Lutheranism is a major branch of western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation; the reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity. The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation; the divide centered on two points: the proper source of authority in the church called the formal principle of the Reformation, the doctrine of justification called the material principle of Lutheran theology.
Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God's Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, predestination; the name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans.
Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, derived from εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "Gospel". The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition used that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed; as time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church. Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway and the monarch of Sweden adopted Lutheranism.
Through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark–Norway remained Catholic. Although Frederick pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen. During Frederick's reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark. At an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted. Frederick's son Christian was Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark–Norway; the constitution upon which the Danish Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance, should rest was "The pure word of God, the Law and the Gospel". It does not mention the Augsburg Confession; the priests had to understand the Holy Scripture well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations.
The youths were taught from Luther's Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They were taught to expect at the end of life: "forgiving of their sins", "to be counted as just", "the eternal life". Instruction is still similar; the first complete Bible in Danish was based on Martin Luther's translation into German. It was published with 3,000 copies printed in the first edition. Unlike Catholicism, the Lutheran Church does not believe that tradition is a carrier of the "Word of God", or that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome has been entrusted to interpret the "Word of God"; the Reformation in Sweden began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation to Sweden after studying in Germany. They led elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism; the pope's refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop who had supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the severing of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy in 1523.
Four years at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church properties, as well as the church appointments and approval of the clergy. While this granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas, Lutheranism did not become official until 1593. At that time the Uppsa
The Sainte-Madeleine Church is a Catholic church in Strasbourg, built in Gothic style in the late 15th century, but rebuilt in a style close to Jugendstil after a devastating fire in 1904. Destroyed again during World War II, the church was re-constructed in its modern form; this is the fourth building dedicated to Mary Magdalene built in the city since the 13th century. The church is classified as a historic monument by a decree of 6 December 1898; the first convent dedicated to Mary Magdalene was built in 1225 on the outskirts of the city of Strasbourg, on the site of the current place de la République. The institution, which welcomed repentant prostitutes, was evacuated and destroyed around 1470, since the city feared imminent invasion by the armies of the Duke of Burgundy. A new convent was rebuilt in the Krutenau district; the Gothic church of the convent of the sisters of the order of St. Mary Magdalene, completed in 1478, was destroyed by fire in 1904. All that remains of this church, the last Gothic structure built in Strasbourg, is the choir housing fragments of some frescoes.
It now serves as a chapel, dedicated to the Blessed Sacrament. Remains of the once abundant stained glass windows vy Peter Hemmel of Andlau that decorated the church are shown in the Musée de l’Œuvre Notre-Dame. John Calvin directed services in that church; the current church, perpendicular to the earlier building, was built in 1907 according to plans by Fritz Beblo and is more spacious and airy. It has a barrel vault, based on the model of St. Michael's Church, a conspicuous belltower. Damaged by Anglo-American bombing on 11 August 1944, it was rebuilt, true to Beblo's original, in 1958. A part of the former cloisters from the earlier convent can still be seen, surrounding the adjacent school building. An organ was purchased from Andreas Silbermann on 17 February 1716 and was completed in 1718, it had an echo -- on a specific keyboard -- and separate pedals. The instrument was sold in 1799 to the city of Lampertheim, before vanishing in 1876; the church owned a first Roethinger organ, destroyed during the bombing of 1944.
It was endowed with a second Roethinger organ, inaugurated by Michel Chapuis and Robert Pfrimmer on 28 November 1965. It was rebuilt by Michel Wolf of Manufacture d'orgues alsacienne in 1997 and 1998, but the harmonization was not modified. Work was done on the cabinet in 2004; the organ was restored by the firm of Alfred et Daniel Kern, which replaced the keyboards. The Gothic side chapel of the current 20th-century church, that used to serve as the choir of the medieval church, houses another much smaller organ; this instrument from 1719, built by Andreas Silbermann, was designed for Marmoutier Abbey and was installed in its current location in 2012. It is classified as a Monument historique since 1976; the church choir's rear wall is adorned by a large painting representing the Adoration of the Shepherds. This 18th-century work was displayed in Strasbourg Cathedral and moved into Sainte-Madeleine either after 1904 or 1944, it is classified as a Monument historique since 1980. The Passion of Christ, a set of ten late 15th-century paintings displayed in the church.
View of the steeple of the church
Saint Nicholas Church, Strasbourg
Saint Nicholas Church, Strasbourg is a small Gothic church in Strasbourg. Jean Calvin led services and preached at this church in 1538. Albert Schweitzer used to play the organ there; the Church no longer functions as a parish church, due to the decline of the population of the centre of Strasbourg. Today it is used by a Charismatic group called "Renouveau Saint Nicholas"; the charismatic group, led by the pastors Daniel Hebert and Pastor Ringerbach, began renting the church for their Sunday services in 1975. However, the Church remains affiliated to the Protestant Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine; the church was built between 1387 and 1454 on the site of an earlier church dedicated to Mary Magdalene. This earlier church, which dated from 1182, was founded by the Knight Walther Spender and had been built on the site of a small Roman fort; the tower with its tapering spire was erected in 1585. The interior was remodeled during the 17th Century; the façade and the sacristy, which date from 1905, are by Émile Salomon, the architect of the Temple Neuf.
While Schweitzer was pastor at the Church, on 11 April 1908 he celebrated the wedding of Elly Knapp and Theodor Heuss, who went on to become President of the Federal Republic of Germany. The interior contains remains of 15th Century frescoes; the 1707 organ of the brothers Andreas and Gottfried Silbermann was dismantled in 1967. Dictionnaire historique des rues de Strasbourg - 2002. - Maurice Moszberger, Théodore Riger and Léon Daul - ISBN 2-84574-023-9 This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding German Wikipedia article as of 13 October 2013. Renouveau Saint Nicholas
Renaissance art is the painting and decorative arts of the period of European history, emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel with developments which occurred in philosophy, literature and science. Renaissance art, perceived as the noblest of ancient traditions, took as its foundation the art of Classical antiquity, but transformed that tradition by absorbing recent developments in the art of Northern Europe and by applying contemporary scientific knowledge. Renaissance art, with Renaissance Humanist philosophy, spread throughout Europe, affecting both artists and their patrons with the development of new techniques and new artistic sensibilities. Renaissance art marks the transition of Europe from the medieval period to the Early Modern age. In many parts of Europe, Early Renaissance art was created in parallel with Late Medieval art. Renaissance art, sculpture, architecture and literature produced during the 14th, 15th, 16th centuries in Europe under the combined influences of an increased awareness of nature, a revival of classical learning, a more individualistic view of man.
Scholars no longer believe that the Renaissance marked an abrupt break with medieval values, as is suggested by the French word renaissance “rebirth.” Rather, historical sources suggest that interest in nature, humanistic learning, individualism were present in the late medieval period and became dominant in 15th- and 16th-century Italy concurrently with social and economic changes such as the secularization of daily life, the rise of a rational money-credit economy, increased social mobility. The influences upon the development of Renaissance men and women in the early 15th century are those that affected Philosophy, Architecture, Science and other aspects of society; the following list presents a summary, dealt with more in the main articles that are cited above. Classical texts, lost to European scholars for centuries, became available; these included Philosophy, Poetry, Science, a thesis on the Arts, Early Christian Theology. Europe gained access to advanced mathematics which had its provenance in the works of Islamic scholars.
The advent of movable type printing in the 15th century meant that ideas could be disseminated and an increasing number of books were written for a broad public. The establishment of the Medici Bank and the subsequent trade it generated brought unprecedented wealth to a single Italian city, Florence. Cosimo de' Medici set a new standard for patronage of the arts, not associated with the church or monarchy. Humanist philosophy meant that man's relationship with humanity, the universe and with God was no longer the exclusive province of the Church. A revived interest in the Classics brought about the first archaeological study of Roman remains by the architect Brunelleschi and sculptor Donatello; the revival of a style of architecture based on classical precedents inspired a corresponding classicism in painting and sculpture, which manifested itself as early as the 1420s in the paintings of Masaccio and Uccello. The improvement of oil paint and developments in oil-painting technique by Dutch artists such as Robert Campin, Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden and Hugo van der Goes led to its adoption in Italy from about 1475 and had lasting effects on painting practices, worldwide.
The serendipitous presence within the region of Florence in the early 15th century of certain individuals of artistic genius, most notably Masaccio, Ghiberti, Piero della Francesca and Michelozzo formed an ethos out of which sprang the great masters of the High Renaissance, as well as supporting and encouraging many lesser artists to achieve work of extraordinary quality. A similar heritage of artistic achievement occurred in Venice through the talented Bellini family, their influential in-law Mantegna, Giorgione and Tintoretto; the publication of two treatises by Leone Battista Alberti, De Pitura, 1435, De re aedificatoria, 1452. In Italy in the late 13th and early 14th centuries, the sculpture of Nicola Pisano and his son Giovanni Pisano, working at Pisa and Pistoia shows markedly classicising tendencies influenced by the familiarity of these artists with ancient Roman sarcophagi, their masterpieces are the pulpits of the Cathedral of Pisa. Contemporary with Giovanni Pisano, the Florentine painter Giotto developed a manner of figurative painting, unprecedentedly naturalistic, three-dimensional and classicist, when compared with that of his contemporaries and teacher Cimabue.
Giotto, whose greatest work is the cycle of the Life of Christ at the Arena Chapel in Padua, was seen by the 16th century biographer Giorgio Vasari as "rescuing and restoring art" from the "crude, Byzantine style" prevalent in Italy in the 13th century. The painters of the Low Countries in this period included Jan van Eyck, his brother Hubert van Eyck, Robert Campin, Hans Memling, Rogier van der Weyden and Hugo van der Goes, their painting developed independently of Early Italian Renaissance painting, without the influence of a deliberate and conscious striving to revive antiquity. The style of painting grew directly out of medieval painting in tempera, on panels and illuminated manuscripts, other forms such as stained glass; the medium used was oil paint, which had long been utilised for painting leather ceremonial shields and accoutrements, because it was flexible and durable. The earliest Netherlandish oil paintings are detailed like tempera paintings; the material lent itself to the depiction of
Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune Protestant Church
The Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune Protestant Church is one of the most important church buildings of the city of Strasbourg, from the art historical and architectural viewpoints. It got its name, "Young St. Peter's", because of the existence of three other St. Peter's churches in the same city: Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux, divided into a Catholic and a Lutheran church, Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune catholique, a massive neo-Romanesque domed church from the late 19th century; the church has been Lutheran since 1524 and its congregation forms part of the Protestant Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine. It is located on the Route Romane d'Alsace; the oldest part of the church is the small lower church used as a burial crypt, the remains of a Columban church erected in the 7th century. Three of the four arched galleries of the cloister date from the 11th century, the fourth arched gallery is from the 14th century; the Gothic main building, with its numerous chapels and the lavish rib vault dates from the 14th century.
There are many frescoes from this time and the following one-and-one-half centuries, memorial slabs and monuments, the baptismal font, the central painting of the high altar and the choir screen, now unique in Alsace, which have been maintained. In 1780, the now nationally famous choir organ of Johann Andreas Silbermann was built. Helmut Walcha recorded; the pulpit dates from the same century, as well as another altar. Between 1897 and 1901, the church, which had fallen into disrepair, was fundamentally overhauled by the Karlsruhe architect Carl Schäfer, one of the most important representatives of neo-Gothic sacred architecture in Germany. At that time, the entrance was moved to the side and a new main portal was created, a copy of the northern entrance of the facade of the Strasbourg Cathedral; the cloisters were painted following the example of the Hortus Deliciarum. The life-sized baptismal angel statue, along with the chapel and the choir glass windows date from this time. An organ built in 1762 by Johann Andreas Silbermann in the Catholic part of the two-part church of that time was transferred in 1865 to the St. Moriz Church of the parish of Soultz-les-Bains.
There, it has been restored to its 1848 condition, a compromise between the original baroque Silbermann settings and the Romantic tone and harmonic extensions, by the family of Alfred Kern & fils between 2006 and 2008. The parish. History, ground plan, photographs The choir screen organ of Johann Andreas Silbermann, The organ of the Catholic part, today in Soultz-les-Bains
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Strasbourg
The Archdiocese of Strasbourg is a non-metropolitan archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church in France, first mentioned in 343. It is one of nine archbishoprics in France which have no suffragans and the only one of those to be exempt, i.e. subject to the Holy See in Rome, thus not part of any Metropolitan's province. It is headed by Archbishop Luc Ravel, in office since February 2017; the Diocese of Strasbourg was first mentioned in 343, belonging to the ecclesiastical province of the Archbishopric of Mainz since Carolingian times. Archeological diggings below the current Saint Stephen’s Church, Strasbourg in 1948 and 1956 have unearthed the apse of a church dating back to the late 4th or early 5th century, considered the oldest church in Alsace, it is supposed. The diocese may thus have been founded around 300; the bishop was the ruler of an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. For this state, see Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg.
Since the 15th century, the diocesan seat has been the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Strasbourg. By the Concordat of 1801, the Diocese of Strasbourg became a public-law corporation of cult and the diocesan ambit of Strasbourg was redrawn and all its areas east of the river Rhine were redeployed, forming a part of the Archdiocese of Freiburg since 1821. On 29 November 1801 it gained territory from the Diocese of Basel, Diocese of Metz and Diocese of Speyer. On 25 February 1803 it lost territory to the Diocese of Konstanz, on 26 April 1808 it gained territory from the same and in 1815 lost territory to that Diocese of Konstanz. In 1871 the bulk of the diocese became part of German Empire, while small fringes remained with France. On 10 July 1874 Strasbourg diocese, with its diocesan ambit reconfined to the borders of German Alsace, gaining territory from the Diocese of Saint-Dié, losing territory to the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Besançon, it became an exempt diocese subject to the Holy See instead of part of any ecclesiastical province.
When the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State was enacted, doing away with public-law religious corporations, this did not apply to the Strasbourg diocese, being within Germany. After World War I, Alsace along with the diocese was returned to France, but the concordatary status has been preserved since as part of the Local law in Alsace-Moselle; the diocese was elevated to Archdiocese of Strasbourg on 1 June 1988 by Pope John Paul II but not as Metropolitan of an ecclesiastical province and remains exempt, so having nor being a suffragan. The bishop of this see is appointed by the French president according to the Concordat of 1801; the concordat further provides for the clergy being paid by the government and Catholic pupils in public schools can receive religious instruction according to archdiocesan guide lines. It enjoyed papal visits from Pope John Paul II in October 1988 and Pope Francis in November 2014; the archiepsicopal cathedral seat is the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Strasbourg, France, as mother church, a World Heritage Site.
It has four other Minor Basilicas, all in Bas-Rhin, Alsace: Basilique du Sacré-Cœur in Lutterbach Basilique Notre-Dame in Marienthal Basilique Notre-Dame de Thierenbach, in Jungholtz Basilique Notre-Dame du Mont Sainte-Odile in Ottrott. As per 2014, it pastorally served 1,380,000 Catholics on 8,280 km² in 767 parishes and 5 missions with 722 priests, 80 deacons, 1,332 lay religious and 17 seminarians; as of 31 December 2003, the area of the archdiocese comprised a total of 1,713,416 inhabitants of which 75.9% are Catholics, divided in 762 parishes covering an area of 8,280 km². 619 diocese priests, 50 deacons, 288 ordained priests and 1,728 nuns belonged to the archdiocese. Suffragan bishops of Strasbourg Amawich Werner de Bavière Guillaume Hermann Werner Thiepald Otton de Hohenstaufen Balduin Cunon Bruno Eberhard Bruno de Hohenberg Gebhard Burchard Rodolphe Father Conrad de Geroldseck Henri de Hasebourg Conrad de Hunebourg Henri de Veringen Berthold de Teck Henri de Stahleck Gautier de Geroldseck Henri de Geroldseck Father Conrad de Lichtenberg Frédéric de Lichtenberg Jean de Dirpheim.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of