as Norman as possible. In the Pays de Caux, by contrast, alongside literature written in Cauchois, a genre of literature developed in which narrative is written in French and dialogue in Cauchois, or else dialogue is written in French or Cauchois according to the language of the character.
Notable writers in Cauchois include Gabriel Benoist, Ernest Morel, Gaston Demongé, Maurice Le Sieutre and Marceau Rieul. Jehan Le Povremoyne wrote stories of the mixed dialogue genre. List of Norman language writers
Jersey the Bailiwick of Jersey, is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France. It is the second closest of the Channel Islands to France, after Alderney. Jersey was part of the Duchy of Normandy, whose dukes went on to become kings of England from 1066. After Normandy was lost by the kings of England in the 13th century, the ducal title surrendered to France and the other Channel Islands remained attached to the English crown; the bailiwick consists of the island of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands, along with surrounding uninhabited islands and rocks collectively named Les Dirouilles, Les Écréhous, Les Minquiers, Les Pierres de Lecq, other reefs. Although the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey are referred to collectively as the Channel Islands, the "Channel Islands" are not a constitutional or political unit. Jersey has a separate relationship to the Crown from the other Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man, although all are held by the monarch of the United Kingdom.
Jersey is a self-governing parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, with its own financial and judicial systems, the power of self-determination. The Lieutenant Governor on the island is the personal representative of the Queen. Jersey is not part of the United Kingdom, has an international identity separate from that of the UK, but the UK is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey; the definition of United Kingdom in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together. The European Commission have confirmed in a written reply to the European Parliament in 2003 that Jersey is within the Union as a European Territory for whose external relationships the UK is responsible. Jersey is not part of the European Union but has a special relationship with it, notably being treated as within the European Community for the purposes of free trade in goods. British cultural influence on the island is evident in its use of English as the main language and the British pound as its primary currency if some people still speak the Norman language.
Additional cultural commonalities include driving on the left, access to the BBC and ITV regions, a school curriculum following that of England, the popularity of British sports, including cricket. The Channel Islands are mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary as the following: Sarnia, Barsa and Andium, but Jersey cannot be identified because none corresponds directly to the present names; the name Caesarea has been used as the Latin name for Jersey since William Camden's Britannia, is used in titles of associations and institutions today. The Latin name Caesarea was applied to the colony of New Jersey as Nova Caesarea. Andium and Augia were used in antiquity. Scholars variously surmise that Jersey and Jèrri derive from jarð or jarl, or a personal name, Geirr; the ending -ey denotes an island. Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England. La Cotte de St Brelade is a Palaeolithic site inhabited before rising sea levels transformed Jersey into an island.
Jersey was a centre of Neolithic activity. Evidence of Bronze Age and early Iron Age settlements can be found in many locations around the island. Additional archaeological evidence of Roman influence has been found, in particular at Les Landes, the coastal headland site at Le Pinacle, where remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Gallo-Roman temple worship. Jersey was part of Neustria with the same Gallo-Frankish population as the continental mainland. Jersey, the whole Channel Islands and the Cotentin peninsula came under the control of the duke of Brittany during the Viking invasions, because the king of the Franks was unable to defend them, however they remained in the archbishopric of Rouen. Jersey was invaded by Vikings in the 9th century. In 933 it was annexed to the future Duchy of Normandy, together with the other Channel Islands and Avranchin, by William Longsword, count of Rouen and it became one of the Norman Islands; when William's descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England in 1066, the Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England were governed under one monarch.
The Dukes of Normandy owned considerable estates in the island, Norman families living on their estates established many of the historical Norman-French Jersey family names. King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus, but retained possession of Jersey and the other Channel Islands. In the Treaty of Paris, the English king formally surrendered his claim to the duchy of Normandy and ducal title, since the islands have been internally self-governing territories of the English crown and latterly the British crown. On 7 October 1406, 1,000 French men at arms led by Pero Niño invaded Jersey, landing at St Aubin's Bay and defeated the 3,000 defenders but failed to capture the island. In the late 16th century, islanders travelled across the North Atlantic to participate in the Newfoundland fisheries. In recognition for help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, King Charles II of England gave Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies in between the Hudson and Delaware rivers, which he promptly named New Jersey.
It is now a state in the Unit
Normandy is one of the 18 regions of France referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Normandy is divided into five administrative departments: Calvados, Manche and Seine-Maritime, it covers 30,627 square kilometres, comprising 5% of the territory of metropolitan France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France. The inhabitants of Normandy are known as Normans, the region is the historic homeland of the Norman language; the historical region of Normandy comprised the present-day region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe. The Channel Islands are historically part of Normandy. Normandy's name comes from the settlement of the territory by Danish and Norwegian Vikings from the 9th century, confirmed by treaty in the 10th century between King Charles III of France and the Viking jarl Rollo. For a century and a half following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman and Frankish rulers.
Archaeological finds, such as cave paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times. Celts invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC; when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy was achieved by the usual methods: Roman roads and a policy of urbanisation. Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy. In the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates. Christianity began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east; as early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis. Vikings started to raid the Seine valley during the middle of the 9th century; as early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, the principal route by which they entered the kingdom. After attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagne's empire to take northern France.
The fiefdom of Normandy was created for Rollo. Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo gained the territory which he and his Viking allies had conquered; the name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking origins. To this day, in Norwegian language the word nordmann denotes a Norwegian person; the descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and intermarried with the area's native Gallo-Roman inhabitants. They became the Normans – a Norman-speaking mixture of Norsemen and indigenous Franks and Romans. Rollo's descendant William became king of England in 1066 after defeating Harold Godwinson, the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings, at the Battle of Hastings, while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy for himself and his descendants. Besides the conquest of England and the subsequent subjugation of Wales and Ireland, the Normans expanded into other areas.
Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville, Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the conquest of southern Italy and the Crusades. The Drengot lineage, de Hauteville's sons William Iron Arm and Humphrey, Robert Guiscard and Roger the Great Count progressively claimed territories in southern Italy until founding the Kingdom of Sicily in 1130, they carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states of Asia Minor and the Holy Land. The 14th-century explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands in 1404, he received the title King of the Canary Islands from Pope Innocent VII but recognized Henry III of Castile as his overlord, who had provided him aid during the conquest. In 1204, during the reign of John Lackland, mainland Normandy was taken from England by France under King Philip II. Insular Normandy remained however under English control. In 1259, Henry III of England recognized the legality of French possession of mainland Normandy under the Treaty of Paris.
His successors, however fought to regain control of their ancient fiefdom. The Charte aux Normands granted by Louis X of France in 1315 – like the analogous Magna Carta granted in England in the aftermath of 1204 – guaranteed the liberties and privileges of the province of Normandy. French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years' War in 1345–1360 and again in 1415–1450. Normandy lost three-quarters of its population during the war. Afterward prosperity returned to Normandy until the Wars of Religion; when many Norman towns joined the Protestant Reformation, battles ensued throughout the province. In the Channel Islands, a period of Calvinism following the Reformation was suppressed when Anglicanism was imposed following the English Civil War. Samuel de Champlain founded Acadia. Four years