Gottlieben is a municipality in the district of Kreuzlingen in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland. Gottlieben is first mentioned around the end of the 10th century as Gotiliubon, it was part of the land owned by the Bishop of Constance. In 1251, Eberhard von Waldburg built a castle. After the Swabian War in 1499 the episcopal chief constable managed the village and the local low court from the castle until 1798; the court included Engwilen, Siegershausen and Tägerwilen as well as Gottlieben and made up the Bishop's bailiwick of Gottlieben. In 1808 the castle became private property. In 1837 it was renovated in a neo-gothic style. Gottlieben was in the parish of Tägerwilen. During the Protestant Reformation the population converted to the new faith. In 1734-35, the church was built and the Swiss Reformed Church parish of Gottlieben was formed. Since 1912, this parish has been combined with Tägerwilen. In the 17th and 18th centuries the village witnessed an economic boom because of its convenient location for Rhine traffic.
It became a commercial and trading center for salt and wine. In 1678 it received market rights. Although in the 19th Century small industries settled in Gottlieben, until after the mid-20th Century fishing and trade formed the main occupation of the population. After 1945, tourism developed into the main industry of the village, so that today only two boat yards and the famous restaurant Hüppenbäckerei remain. In 2000 the Bodman-Haus, the former home of the poet Emanuel von Bodman, opened a memorial and cultural center. Gottlieben has an area, as of 2009, of 0.33 square kilometers. Of this area, 0.05 km2 or 15.2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.05 km2 or 15.2% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.14 km2 or 42.4% is settled and 0.12 km2 or 36.4% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 21.2% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 6.1% and transportation infrastructure made up 3.0%. While parks, green belts and sports fields made up 12.1%.
Out of the forested land, 3.0% of the total land area is forested and 12.1% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 15.2% is used for growing crops. All of the unproductive land is unproductive vegetation; the municipality is located in the Kreuzlingen district, north-west of Kreuzlingen at the mouth of the Rhine into the Untersee section of Lake Constance. Gottlieben has a population of 351 As of 2008, 31.5% of the population are foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 6.8%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Portuguese being third; as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 49.8% male and 50.2% female. The population was made up of 99 Swiss men, 56 non-Swiss men. There were 114 Swiss women, 42 non-Swiss women. In 2008 there were 2 live births to Swiss citizens and births to non-Swiss citizens, in same time span there were 3 deaths of Swiss citizens. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 1 while the foreign population remained the same.
There was 1 Swiss man, 3 non-Swiss men who emigrated from Switzerland to another country and 5 non-Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland to another country. The total Swiss population change in 2008 was a decrease of 1 and the non-Swiss population change was a decrease of 1 people; this represents a population growth rate of -0.6%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in Gottlieben is. Of the adult population, 21 people or 6.8% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 35 people or 11.3% are between 30 and 39, 73 people or 23.6% are between 40 and 49, 55 people or 17.8% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 40 people or 12.9% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 25 people or 8.1% are between 70 and 79, there are 6 people or 1.9% who are between 80 and 89, there are 3 people or 1.0% who are 90 and older. As of 2000, there were 133 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.1 persons per household. In 2000 there were 24 single family homes out of a total of 47 inhabited buildings.
There were 10 two family buildings, 5 three family buildings and 8 multi-family buildings. There were 82 persons who were part of a couple without children, 129 who were part of a couple with children. There were 11 people who lived in single parent home, while there are 4 persons who were adult children living with one or both parents, 2 persons who lived in a household made up of relatives, 10 who lived in a household made up of unrelated persons, 20 who are either institutionalized or live in another type of collective housing; the vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2008, was 0%. As of 2007, the construction rate of new housing units was 0 new units per 1000 residents. In 2000 there were 150 apartments in the municipality; the most common apartment size was the 3 room apartment of which there were 40. There were 1 single room apartments and 18 apartments with six or more rooms; as of 2000 the average price to rent an average apartment in Gottlieben was 1015.06 Swiss francs per month. The average rate for a one-room apartment was 1150.00
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, sometimes other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, tools, automobiles, machines and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. In the body-centered cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the center and eight atoms at the vertices of each cubic unit cell, it is the interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In pure iron, the crystal structure has little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms; the carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight.
Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel, slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include such things as the hardness, quenching behavior, need for annealing, tempering behavior, yield strength, tensile strength of the resulting steel; the increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility. Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the production of blister steel and crucible steel. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began; this was followed by the Siemens–Martin process and the Gilchrist–Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common manmade materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations; the noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stahliją or stakhlijan, related to stahlaz or stahliją. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.14% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, so on. Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction. Too little carbon content leaves iron quite soft and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make a brittle alloy called pig iron. While iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel.
Common alloying elements include: manganese, chromium, boron, vanadium, tungsten and niobium. Additional elements, most considered undesirable, are important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur and traces of oxygen and copper. Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron. With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder metal forming, it is possible to make high-carbon steels, but such are not common. Cast iron is not malleable when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects. Steel is distinguishable from wrought iron, which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag. Iron is found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite. Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon, lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C, copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C, the combination, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C. In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C. Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities. With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire. Unlike copper and tin, liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily. All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods used since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate of iron increases beyond 800 °C, it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Smelting, using carbon to reduce iro
Hans Baur (sculptor)
Hans Baur was a German sculptor. Hans Baur was born in Konstanz, his father, Johann Baur, was a sculptor from Thurgau, across the lake in Switzerland. The son completed his schooling in 1846 and went on to become a pupil of Johann Jakob Oechslin in Schaffhausen. Oechslin evidently recognised Baur's talent, but there was a personal connection, in that Oechslin's second wife, was Hans Baur's half-sister. Oechslin was able to direct Baur towards the fashionable classical style. With a financial bursary from the Grand Duke, Baur was able to study between 1851 and 1855 at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts, where he was taught by Max von Widnmann, he returned to Konstanz in 1855. Here he received the commission for the two life-sized figures of Saints Conrad and Pelagius positioned above the west door of the Minster, which underwent an extensive restoration between 1844 and 1860; that year he produced a statuette of Jan Hus. Between 1857 and 1861 Hans Baur worked at the newly established Fine Arts Academy in Karlsruhe.
He was able to rent a private studio in the academy's new building in the Bismarckstraße. Students whom he taught here included Friedrich Moest and Gustav von Kreß. In 1862, having left the Fine Arts Academy, he moved back to Konstanz where he married Albertine Robert. Based in Konstanz, he would be able to pursue his career as a sculptor from now on. There was an interlude during 1863/65, during which he undertook an extended study tour to Paris and Rome. Two life-sized marble figures which he produced for the Villa Weschsler in Ulm on his return show clear signs of his study of Italian sculpture. In Konstanz he taught the young Joseph Franz Baumeister between 1873 and 1877; the celebratory unveiling of his final work took place on 30 October 1897, nearly five months after his death. The imposing "Kaiserbrunnen" (loosely "Emperors fountain" in the Market Square in Konstanz features a niche on each of its four sides; each contains a life-sized statue of an emperor: Henry III, Maximilian I and Wilhelm I.
The political message lacked subtlety: the deceased Hohenzollern Emperor of the united Germany could be ranked with three of the most celebrated Holy Roman Emperors of the second millennium
Gebhard of Constance
Gebhard III of Constance was bishop from 1086 to 1105. Saint Gebhard of Constance was a bishop of Constance from 979 until 995, he founded the Benedictine abbey of Petershausen in 983. His feast day is 27 August. Gebhard was born about 949, at Hohenbregenz Castle, he was the son of Count Ulrich of Bregenz. He was educated in Constance under Bishop Conrad. In 979, Holy Roman Emperor Otto II appointed him Bishop of Constance; the diocese was suffragan to the Archdiocese of Mainz. Gebhard was concerned with monastic reform. In 983 he founded on the northern shore of the Rhine river opposite to the episcopal residence, a Benedictine abbey dedicated to Pope Gregory the Great, it came to be called Petershausen Abbey. In 990, Bishop Gebhard initiated a program on the episcopal estate to encourage the serfs to learn crafts, the better to support themselves. After this he called his serfs together and chose the best among them and declared that they should be cooks and millers and fullers, cobblers and gardeners and masters of every craft, he decreed that, on the day on which they took care of the brethren, they should be refreshed with the bread of the brethren, for the laborer is worthy of his hire.
Moreover in order that they might work for their master swith a good will he added a gift of this kind, that, if any of them, or of their successors, of their stock, should die, their goods should not be confiscated but their heirs might take the whole of the inheritance: but if any one of another family should succeed, he shall be deprived of this gift. Gebhard began to be honoured as a saint soon after his death, became patron of the city of Constance. Hohenbregenz Castle is now divided into two parts; the lower portion contains the Gerbhardsberg Castle Restaurant, named after St. Gebhard; the upper castle houses the pilgrimage church of St George. The relics of St. Gebhard lie at Petershausen, with the exception of an arm given by the abbey to the castle chapel in 1821. In 1949, the Republic of Austria issued a stamp displaying St. Gebhard. Media related to Gebhard of Constance at Wikimedia Commons Gebhard of Constance Gebardo di Constanza
Robert Gerwig was a German civil engineer. Gerwig was born on 2 May 1820 in Karlsruhe, in the Grand Duchy of Baden, attended the Großherzogliches Polytechnikum where he studied civil engineering road construction. In the 1860s, Gerwigs attention and professional skills turned toward rail transport, he was one of the principal designers of the Black Forest Railway, which avoided steep grades through the use of numerous loops and curved tunnels. He applied the principle again for the Gotthard Railway at the double loop of Wassen, his last rail project was the Höllental Railway in Germany's Black Forest region. In life, Gerwig turned to politics, he was active in the government of Baden. He served as the first director of the Clockmakers School in Furtwangen. In 1852 he began collecting clocks. Gerwig died on 6 December 1885. Works by or about Robert Gerwig at Internet Archive
A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener. Before being installed, a rivet consists of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a head on one end; the end opposite to the head is called the tail. On installation, the rivet is placed in a punched or drilled hole, the tail is upset, or bucked, so that it expands to about 1.5 times the original shaft diameter, holding the rivet in place. In other words, pounding creates a new "head" on the other end by smashing the "tail" material flatter, resulting in a rivet, a dumbbell shape. To distinguish between the two ends of the rivet, the original head is called the factory head and the deformed end is called the shop head or buck-tail; because there is a head on each end of an installed rivet, it can support tension loads. However, it is much more capable of supporting shear loads. Fastenings used in traditional wooden boat building, such as copper nails and clinch bolts, work on the same principle as the rivet but were in use long before the term rivet was introduced and, where they are remembered, are classified among nails and bolts respectively.
There are a number of types of rivets, designed to meet different cost and strength requirements: Solid rivets are one of the oldest and most reliable types of fasteners, having been found in archaeological findings dating back to the Bronze Age. Solid rivets consist of a shaft and head that are deformed with a hammer or rivet gun. A rivet compression or crimping tool can deform this type of rivet; this tool is used on rivets close to the edge of the fastened material, since the tool is limited by the depth of its frame. A rivet compression tool does not require two people, is the most foolproof way to install solid rivets. Solid rivets are used in applications where safety count. A typical application for solid rivets can be found within the structural parts of aircraft. Hundreds of thousands of solid rivets are used to assemble the frame of a modern aircraft; such rivets come with rounded or 100° countersunk heads. Typical materials for aircraft rivets are aluminium alloys and nickel-based alloys.
Some aluminum alloy rivets are too hard to buck and must be softened by solution treating prior to being bucked. "Ice box" aluminum alloy rivets harden with age, must be annealed and kept at sub-freezing temperatures to slow the age-hardening process. Steel rivets can be found in static structures such as bridges and building frames; the setting of these fasteners requires access to both sides of a structure. Solid rivets are driven using a hydraulically, pneumatically, or electromagnetically actuated squeezing tool or a handheld hammer. Applications where only one side is accessible require "blind" rivets. Solid rivets are used by some artisans in the construction of modern reproduction of medieval armour and metal couture; until recently, structural steel connections were either welded or riveted. High-strength bolts have replaced structural steel rivets. Indeed, the latest steel construction specifications published by AISC no longer covers their installation; the reason for the change is due to the expense of skilled workers required to install high strength structural steel rivets.
Whereas two unskilled workers can install and tighten high strength bolts, it takes a minimum of four skilled riveters to install rivets. At a central location near the areas being riveted, a furnace was set up. Rivets were placed in the furnace and heated to glowing hot so that they were more plastic and deformed; the rivet warmer or "cook" used tongs to remove individual rivets and throw them to a catcher stationed near the joints to be riveted. The catcher caught the rivet in wooden bucket with an ash-lined bottom, he placed the rivet into the hole to be riveted quickly turned to catch the next rivet. The "holder up or holder on" would hold a heavy rivet set or dolly or another pneumatic jack against the round head of the rivet, while the riveter applied a hammer or pneumatic rivet hammer to the unformed head, making it mushroom against the joint in its final domed shape. Alternatively the buck is hammered less flush with the structure in a counter sunk hole. Before the use of pneumatic hammers, e.g. in the construction of RMS Titanic, the man who hammered the rivet was known as the "basher".
Upon cooling, the rivet exerted further force, tightening the joint. The last used high strength structural steel rivets were designated ASTM A502 Grade 1 rivets; such riveted structures may be insufficient to resist seismic loading from earthquakes if the structure was not engineered for such forces, a common problem of older steel bridges. This is. In the seismic retrofit of such structures it is common practice to remove critical rivets with an oxygen torch, precision ream the hole insert a machined and heat treated bolt. Semi-tubular rivets are similar to solid rivets; the purpose of this hole is to reduce the amount of force needed for application by rolling the tubular portion outward. The force needed to apply a semitubular rivet is about 1/4 of the amount needed to apply a solid rivet. Tubular rivets are sometimes preferred for pivot points since the swelling of the rivet is only
Conrad of Constance
Saint Conrad of Constance was a German bishop and saint. Conrad was a member of son of Count Heinrich of Altdorf. After an education at the cathedral school in Constance, he became provost of Constance Cathedral and in 934 was made Bishop of Constance, it is counted as one of his achievements that he avoided becoming enmeshed in the politics of the day and reserved his energies for his episcopal duties. He was close to Emperor Otto I, whom he accompanied to Italy in 962. Conrad made three pilgrimages to Jerusalem as well as a number to Rome, he founded a number of churches on the episcopal estates and the hospital at Kreuzlingen, named after a portion of the True Cross which Conrad brought back from Jerusalem and presented to it. His remembrance as a role model for courage was due to the efforts of Bishop Ulrich I of Dillingen, Bishop of Constance; the Vita of Conrad was written in about 1120 by Udalschalk, a monk of St. Ulrich's and St. Afra's Abbey, Augsburg, of which he became abbot, its late date doubtless accounts for its lack of content, notwithstanding which, Conrad was canonised at the First Lateran Council in 1123.
Saint Conrad is sometimes represented as a bishop holding a chalice over it. This refers to a story. Spiders were believed at that time to be deadly poisonous, but Conrad drank the Blood of Christ, transubstantiated from wine, with the spider in it, as a token of faith. See Cultural depictions of spiders Adriaan Breukelaar. "Konrad von Konstanz". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 4. Herzberg: Bautz. Cols. 416–417. ISBN 3-88309-038-7. St. Patrick's Church: Conrad of Constance "San Corrado di Costanza". Santiebeati.it. "Saint Conrad of Constance". CatholicSaints. Info