Old Occitan called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries. Old Occitan includes Early and Old Occitan. Middle Occitan is sometimes included in Old Occitan, sometimes in Modern Occitan; as the term occitanus appeared around the year 1300, Old Occitan is referred to as "Romance" or "Provençal" in medieval texts. Among the earliest records of Occitan are the Tomida femina, the Boecis and the Cançó de Santa Fe. Old Occitan, the language used by the troubadours, was the first Romance language with a literary corpus and had an enormous influence on the development of lyric poetry in other European languages; the interpunct survives today in Catalan and Gascon. Old Catalan and Old Occitan diverged between the 14th centuries. Catalan never underwent the shift from /u/ to /y/ or the shift from /o/ to /u/ and so had diverged phonologically before those changes affected Old Occitan. Old Occitan changed and evolved somewhat during its history, but the basic sound system can be summarised as follows: Notes: Written ⟨ch⟩ is believed to have represented the affricate, but since the spelling alternates with ⟨c⟩, it may have represented.
Word-final ⟨g⟩ may sometimes represent, as in gaug "joy". Intervocalic ⟨z⟩ could represent either or. Written ⟨j⟩ could represent either or. Notes: raised to during the 12th and the 13th centuries, but the spelling was unaffected: flor /fluɾ/ "flower"; the open-mid vowels and appear as allophones of /e/ and /u/ under certain circumstances in stressed syllables. Some notable characteristics of Old Occitan: It had a two-case system, as in Old French, with the oblique derived from the Latin accusative case; the declensional categories were similar to those of Old French. There were two distinct conditional tenses: a "first conditional", similar to the conditional tense in other Romance language, a "second conditional", derived from the Latin pluperfect indicative tense; the second conditional is cognate with the literary pluperfect in Portuguese, the -ra imperfect subjunctive in Spanish, the second preterite of early Old French and the future perfect in modern Gascon. From Bertran de Born's Ab joi mou lo vers e·l comens: Occitan conjugation Occitan phonology Frede Jensen.
The Syntax of Medieval Occitan, 2nd edn. De Gruyter, 2015. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie 208. 978-3-484-52208-4. French translation: Frede Jensen. Syntaxe de l'ancien occitan. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1994. William D. Paden. An Introduction to Old Occitan. Modern Language Association of America, 1998. ISBN 0-87352-293-1. Romieu, Maurice. Iniciacion a l'occitan ancian / Initiation à l'ancien occitan. Pessac: Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux. ISBN 2-86781-275-5. Povl Skårup. Morphologie élémentaire de l'ancien occitan. Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, ISBN 87-7289-428-8 Nathaniel B. Smith & Thomas Goddard Bergin. An Old Provençal Primer. Garland, 1984, ISBN 0-8240-9030-6 A site with a presentation of Old Occitan
Jan Frans De Boever was a Flemish Symbolist painter. While considered a successful artist during most of his lifetime, his megalomaniac character made him a solitary and isolated individual. Jan Frans De Boever received his training in Ghent at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts under Louis Tytgadt, whose niece he married. Tytgadt provided him with an introduction to important artistic circles in his city, he became a recognised celebrity at official exhibitions in Ghent, Brussels, Liège. From 1909 onwards, he modified his style radically, painting women and prostitutes in morbid and bizarre settings, with skeletons, subservient men and eroticism dominating his paintings; these paintings were allegorical and mythological, reflecting romantic imagery and depicting the universal struggle of good against evil. In 1914 he started to illustrate Charles Baudelaire's "Les Fleurs du mal" for the wealthy art-collector Speltinckx. Up to 1924, he made 157 gouaches for the poems, though only 86 have been recovered.
Once he had discovered his style, a form of Symbolism belonging to the decadent movement, he ignored ongoing artistic developments and drew his inspiration from literature and mythology. He was still inspired by patriotism, creating several paintings concerning the World Wars, displaying death and catastrophe in the Symbolist style, his paintings were successful until 1935 when he suffered a financial crisis. He reduced his prices and continued to paint in the same Symbolist fashion until his death in 1949. Achille Cavens J. F. De Boever et son oeuvre in "Les Débats" dd. 1.9.1931 p. 6. Roger De Buyst Jan-Frans De Boever, leven en werk 1872-1949 Deurle 1984. Jan Boddaert, Roger De Buyst Oeuvrecatalogus Jan Frans De Boever Ghent 1993 Jan Boddaert, Roger De Buyst Jean François De Boever, sa vie et son oeuvre Ghent 1996. Specific Media related to Jean François De Boever at Wikimedia Commons Jan Frans De Boever - Biography www.jdeboever.be - site on Jan Frans De Boever and his work
John Creagh was an Irish Redemptorist priest. Creagh is best known for, delivering an antisemitic speech in 1904 that incited riots against the small Jewish community in Limerick, as well as, his work as a Catholic missionary in the Kimberley region of Western Australia between 1916 and 1922. Creagh played a significant role in launching the “Limerick boycott” of 1904–06, in which many non-Jews economically boycotted, on an antisemitic basis, the small Jewish community in Limerick; the boycott was accompanied by a number of antisemitic assaults and intimidation, caused some Jews to leave the city. The boycott and associated events are sometimes referred to as the "Limerick pogrom". There had been a community of Irish Jews in Limerick City as early as 1790. A small number of Lithuanian Jews, fleeing persecution in their homeland, began arriving in Limerick in 1878, they formed an accepted part of the city's retail trade, established a synagogue and a cemetery. From 1884, there was sometimes violent, antisemitic activity.
On Monday, 11 January 1904, Creagh a priest, gave a speech in a meeting at the Redemptorist Church at Mount Saint Alphonsus, attacking Jews in general. He repeated many historical myths about Jews, including that of ritual murder, said that the Jews had come to Limerick "to fasten themselves on us like leeches and to draw our blood". After Creagh made his call for a boycott, according to historian Dermot Keogh, people left the church, passing “Colooney Street where most... Jews lived... many were fired up by Creagh's... The Jewish community... sensed the menacing mood of the crowd... remained... in their homes as... passed... Jewish shops, remained open and their owners felt menaced. One old Fenian... single-handedly defended a shop... until... police arrived to mount a guard.” While 300 people attacked "Jewish" businesses, few arrests were made. A 15 year old youth was arrested and imprisoned for a month, for throwing a stone at the local rebbe that hit him on the ankle. Once released, Raleigh was welcomed by a demonstration protesting that he was innocent and that his sentence had been too harsh.
The boycott was condemned by figures from across the political spectrum in Ireland and Creagh was criticised publicly by his Catholic superiors, who said that "religious persecution had no place in Ireland". An anonymous letter to the Redemptorists labelled Creagh a "disgrace to the Catholic religion". According to a police report, five Jewish families, numbering 32 people, left Limerick due to the boycott and other, concurrent antisemitic activity, while another 26 families remained; the boycott appeared to accelerate a general decline in the numbers of Jews in Limerick. While the 1911 census suggested nine Jewish families new to the area had joined 13 families that had remained in Limerick, the Jewish population numbered only 122 people. By 1926, this number had declined to just 30 people. Many descendants of Jewish families and individuals that left Limerick due to the boycott became prominent in other parts of Ireland or overseas. Creagh was moved by his superiors to Belfast, transferred as a missionary to the Philippines.
There Creagh had a nervous breakdown in 1906. A year he was posted to Wellington, New Zealand. By 1914, Creagh had been transferred to Australia, he was appointed, soon afterwards, as rector of the Redemptorist monastery in North Perth. In 1915, A. O. Neville, Chief Protector of Aborigines in Western Australia, argued that the Catholic mission at Lombadina, in the Kimberley should be closed, because the property of 20,000 acres belonged to a Filipino from Manila, Thomas Puertollano, married to an Aboriginal woman and was technically employing the Aborigines; this was a breach of regulations as ‘Asiatics are not allowed to employ Aborigines’. Following the outbreak of World War I, German Pallotine missionaries at Broome, in the Kimberley were interned. In May 1916, Creagh was appointed vicar apostolic at Broome to replace the Pallotines; when Creagh was appointed to the Kimberley region, his brief included safeguarding the mission from threats from the Department of Aborigines and Fisheries and Immigration.
Creagh’s brother and a partner bought the land for £1100 and the lease was transferred from Puertollano to Creagh’s brother. Creagh thought of Puertollano, writing that he was "a man to whom I am under the greatest obligations, he was the former owner of Lombadina and for years he kept the Mission there going". Creagh opened and blessed the Church of Christ the King in Beagle Bay, south of Lombadina, on the feast of the Assumption in August 1918, he was involved in supporting the work of the St John of God Sisters in the Broome area. He obtained regular salaries for the Sisters at the Japanese Hospital and had the Sisters put on the staff of the District Hospital where they undertook night duty. Creagh built a beach house for the Sisters at Broome, located a few miles from town where there was a good water supply. A vegetable garden was planted and goats and poultry were kept, tended by a family from Lombadina; this small farm enterprise helped to supply the convent with fresh produce. In the early 1920s, before leaving Broome, Creagh authorised the Sisters to launch an appeal to purchase more land and build a new convent.
A Bengali Kissa is a genre of Bengali poetry and prose as well as a tradition in the Bengali language of oral story-telling. It started flourishing in Bengal with the fusion of local Bengali folklore and stories from the Arab and Turco-Persian immigrants. Where Kissa reflect an Islamic and/or Persian heritage of transmitting popular tales of love, valour and moral integrity amongst Muslims, they matured out of the bounds of religion into a more secular form when it reached Bengal and added the existing pre-Islamic Bengali culture and folklore to its entity; the word Kissa originates from the Arabic word Qissa meaning ‘epic legend’ or ‘folk tale’. It has influenced many languages of the Indian subcontinent and occurs as a regular common noun in Indo-Aryan languages like Bengali, Gujarati and Hindi. If used informally, the word means an ‘interesting tale’ or ‘fable’. Due to the existence of regional Bengali dialects, the word may be pronounced as Kichcha towards Eastern Bengal in the Sylhet region where they speak in the Sylheti dialect.
Kissa is said to have gained immense popularity in Bengal from the 15th century onward. Bengali Muslim writers would mix Perso-Arab themes of love, war and valour into their Kissas; the Dobhashi dialect of Bengali was a popular standard for writing. It was influenced in vocabulary by Persian, the official language of Mughal Bengal and the Bengal Sultanate; the nineteenth century hosted the establishment of many Kissa publishing companies across Bengal, in particular the printing presses at Battala. Literary societies were being founded such as the Mussalmani Kissa Sahitya in Howrah. Towards the start of the twentieth century however, Kissa had lost its popularity, it is considered to have lost popularity alongside the Dobhashi dialect as the Standard variant of Bengali, Sanskritised, became more institutionalised. This is evident in Kissas such as Mir Mosharraf Hossain's Bishad Shindhu, based on the traditional Bengali kissa about the Battle of Karbala, which he wrote in the late 19th century in Sanskritised Shadhu-bhasha instead of Persianised Dobhashi.
Written Bengali kissas became household items in Bengali Muslim families. Shah Muhammad Sagir's Yusuf-Zulekha from the 15th century was considered to be the greatest work of medieval Bengali literature. Bahram Khan of Chittagong made his own version of Laila and Majnun which he called "Laily-Majnu". In nearby Satkania, the poet Nawazish Khan, son of Muhammad Yar Khandakar, wrote Gule Bakawali, about love and included creatures such as fairies. Many different versions of the stories mentioned were written by the poets of Bengal. Other famous Kissas include Amir Hamza, Shirin-Farhad, Hatemtai, Sakhi Sona, Alif-Laila wa Laila and Gule Tarmuz. Notable writers, other than those listed above, included Syed Hamza, Naser Ali, Roushan Ali and Fakir Shah Garibullah
In general, cognitive support diets are formulated to include nutrients that have a known role in brain development, function and/or maintenance, with the goal of improving and preserving mental processes such as attentiveness, short-term and long-term memory and problem solving. There is little conclusive research available regarding cat cognition as standardized tests for evaluating cognitive ability are less established and less reliable than cognitive testing apparatus used in other mammalian species, like dogs. Much of what is known about feline cognition has been inferred from a combination of owner-reported behaviour, brain necropsies, comparative cognitive neurology of related animal models. Cognition claims appear on kitten diets which include elevated levels of nutrients associated with optimal brain development, although there are now diets available for senior cats that include nutrients to help slow the progression of age-related changes and prevent cognitive decline. Cognition diets for cats contain a greater portion of omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid as well as eicosapentaenoic acid, feature a variety of antioxidants and other supporting nutrients thought to have positive effects on cognition.
The omega-3 fatty acids are a key nutrient in cognition for felines. They are essential for felines as they cannot be synthesized and must be obtained from the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids that support brain development and function are alpha-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Fish oils and other marine sources provide a rich source of DHA and EPA. Alpha-linolenic acid can be acquired from seeds. In kittens and juvenile felines, omega-3 fatty acids are important for the development of the brain, components of the nervous system and retinal accretion, it was found in a study by Pawlosky et al. when pregnant domestic felines were fed a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids that their offspring showed high levels of DHA in brain and retinal tissues. In the group that fed low concentrations of omega-3 fatty acid and omega-6 fatty acid, their kittens had low amounts of DHA in these tissues which shows that young felines, have poor biosynthetic ability to produce these fatty acids.
This study showed hindered brain waves in kittens whose mother were fed low omega-3 and omega-6 diets, a significant indicator, that these fatty acids aid in the development of the feline brain at a juvenile stage. Though young felines are not efficient at producing omega-3 fatty acids it is critical for cognitive function and brain development in regard to brain waves and glucose uptake. Felines, like other obligate carnivores, possess a small concentration of delta 6 desaturase, an enzyme that converts omega-3 fatty acids such as alpha linolenic acid into DHA; this is what causes the poor bioavailability of essential fatty acids in felines, why it is crucial in their diet. Omega-3 fatty acid aids in uptake of glucose in the brain, needed for energy for cognitive health. Though no studies in cats have been completed, it was found that rats with low levels of omega-3 fatty acids resulted in a decrease of glucose uptake in the brain. Recommended DHA and EPA concentrations have not been yet determined for cats in present day.
According to AAFCO Dog and Cat Food Nutrient Profiles, DHA and EPA the minimum amount for the growth and reproduction in cat food is 0.0012% on a dry matter basis or 0.03g per 1000 kcal ME per day. Alpha-linolenic acid, was recommended at 0.02% on a dry matter basis and 0.05g per 1000 kcal ME per day. Omega-6 fatty acids are needed in feline cognition diets; the important omega-6 fatty acid that plays a role in brain support and cognition is arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid or AA is found in animal sources such as meat and eggs. AA is required in cat diets, as felines convert insignificant amounts of it from linoleic acid due to the limited delta-6 desaturase. Like DHA, arachidonic acid is found in the brain tissues of cats and seems to have a supporting role in brain function. In a 2000 study completed by Contreras et al. it was found that DHA and AA made up 20% of the fatty acids in the mammalian brain. Arachidonic acid makes up high amounts in the membrane of most cells and has many pro-inflammatory actions.
Recommended arachidonic acid concentrations have not been yet determined for cats in present-day but minimum requirements have been established. According to AAFCO Dog and Cat Food Nutrient Profiles, the minimum amount of AA for the growth and reproduction in cat food is 0.02% on a dry matter basis or 0.05g per 1000 kcal ME per day. The minimum of adult maintenance in cats is 0.02% on a dry matter basis or 0.05g per 1000 kcal ME per day. Taurine is an amino acid, essential in cat diets due to their low capacity to synthesize it; because of taurine has the ability to cross the blood–brain barrier in the brain, it has been found to have a role in many neurological functions in the visual development. Without taurine, felines can have an abnormal morphology in visual cortex; when cats were fed a diet deficient in taurine, this leads to a decrease in the concentration of taurine in the retina of the eye. This results in deterioration of the photoreceptors, followed by complete blindness. Based on AAFCO Dog and Cat Food Nutrient Profiles, the minimum amount of taurine for the growth and reproduction in cat food is 0.10% and 0.20% on a dry matter basis and 0.25g and 0.50g per 1000 kcal ME per day.
For minimum adult maintenance, taurine is recommended at 0.10% and 0.20% on a dry matter basis and 0.25g and 0.50g per 1000 kcal ME
Edinburgh Coalition Against Poverty known as ECAP, is a left-wing grassroots organisation which aims to be a solidarity network for working-class people the unemployed and disabled. It operates by direct democracy, it is one of many similar claimants groups set up with similar political purposes. ECAP's website hosts benefit advice and articles about the group's activities; the group has been involved in opposition to benefit sanctions, opposition to workfare and fighting for the right to be accompanied at jobcentres ECAP has drawn inspiration from the advocacy of the Scottish Unemployed Workers Network and supported SUWN member Tony Cox during his trialECAP have held presentations alongside speakers like Lynne Friedli and the IWW. Its affiliate, Edinburgh Claimants has been acting as an independent advocacy group and claimants union since the 1980s as part of the Edinburgh Unemployed Workers Centre, it has been based at the autonomous centre of Edinburgh since 1997. ECAP is a member of the Action Against Austerity network and signatory to "From Yes to Action"The group is featured in the end credits of Ken Loach's film I Daniel Blake due to its role in helping script writer Paul Laverty with researching the film