South Atlantic states
The South Atlantic United States form one of the nine Census Bureau Divisions within the United States that are recognized by the United States Census Bureau. The South Atlantic States, U. S. Census Bureau Region 3, Division 5, consisting of the states of Delaware, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and the District of Columbia; when discussing climate, New Jersey is included with these states. This division includes one district. C.. This division is a recognized geographical division used by the United States Geological Survey. Together with the East South Central States and the West South Central States, the South Atlantic States constitute the United States Census Bureau's broader Census Bureau Region of the South; as of 2010, the South Atlantic States had a combined population of 61,774,970. The South Atlantic States region covers 292,589 square miles. With the exception of West Virginia, the region has seen rapid population growth and economic development in recent decades.
Bold denotes election winner. Note: Election results for the Upper South Atlantic States are included in the table of the Mid-Atlantic states article
History of the United States Democratic Party
The Democratic Party is the oldest voter-based political party in the world and the oldest existing political party in the United States, tracing its heritage back to the anti-Federalists and the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party of the 1790s. During the Second Party System under Presidents Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren and James K. Polk, the Democrats bested the opposition Whig Party by narrow margins. Both parties worked hard to build grassroots organizations and maximize the turnout of voters, which reached 80 percent or 90 percent of eligible voters. Both parties used patronage extensively to finance their operations, which included emerging big city political machines as well as national networks of newspapers; the party was a proponent for slave-owners across the country, urban workers and caucasian immigrants. From 1860 to 1932 in the era of the American Civil War to the Great Depression, the opposing Republican Party, organized in the mid-1850s from the ruins of the Whig Party and some other smaller splinter groups, was dominant in presidential politics.
The Democrats elected only two Presidents to four terms of office for twenty-two years, namely Grover Cleveland and Woodrow Wilson. Over the same period, the Democrats proved more competitive with the Republicans in Congressional politics, enjoying House of Representatives majorities in 15 of the 36 Congresses elected, although only in five of these did they form the majority in the Senate. Furthermore, the Democratic Party was split between the Bourbon Democrats, representing Eastern business interests; the agrarian element, marching behind the slogan of free silver, captured the party in 1896 and nominated William Jennings Bryan in the 1896, 1900 and 1908 presidential elections, although he lost every time. Both Bryan and Wilson were leaders of the progressive movement in the United States. Starting with 32nd President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 during the Great Depression, the party dominated the Fifth Party System, with its progressive liberal policies and programs with the New Deal coalition to combat the emergency bank closings and the continuing financial depression since the famous Wall Street Crash of 1929 and going into the crises leading up to World War II.
The Democrats and the Democratic Party lost the White House and control of the executive branch of government only after Roosevelt's death in April 1945 near the end of the war and after the continuing post-war administration of Roosevelt's third Vice President Harry S. Truman, former Senator from Missouri. A new Republican Party President was only elected in the following decade of the early 1950s with the losses by two-time nominee, the Governor of Illinois Adlai Stevenson to the popular war hero and commanding general in World War II, General Dwight D. Eisenhower. With two brief interruptions since the Great Depression and World War II eras, the Democrats with unusually large majorities for over four decades, controlled the lower house of the Congress in the House of Representatives from 1930 until 1994 and the Senate for most of that same period, electing the Speaker of the House and the Representatives' majority leaders/committee chairs along with the upper house of the Senate's majority leaders and committee chairmen.
Important Democratic progressive/liberal leaders included 33rd and 36th Presidents Harry S. Truman of Missouri and Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas, respectively. Since the presidential election of 1976, Democrats have won five out of the last eleven presidential elections, winning in the presidential elections of 1976, 1992 and 1996 and 2008 and 2012. Democrats have won the popular vote in 2000 and 2016, but lost the Electoral College with Al Gore and Hillary Clinton, respectively; the 1876 and 1888 elections were other two presidential elections in which Democrats won the popular vote, but lost the Electoral College. Social scientists Theodore Caplow et al. argue that "the Democratic party, moved from left-center toward the center in the 1940s and 1950s moved further toward the right-center in the 1970s and 1980s". The modern Democratic Party emerged in the late 1820s from former factions of the Democratic-Republican Party, which had collapsed by 1824, it was built by Martin Van Buren, who assembled a cadre of politicians in every state behind war hero Andrew Jackson of Tennessee.
The spirit of Jacksonian democracy animated the party from the early 1830s to the 1850s, shaping the Second Party System, with the Whig Party the main opposition. After the disappearance of the Federalists after 1815 and the Era of Good Feelings, there was a hiatus of weakly organized personal factions until about 1828–1832, when the modern Democratic Party emerged along with its rival the Whigs; the new Democratic Party became a coalition of city-dwelling laborers and Irish Catholics. Behind the party platforms, acceptance speeches of candidates, editorials and stump speeches, there was a widespread consensus of pol
Daniel Decatur "Dan" Emmett was an American songwriter and founder of the first troupe of the blackface minstrel tradition, the Virginia Minstrels. Of Irish ancestry, Dan Emmett was born in Mount Vernon, Ohio a frontier region. Growing up with little formal education, he learned popular tunes from his musical mother, taught himself to play the fiddle. At age 13, he enlisted in the United States Army, he became an expert fifer and drummer at Newport Barracks, Newport and published his own Fifer’s and Drummer’s Guide in 1862 in cooperation with George G. Bruce. After receiving his discharge from the army on July 8, 1835, he joined a Cincinnati circus. In 1840 -- 1842 he toured with other circuses as a blackface banjoist and singer. Emmett was a Catholic. In association with Billy Whitlock, Dick Pelham, Frank Brower, he organized the Virginia Minstrels, which made their first appearance before a paying audience at the Chatham Theatre in New York City in 1843. Although blackface performance, in which white men painted their faces and hands black and impersonated caricatures of African-American men and women, was an established performance mode at that time—Thomas D. Rice had created the character of Jim Crow nearly a decade earlier, blackface had been popular since—Emmett's group is said to be the first to "black up" an entire band rather than one or two performers.
The group's full-length blackface performance is considered to have been the first true minstrel show: previous blackface acts were either an entr'acte for a play or one of many acts in a comic variety show. Emmett is traditionally credited with writing the famous song "Dixie." The story that he related about its composition varied each time he told it, but the main points were that he composed the song in New York City while a member of Bryant's Minstrels. The song was first performed by Emmett and the Bryants at Mechanics' Hall in New York City on April 4, 1859; the song became a runaway hit in the South, the piece for which Emmett was most well known. Emmett himself told a fellow minstrel: "If I had known to what use they were going to put my song, I will be damned if I'd have written it." After the South began using his song as a rallying call, Emmett wrote the fife-and-drum manual for the Union Army. Emmett's song was a favorite of President Abraham Lincoln, who said after the war ended in 1865, "I have always thought that'Dixie' was one of the best tunes I heard...
I insisted yesterday that we had captured it."Another writer named William Shakespeare Hays claimed to be its true author. Members of the Snowden Family of Knox County, have been named as writers of the song. After a tour, notably successful in the South, Emmett retired to his hometown of Mount Vernon in 1888 where he died on June 28, 1904, aged 88 years. From 1893 to the time of his death, he was aided by a weekly allowance from the Actors Fund of America. Emmett was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1970. A biographical film of his life was produced in titled Dixie. Starring Bing Crosby and Dorothy Lamour, it is a musical directed by A. Edward Sutherland. Numerous schools and other institutions in Mount Vernon, are named after Emmett; the official memorial to him is a large boulder with a placard attached located in front of the Knox County Historical Museum. Emmett published at least 30 songs between 1843 and 1865, most of which are banjo tunes or walk-arounds. Between 1859 and 1869, he composed another 25 tunes that are in manuscript at the Ohio Historical Society in Columbus, Ohio.
Minstrel show Richard. An Introduction to America's Music. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001. Hall, Roger Lee. Lincoln and Liberty: Music from Abraham Lincoln's Era. Stoughton, Massachusetts: PineTree Press, 2009. Lott, Eric. Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-19-507832-2. Nathan, Hans. Dan Emmett and the Rise of Early Negro Minstrelsy. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962 Robert Stevenson. "Emmett, Dan." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Dan Emmett at the Songwriters Hall of Fame Dan Emmett on IMDb Free scores by Dan Emmett in the Choral Public Domain Library Free scores at the Mutopia Project Free scores by Dan Emmett at the International Music Score Library Project Works written by or about Dan Emmett at Wikisource
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States. It was differentiated as those states most dependent on plantations and slave societies during the pre-Civil War period; the Deep South is referred to as the Cotton States, given that the production of cotton was a primary cash crop. The term "Deep South" is defined in a variety of ways: Most definitions include the states Georgia, South Carolina and Louisiana. Texas is sometimes included, due to its history of slavery and as being a part of the Confederate States of America; the eastern part of the state is the westernmost extension of the Deep South. Arkansas is sometimes included or else considered "in the Peripheral or Rim South rather than the Deep South." North Florida is a part of the Deep South region. The seven states that seceded from the United States before the firing on Fort Sumter and the start of the American Civil War, who formed the Confederate States of America. In order of secession they are: South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas.
The first six states to secede were those. The Confederacy included eleven states. A large part of the original "Cotton Belt"; this was considered to extend from eastern North Carolina to South Carolina and through the Gulf States as far west as East Texas, including those parts of western Tennessee and eastern Arkansas in the Mississippi embayment. Some of this is coterminous with the Black Belt referring to upland areas of Alabama and Mississippi with fertile soil, which were developed for cotton under slave labor; the term came to be used for much of the Cotton Belt, which had a high percentage of African-American slave labor. Though used in history books to refer to the seven states that formed the Confederacy, the term "Deep South" did not come into general usage until long after the Civil War ended. Up until that time, "Lower South" was the primary designation for those states; when "Deep South" first began to gain mainstream currency in print in the middle of the 20th century, it applied to the states and areas of Georgia, southern Alabama, Mississippi, north Louisiana, East Texas, all historic areas of cotton plantations and slavery.
This was the part of the South many considered the "most Southern". The general definition expanded to include all of South Carolina, Alabama and Louisiana, taking in bordering areas of East Texas and North Florida. In its broadest application today, the Deep South is considered to be "an area coextensive with the old cotton belt from eastern North Carolina through South Carolina west into East Texas, with extensions north and south along the Mississippi"; the Deep South is home to eight combined statistical areas with populations exceeding 1,000,000 residents, although the inclusion of these cities and exclusion of others is subject to varying geographic definitions of the region. Houston and Atlanta, with the ninth and eleventh largest CSAs in the United States are the Deep South's largest population centers by far. Metropolitan areas with more than 1,000,000 people: Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land, TX CSA Atlanta–Athens–Clarke–Sandy Springs, GA CSA Birmingham–Hoover–Talladega, AL CSA Jacksonville-St. Marys-Palatka, FL-GA CSA New Orleans–Metarie–Hammond, LA–MS CSA Memphis–Forrest City, TN–MS–CSA Greenville–Spartanburg–Anderson, SC CSA In the 1980 census, of those people who identified by one European national ancestry, most European Americans identified as being of English ancestry in every Southern state except Louisiana, where more people identified as having French ancestry.
A significant number have Irish and Scots-Irish ancestry. With regards to people in the Deep South who reported only a single European-American ancestry group in 1980, the census showed the following self-identification in each state in this region: Alabama – 857,864 persons out of a total of 2,165,653 people in the state identified as "English," making them 41% of the state and the largest national ancestry group at the time by a wide margin. Georgia – 1,132,184 out of 3,009,484 people identified as "English," making them 37.62% of the state's total. Mississippi – 496,481 people out of 1,551,364 people identified as "English," making them 32.00% of the total, the largest national group by a wide margin. Florida – 1,132,033 people out of 5,159,967 identified "English" as their only ancestry group, making them 21.94% of the total. Louisiana – 440,558 people out of 2,319,259 people identified only as "English," making them 19.00% of the total people and the second-largest ancestry group in the state at the time.
Those who wrote only "French" were 480,711 people out of 2,319,259 people, or 20.73% of the total state population. Texas – 1,639,322 people identified as "English" only out of a total of 7,859,393 people, making them 20.86% of the total people in the state and the largest ancestry group by a large margin. These figures to do not take into account people who identified as "English" and another ancestry group; when the two were added together, people who self identified as being of English with other ancestry, made up an larger portion of southerners. South Carolina was settled earlier than those states classified as the Deep South, its population in 1980 included 578,338 people out of 1,706,966 people in the state who identified as "English" only, making them 33.88% of the total population, the largest national ancestry group by a large margin. The map to the right was prepared by the Census Bureau from the 2000 census. Note: The Census said that areas with