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Old Supreme Court Building, Singapore

The Old Supreme Court Building is the former courthouse of the Supreme Court of Singapore, before it moved out of the building and commenced operations in the new building on 20 June 2005. The building was the last structure in the style of classical architecture to be built in the former British colony; the building, together with the City Hall, has been converted into National Art Gallery of Singapore, opened in 2015. Many colonial-built houses were built before the courthouse was constructed in the 1930s, in addition to the Grand Hotel de l'Europe, demolished to make way for the new building. Raffles designated the site for public use, but his administrator in Singapore, William Farquhar, allowed private residences to be constructed there. By the 1830s, houses built in Madras chunam lined the streets; the residence of Edward Boustead designed by George Drumgoole Coleman stood there. The house was remodeled to become hotels of several names, namely London Hotel, Hotel de l'Esperance and Hotel de l'Europe.

However, these houses made way for the Grand Hotel de l'Europe in 1900, the only other hotel in Singapore that could be comparable with the landmark Raffles Hotel. The Grand Hotel boasted a lounge, reading room, a bar, shops and a roof garden, a novelty at that time. In 1932, the hotel's business filed for bankruptcy, it made way in 1936 for the present building, the former building had good views of the Padang from its verandah. On 1 April 1937, the original foundation stone of the Old Supreme Court Building, was laid by the Governor of the Straits Settlements, Sir Shenton Whitelegge Thomas. Buried beneath the stone, is a time capsule containing six Singaporean newspapers dated 31 March 1937, a handful of coins of the Straits Settlements; the capsule is not due to be retrieved until the year 3000. The building was declared open on 3 August 1939 by Sir Shenton Thomas and handed over to the Chief Justice, Sir Percy McElwaine, on the same day; the courthouse had adjoining judges' chambers. In 1988, a further 12 courtrooms from the City Hall were transferred to the Supreme Court to accommodate the needs of the main courthouse, as it needed more courtrooms.

Engineer Frank Dorrington Ward's plan was to demolish the Singapore Cricket Club, Old Parliament House and the Victoria Theatre and Concert Hall to make way for a grand government scheme designed by his department. However, this plan was interrupted by the onset of World War II; the building was the site of war crime trials of members of the Japanese Imperial Army in 1946 after the World War II. The Old Supreme Court Building, together with the adjacent City Hall, was converted into the National Gallery Singapore opened in 2015. Built in front of the historical Padang grounds between 1937 and 1939, the Old Singapore Supreme Court building was designed by Frank Dorrington Ward, an engineer of the Public Works Department of Singapore, was his last and most significant piece of work; the former courthouse features Corinthian columns, classical design, spacious interiors with murals by the Italian artists. The four-storey steel structure was erected by United Engineers; the building consists of four blocks surrounding a central courtyard which houses the circular law library with its significant dome and Travertine columns supporting two balconies on two levels.

Behind the main dome, there is a smaller dome. The pediment sculpture which characterized the Supreme Court is a work by Florentine sculptor Augusto Martelli; the Corinthian columns are works by Cavaliere Rudolfo Nolli. Nolli carried works for the general building, pre-cast works, imitation stone sculptures, artistic decorations, special plastering and bush-hammered facing works. Supreme Court, Singapore City Hall MRT station Ho, Weng Hin, The Former Supreme Court of Singapore & its Artificial Stone: Documentation, Analysis & Conservation Guidelines for a National Monument, Genoa: unpublished thesis, School of Specialization in Restoration of Monuments, University of Genoa, OCLC 233929838. History of Supreme Court

MV Roger Blough

MV Roger Blough is a ship built in 1972 by American Ship Building Company in Lorain, Ohio. She serves as a lake freighter on the Great Lakes; the ship is owned by Great Lakes Fleet, Inc. and is named for the former chairman of U. S. Steel, Roger Blough; the ship's launch was planned for July 1971. However, on June 24, 1971, the ship suffered a major engine room fire which killed four and caused serious damage. Sea trials and delivery were delayed by a year to June 1972; the Roger Blough assisted in the search for SS Edmund Fitzgerald. On November 11, 1975, the morning after the sinking, the crew of the Roger Blough recovered a 25-person life raft from the Edmund Fitzgerald, she was stuck in the ice in Lake Erie near Conneaut, Ohio for eight days in February 1979 and was laid up from 1981 to 1987 due to the economy and the capacity of the newer 1,000 feet lake freighters. On May 27, 2016, the Roger Blough ran aground on Gros Cap Reef in Whitefish Bay, Lake Superior with some minor flooding reported.

She remained aground on May 29, 2016 near Gros Cap Reefs Light with the United States Coast Guard vessel USCGC Mobile Bay on station monitoring the situation and enforcing a 500-yard safety zone around the vessel. At 5:45 AM on June 3, the Roger Blough began offloading some of its taconite cargo to the SS Philip R. Clarke to lift the ship off the reef; the vessel was refloated off the reef at 10:45 AM, June 4, anchored at Waiska Bay for further evaluation or repairs. Lightering operations were completed at Waiska Bay on June 7, 2016 with the SS Philip R. Clarke and the SS Arthur M. Anderson receiving the remainder of the taconite cargo. Starting off on June 11, 2016, the Roger Blough was escorted by the tug Candace Elise to Bay Shipbuilding, Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin for repairs. "Roger Blough gallery". "Roger Blough ship history". Keystone Shipping Company, operator as of 2016

Quaternary prevention

The quaternary prevention, concept coined by the Belgian general practitioner Marc Jamoulle, are the actions taken to identify a patient at risk of overmedicalisation, to protect them from new medical invasion, to suggest interventions which are ethically acceptable. Quaternary prevention is the set of health activities to mitigate or avoid the consequences of unnecessary or excessive intervention of the health system. Bioethics Cascade effect Iatrogenesis Medical ethics Medicalization Medicine Patient safety Preventive medicine Gofrit ON, Shemer J, Leibovici D, Modan B, Shapira SC. Quaternary prevention: a new look at an old challenge. Isr Med Assoc J. 2000. Ortún V. Gestión clínica y sanitaria. De la práctica diaria a la academia, ida y vuelta. Barcelona: Elsevier/Masson. P.245 UEMO, European Union of General Practitioners / Family Physicians, Santiago LM. Quaternary prevention. Document 2008/040, October 2008. Gérvas J, Starfield B, Heath I. Is clinical prevention better than cure? Lancet. 2008. Marc Jamoulle.

Paradigm shift in Primary Care working fields. 11th congress of SBMFC, June 2011. Marc Jamoulle. La prévention quaternaire, une tâche explicite du médecin généraliste. Prospective Jeunesse. 2012. Julien Nève, Marc Jamoulle. Quaternary prevention, an explicit task of the physician. Oct 25, 2012. Gérvas J. Prevención cuaternaria en ancianos. Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol. 2012. Quaternary Prevention. Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade. 2015.

Astelena fronton

The Astelena fronton, nicknamed Cathedral of Basque Hand-pelota, is a fronton located in Eibar, Basque Autonomous Community, Spain. Astelena is a short 41 meter-long fronton where pala modalities are played; the field has a width of 11 m, the wall a height of 9 m. It was inaugurated in 1904 and has been renovated on several occasions, most between 2006 and 2007, to meet current needs; the finals of the 1st Hand-Pelota singles championship and the Cuatro y Medio Euskadi Championship final of 1992 were played at the Astelena. The fronton was inaugurated in 1904 on the Feast of St John, the patron saint of Eibar, with a game to 22 points between local players Tacolo and Cantabria. In October of the same year, Francisco Irusta, a local resident, presented a project to cover the open-air fronton, signed and approved by José Gurruchaga, the municipal architect. Since the fronton was the only public closed space in Eibar, most important events of the town were celebrated there, including boxing matches, cockfights and dinners honouring specific people.

In 1906 it was purchased by C. Aguirre, F. Bascaran, I. Irusta, M. Echeverría, M. Gómez, I. Vildósola, A. Eguiguren and B. Gárate; the fronton suffered several damage during the Civil War and was used as a barracks and dining place until 1940, when the 1st Hand-Pelota singles championship was established. On November 20, 1955, the 50th anniversary of the fronton was celebrated despite both the day and year being wrong. On December 28, 1969, the fronton was closed for renovations supervised by Cosme de Uriarte; the exterior appearance of the building was not changed, but door gate 9, which gave spectators direct access to the field, was replaced by a new door, the window in the left wall was replaced. The re-inauguration took place in a game played between Retegi I and Tapia. Luciano Gastañagatorre and Alberto Vidarte were the facility owners; the renovated fronton had a capacity of 1300 spectators. On December 28, 1997 the fronton was closed again for renovations, after two years of being owned by Asegarce.

In 1998 Aspe purchased the facilities, which were reopened with a game between Goñi Elkoro. In 2004 a commemorative anniversary book was published. On March 1, 2005, the fronton was again closed due to a disagreement among the owners. On 2006, it was purchased for 3 million € by the municipality of Eibar and again closed for major renovations during 2006-2007 reopening on May 20, 2007. In a publicity move, the fronton was named Astelena, which means Monday in Euskara, because on Mondays, being the first day after the weekend, workers were inefficient and used to attend pelota games instead of working a full day

Hadleigh railway station

Hadleigh railway station was a station in Hadleigh, the terminus of the Hadleigh Railway, a short branch line from Bentley Junction. The line opened in 1847; the original intermediate stations were at Bentley Church and Raydon Wood. The terminus had goods sidings on both the south-western and north-eastern sides, the latter serving malt houses and, used as a running round loop. There was a small engine shed; the station building was ornate, if somewhat dwarfed by the adjacent malt houses, with attractive coupled chimneys and unusual windows with the frame and arch of stone. The decline in passenger numbers using the branch can be seen in the patronage figures, which were 14,447 in 1923 compared to 5,086 just five years later; the line closed to passenger traffic in 1932, although freight services lingered on until 1965. A proposal to extend services by building a light railway between Hadleigh and Long Melford was reported in the Haverhill Echo on 10 March 1900, but, not done; the station building still is in use as a private residence.

Hadleigh station on navigable 1946 O. S. map The Story of Hadleigh's railway

Anchetil de Greye

Anchetil de Greye was a Norman chevalier and vassal of William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford, one of the great magnates of early Norman England and one of the few proven companions of William the Conqueror known to have fought at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. He is regarded as the ancestor of the noble House of Grey, branches of which held many peerage and other titles in England, including Baron Grey de Wilton, Baron Ferrers of Groby, Baron Grey of Codnor, Baron Grey de Ruthyn, Earl of Tankerville, Earl of Huntingdon, Marquess of Dorset, Baron Grey of Powis, Duke of Suffolk, Baronet Grey of Chillingham. Lady Jane Grey "the Nine Days' Queen", was a member of this family. In his Latinised name of Anschtallus de Grai he is listed in the Domesday Book of 1086 as the lord of six Oxfordshire manors, all held from William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford, lord of the manor of Breteuil, in Normandy, a relative and close counsellor of William the Conqueror, whose chief residence was Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight, one of many English castles he built.

The manors held by Anchetil de Greye were as follows: Bampton hundred, Oxfordshire. Anchetil was the tenant of Standlake a part of Brighthampton. Greye's origins in Normandy are unclear, although it is believed he came from the vicinity of today's Graye-sur-Mer which would have been within the domain of William I, it is that Anchetil de Greye was of Norse ancestry in whole or in part since the given name Anchetil was a common Norse-origin name in Normandy. The "Greye" in his name was either a reference to his estate, or to his mixed Scandinavian-Frankish ancestry, common in Normandy by the time of the invasion of England, his immediate ancestry is uncertain, but some researchers believe he was the son of a certain Hugh Fitz Turgis, that means "Turgis' son", another clue he was from Normandy. More than 20 superficially distinct instances of Anschitil, Anschetil, etc. in early Norman documents must refer to a far smaller number of distinct individuals. Interesting is Anschitil de Ros. According to Domesday Monachorum he was the feudal landlord, under the Bishop of Bayeux, of Craie, another Craie, Croctune.

These three places are in the Cray valley of Kent, in Norman times the foremost site of chalk mining from deneholes, on a scale rivalled only by the Hangman's Wood cluster of deneholes on the other side of the Thames in Grays. Cray and Grey seem to be interchangeable in Kent place names. Cray passed from Anglo-Norman French into English as a word for "chalk", while greye is one of the wide range of French regional dialect words for "chalk". In Normandy, Grai is modern Graye-sur-Mer, Ros is modern Rots, on the outskirts of Caen about 13 kilometres away. Between them, on the river Seulles, at Orival near Creully, lies an ancient quarry where building stone is said to have been dug and lime burned since Gallo-Roman times. One of the key resources found in chalk mines is flint, used for tools and making fire. Whether Anschetil de Grai and Anschitil de Ros were two persons or one, they/he must have known about and profited from the digging and shipping of limestone in Normandy, so it is at least curious that they/he picked chalk-digging areas for their new feudal domains in England.

He was the great-grandfather of John de Grey, Bishop of Norwich, also of Henry de Grey, the great-great-grandfather of Walter de Grey, Archbishop of York and Lord Chancellor of England. Baggs, A P. Crossley, Alan. Pp. 180–183. De Ste-Marie, M.. Recherches sur le Domesday. Baron Grey de Wilton Baron Grey of Codnor Baron Grey de Ruthyn Gray's Inn Grays Thurrock Greys Court in Oxfordshire Origin of the Name Anchetil