Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 85,000 places listed on the countrys National Register of Historic Places, a National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, and it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed, prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. The first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17,1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the data gathered under this legislation. Because listings often triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9,1960,92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A.
Seaton, more than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States, there are NHLs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nations NHLs, three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states, California, Massachusetts, there are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia. Some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, and foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U. S. commonwealths and territories,5 in U. S. -associated states such as Micronesia, over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are privately owned, the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks. A friends group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve, protect, if not already listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation.
About three percent of Register listings are NHLs, american Water Landmark List of U. S
St. Michael's Church, Old Town, Chicago
St. Michaels Church in the Old Town neighborhood of Chicago is a Roman Catholic church staffed by the Redemptorist order of priests. The parish was founded to minister to German Catholic immigrants in 1852 with its first wooden church completed that year at a cost of $750, the building stands at the intersection of Eugenie Street and Cleveland Avenue. The church was built as a haven for German immigrants who were outcasts in Old Chicago, in addition, the towns main church, St. Josephs Church, was overcrowded. The Redemptorists were invited to administer the parish in 1860 and a brick church was finished in 1869. When completed, its made it the tallest building in Chicago. The church was one of six buildings to survive the path of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, while most of Old Chicagos infrastructure was made of wood, the church was made of brick which helped it survive the fire. Portions of the building stone walls of St. Michaels being the only structures standing in the Old Town area. There is a saying in Chicago that if you can hear the bells of St.
Michaels, Old Town in the mid-1950s was home to a large population of Puerto Ricans. Cesario Rivera, Jose Juan Chevere, Miguel Chevere, Gilberto Hernandez, Don Jesus Rodriguez, with the help of Fathers Leo Mahon, Don Headley and Father Katherine, they started Spanish language masses in a hall next to the main Church. In fact, Jose Cha Cha Jimenez became the first altar boy of the Spanish mass at St. Michaels council number three. Samuel Stritch, the cardinal, and Jack Eagan along with Saul Alinsky assisted the Caballeros. The Caballeros and the Damas de Maria organized many retreats and pilgrimages to the Redemptorist Retreat Center in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin, to Loraine, and to Libertyville, Illinois. A large lay ministry for Catholic Action was organized from St. Mikes in Old Town that spread to several parishes in Old Town and the Lincoln Park Community such as, Immaculate Conception, St. But the Caballeros and Damas ignored the ignorance of some and sought community with prayer, while recruiting door to door for their meetings, eventually, St.
Michaels Church grew to become the major center not just for the church but within Chicagos Puerto Rican Community. When Mayor Richard J. St. Michaels like many other neighborhood institutions took advantage of the program to rehab and it is difficult to know how many were displaced because the census divided and recorded the mixed Hispanics by only one race, as either black or white. But it was at least 40,000 and most of todays Chicagos Puerto Rican businesses and community organizations trace themselves back to Lincoln Park. Saint Michael, Roman Catholic traditions and views Media related to Saint Michaels Church, Old Town, Chicago at Wikimedia Commons http, //www. st-mikes. org/ http, //www. gvsu. edu/younglords
The Miami are a Native American nation originally speaking one of the Algonquian languages. Among the peoples known as the Great Lakes tribes, it occupied territory that is now identified as Indiana, southwest Michigan, by 1846, most of the Miami had been removed to Indian Territory. The Miami Tribe of Oklahoma is the federally recognized tribe of Miami Indians in the United States. The Miami Nation of Indiana is an unrecognized tribe, the name Miami derives from Myaamia, the tribes autonym in their Algonquian language of Miami-Illinois. This appears to have derived from an older term meaning downstream people. Some scholars contended the Miami called themselves the Twightwee, supposedly a reference to their sacred bird. Recent studies have shown that Twightwee derives from the Delaware language exonym for the Miamis, tuwéhtuwe, some Miami have stated that this was only a name used by other tribes for the Miami, and not their autonym. The Miami continue to use this autonym today, early Miami people are considered to belong to the Fischer Tradition of Mississippian culture.
Mississippian societies were characterized by maize-based agriculture, chiefdom-level social organization, extensive trade networks, hierarchical settlement patterns. The historical Miami engaged in hunting, as did other Mississippian peoples, the Dutch and French traders and, after 1652, the British fueled demand. The warfare and social disruption contributed to the decimation of Native American populations and these are believed to have reduced the populations by ninety percent. Historic locations When French missionaries first encountered the Miami in the mid-17th century, the Miami had reportedly moved there because of pressure from the Iroquois further east. Early French explorers noticed many linguistic and cultural similarities between the Miami bands and the Illiniwek, a confederacy of Algonquian-speaking peoples. He befriended the Miami people, settling first at the St. Joseph River, by the 18th century, the Miami had for the most part returned to their homeland in present-day Indiana and Ohio.
The eventual victory of the British in the French and Indian War led to an increased British presence in traditional Miami areas, shifting alliances and the gradual encroachment of European-American settlement led to some Miami bands merging. Native Americans created larger tribal confederacies led by Chief Little Turtle, their alliances were for waging war against Europeans, by the end of the century, the tribal divisions were three, the Miami and Wea. The latter two groups were aligned with some of the Illini tribes. The US government included them with the Illini for administrative purposes, the Eel River band maintained a somewhat separate status, which proved beneficial in the removals of the 19th century
The word hippie came from hipster and was initially used to describe beatniks who had moved into New York Citys Greenwich Village and San Franciscos Haight-Ashbury district. The term hippie was first popularized in San Francisco by Herb Caen, the origins of the terms hip and hep are uncertain. By the 1940s, both had become part of African American jive slang and meant sophisticated, currently fashionable, fully up-to-date, the Beats adopted the term hip, and early hippies inherited the language and countercultural values of the Beat Generation. In the United Kingdom in 1970, many gathered at the gigantic Isle of Wight Festival with a crowd of around 400,000 people, in years, mobile peace convoys of New Age travelers made summer pilgrimages to free music festivals at Stonehenge and elsewhere. In Australia, hippies gathered at Nimbin for the 1973 Aquarius Festival, piedra Roja Festival, a major hippie event in Chile, was held in 1970. Hippie fashion and values had an effect on culture, influencing popular music, film, literature.
Since the 1960s, many aspects of culture have been assimilated by mainstream society. The religious and cultural diversity espoused by the hippies has gained widespread acceptance, lexicographer Jesse Sheidlower, the principal American editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, argues that the terms hipster and hippie derive from the word hip, whose origins are unknown. The term hipster was coined by Harry Gibson in 1944, by the 1940s, the terms hip and hepcat were popular in Harlem jazz slang, although hep eventually came to denote an inferior status to hip. In Greenwich Village in the early 1960s, New York City, young counterculture advocates were named hips because they were considered in the know or cool, as opposed to being square. In the April 27,1961 issue of The Village Voice, An open letter to JFK & Fidel Castro, Norman Mailer utilizes the term hippies, in questioning JFKs behavior. In a 1961 essay, Kenneth Rexroth used both the hipster and hippies to refer to young people participating in black American or Beatnik nightlife.
According to Malcolm Xs 1964 autobiography, the hippie in 1940s Harlem had been used to describe a specific type of white man who acted more Negro than Negroes. Andrew Loog Oldham refers to all the Chicago hippies, seemingly in reference to black musicians, in his rear sleeve notes to the 1965 LP The Rolling Stones. The word hippie was used in reference to Philadelphia in at least two songs in 1963, South Street by The Orlons, and You Cant Sit Down by The Dovells. In both songs, the term is applied to residents of Philadelphias South Street, in that article, Fallon wrote about the Blue Unicorn Cafe, using the term hippie to refer to the new generation of beatniks who had moved from North Beach into the Haight-Ashbury district. New York Times editor and usage writer Theodore M. Bernstein said the paper changed the spelling from hippy to hippie to avoid the ambiguous description of clothing as hippy fashions. Even the counterculture of the Ancient Greeks, espoused by philosophers like Diogenes of Sinope and the Cynics were early forms of hippie culture
Treaty of Chicago
The first was in 1821 and the second in 1833. In 1795, in a minor part of the Treaty of Greenville. This was followed by the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis, the treaty ceded to the United States all lands in Michigan Territory south of the Grand River, with the exception of several small reservations. Potawatomi chief Metea gave the speech in defense of his land at the signing of the Treaty of Chicago, “My Father. We shall now retire to our camps and consult upon it and you will hear nothing more from us at present. We meet you here to-day, because we had promised it, to tell you our minds and you will listen to us with a good mind, and believe what we say. You know that we first came to this country, a time ago. Our country was very large, but it has dwindled away to a small spot. Since you first came among them, they have listened to words with an attentive ear. Whenever you have had a proposal to make to us, whenever you have had a favor to ask of us, we have always lent a favorable ear, and our invariable answer has been ‘yes.
’ This you know. A long time has passed since we first came upon our lands and we are all young and foolish, and do not wish to do anything that they would not approve, were they living. We are fearful we shall offend their spirits, if we sell our lands and this has caused us great perplexity of thought, because we have counselled among ourselves, and do not know how we can part with the land. Our country was given to us by the Great Spirit, who gave it to us to hunt upon, to make our cornfields upon, to live upon, and he would never forgive us, should we bargain it away. When you first spoke to us for lands at St. Mary’s, we said we had a little, and agreed to sell you a piece of it and we have sold you a great tract of land already, but it is not enough. We sold it to you for the benefit of children, to farm. We have now but little left and we shall want it all for ourselves. We know not how long we may live, and we wish to have some lands for our children to hunt upon and you are gradually taking away our hunting-grounds.
Your children are driving us before them, what lands you have, you may retain forever, but we shall sell no more
Illinois is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818. It is the 6th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, the word Illinois comes from a French rendering of a native Algonquin word. For decades, OHare International Airport has been ranked as one of the worlds busiest airports, Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and politics. With the War of 1812 Illinois growth slowed as both Native Americans and Canadian forces often raided the American Frontier, mineral finds and timber stands had spurred immigration—by the 1810s, the Eastern U. S. Railroads arose and matured in the 1840s, and soon carried immigrants to new homes in Illinois, as well as being a resource to ship their commodity crops out to markets. Railroads freed most of the land of Illinois and other states from the tyranny of water transport. By 1900, the growth of jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted a new group of immigrants.
Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars, the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in Chicago, who created the citys famous jazz and blues cultures. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only U. S. president born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official slogan, Land of Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in the capital of Springfield. Illinois is the spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers name for the Illinois Native Americans. American scholars previously thought the name Illinois meant man or men in the Miami-Illinois language and this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for man is ireniwa and plural men is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has said to mean tribe of superior men.
The name Illinois derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa he speaks the regular way and this was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe·. The French borrowed these forms, changing the ending to spell it as -ois. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, the Illinois name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, the Koster Site has been excavated and demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Roads and expressways in Chicago
Roads and expressways in Chicago summarizes the main thoroughfares and the numbering system used in Chicago and its surrounding suburbs. Chicagos streets were laid out in a grid that grew from the original townsite plan. Streets following the Public Land Survey System section lines became arterial streets in outlying sections, as new additions to the city were platted, city ordinance required them to be laid out with eight streets to the mile in one direction and 16 in the other direction. A scattering of diagonal streets, many of them originally Indian trails, many additional diagonal streets were recommended in the Plan of Chicago, but only the extension of Ogden Avenue was ever constructed. In the 1950s and 1960s, a network of superhighways was built radiating from the city center, as the city grew and annexed adjacent towns, problems arose with duplicate street names and a confusing numbering system based on the Chicago River. On June 22,1908, the city adopted a system proposed by Edward P.
Brennan. The changes were effective September 1,1909 for most of the city, addresses in Chicago and some suburbs are numbered outward from baselines at State Street, which runs north and south, and Madison Street, which runs east and west. A book was published in 1909 by The Chicago Directory Company indexing the old and this volume is available on line in pdf format indexed by initial letter, Plan of Re-Numbering, City of Chicago, August 1909. The downtown area did not conform to this system until April 1,1911, downtown was defined as Lake Michigan on the east, Roosevelt Road on the south, and the Chicago River on the north and west. The addition to downtown was published, and is on line as a pdf indexed by downtown street name. This additional paragraph explained the changes, The 1909 address change did not affect downtown Chicago. The ordinance was amended June 20,1910 to include the downtown area, the new addresses for the “loop” went into use on April 1,1911. Chicago house numbers are assigned at the rate of 800 to a mile.
The only exceptions are from Madison to 31st Street, just south of downtown, South of 31st Street, the pattern of 800 to the mile resumes, with 39th Street the next major street, 47th after that, and so on. Individual house numbers are assigned at the rate of one per 20 feet of frontage. Thus the last two digits of house numbers generally go only as high as 67 before the block number is reached. Higher house numbers are found on streets and have sometimes been assigned by request. South of Madison Street most of the east-west streets are simply numbered, the street numbering is aligned with the house numbering, so that 95th Street is exactly 9500 South
Washington Square Park (Chicago)
Washington Square, known as Washington Square Park, is a park in Chicago, Illinois. It is located across Walton Street from Newberry Library at 901 N. Clark Street in the Near North Side community area of Chicago, Illinois and it is Chicagos oldest existing small park. It is one of four Chicago Park District parks named after persons surnamed Washington and it was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 20,1991. On September 4,1842, the city received a 3-acre parcel that was donated by the members of the American Land Company for use as a public park, the property had once been a cow path with a well for farmers to water their cattle. The donors stipulated the name Washington Square, between 1869 and the 1890s, the city improved Washington Square with lawn, bisecting diagonal walks, limestone coping, picket fencing, and an attractive Victorian fountain. By the time Alderman McCormick became President of Drainage Board in 1906, the fountain had been razed, Alderman McCormick devoted his aldermanic salary to improving the park.
He donated a fountain, and the city allocated an additional $10,000 to rehabilitate the park. By the 1910s, the neighborhood surrounding Washington Square had become more diverse, the original purpose of the neighborhood park was as a place of assembly to discuss community issues. Chicago has a storied history of public speeches both for entertainment and educational purposes. The Haymarket Riot first started as an anarchist workers rally, daniel Burnham’s March 27,1897 lecture for the Commercial Club of Chicago inspired the club to provide $80,000 to publish the Burnham Plan. Washington Square Park has been the center of Chicago public speeches. By the 1890s the park acquired its Bughouse Square moniker, soapbox orators waxed on topics ranging from gender relations to Communism. It served as a home for soapbox orators on warm-weather evenings from the 1910s to the mid-1960s, like Speakers Corner in Londons Hyde Park, Washington Square became a popular spot for soap box orators. Artists, political radicals, and hobos pontificated, recited poetry, ranted, a group of regulars formed The Dill Pickle Club, devoted to free expression.
For years Washington Square orators appointed their own honorary king, in its heyday in the 1920s and 1930s, revolutionary left soapboxers were occasionally joined by poets and cranks. In 1959, the city transferred Washington Square to the Chicago Park District, in 1964, Life featured an article saying that it was a meeting place for cottaging among homosexuals. Six years later, it played host to Chicagos first Gay Pride March, Washington Square Historic District is a historic district in Chicago, Illinois that includes Washington Square Park, Chicago. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 21,2003, the Washington Square District was declared a Chicago Landmark on May 16,1990
Queen Anne style architecture
George Devey and the better-known Norman Shaw popularized the Queen Anne style of British architecture of the industrial age in the 1870s. Norman Shaw published a book of architectural sketches as early as 1858, Shaws eclectic designs often included Tudor elements, and this Old English style became popular in the United States, where it became known as the Queen Anne style. Confusion between buildings constructed during the reign of Queen Anne and the Queen Anne Style still persists, in the late 1850s the name Queen Anne was in the air, following publication in 1852 of William Makepeace Thackerays novel, The History of Henry Esmond, Esq. A Colonel in the Service of Her Majesty Queen Anne, one minor side-effect of Thackerays novel and of Norman Shaws freehand picturesque vernacular Renaissance survives to this day. The British Victorian version of the style more closely with the Arts and Crafts movement than does its American counterpart. A good example is Severalls Hospital in Colchester, now defunct, in the 20th century Edwin Lutyens and others used an elegant version of the style, usually with red-brick walls contrasting with pale stone details.
In the United States, the so-called Queen Anne style is used of a wide range of picturesque buildings with free Renaissance details rather than of a specific formulaic style in its own right. The gabled and domestically scaled Queen Anne style arrived in New York City with the new housing for the New York House and School of Industry Sidney V. Stratton, architect, 1878). Dentils, classical columns, spindle work and bay windows, horizontal bands of leaded windows, monumental chimneys, painted balustrades, front gardens often had wooden fences. The Federation period went from 1890 to 1915 and included twelve styles and this became the most popular style for houses built between 1890 and 1910. The style often utilised Tudor-style woodwork and elaborate fretwork that replaced the Victorian taste for wrought iron, verandahs were usually a feature, as were the image of the rising sun and Australian wildlife, plus circular windows and towers with conical or pyramid-shaped roofs. The first Queen Anne house in Australia was Caerleon in the suburb of Bellevue Hill, Caerleon was designed initially by a Sydney architect, Harry Kent, but was substantially reworked in London by Maurice Adams.
This led to controversy over who deserved the credit. The house was built in 1885 and was the precursor for the Federation Queen Anne house that were to become so popular. Caerleon was followed soon after by West Maling, in the suburb of Penshurst, New South Wales and these houses, although built around the same time, had distinct styles, West Maling displaying a strong Tudor influence that was not present in Annesbury. The style soon became popular, appealing predominantly to reasonably well-off people with an Establishment leaning. The style as it developed in Australia was highly eclectic, blending Queen Anne elements with various Australian influences, Old English characteristics like ribbed chimneys and gabled roofs were combined with Australian elements like encircling verandahs, designed to keep the sun out. One outstanding example of this approach is Urrbrae House, in the Adelaide suburb of Urrbrae, South Australia
Henry Gerber House
The Henry Gerber House is located on North Crilly Court in the Old Town neighborhood of Chicago, United States. It is a brick row house built in 1885 in the Queen Anne style. The building was designated a Chicago Landmark in 2001, in June 2015 it was named a National Historic Landmark. Reflecting the proximity of Lake Michigan, the neighborhood is flat, the building itself is similar to its attached neighbors. A small garden, surrounded by an iron fence, buffers the house from the sidewalk. It is a structure, faced in masonry, built on an exposed high brick foundation rising two stories to a flat roof with a small gable on the south. The 63-foot-wide east facade has two asymmetrically placed bays, from the basement level, a casement window with projecting lintel looks out on the garden. A projecting string course separates the basement from the first floor, on the south, stone stairs on the south side of the front garden rise to a small porch in front of the main entrance. On its north is a recessed tripartite single-paned window with sidelights, another stringcourse separates the first and second floors.
It serves as the sill for the north window. It has the same rusticated arch treatment as the main entrance, on its south is a two-pane horizontal casement window with a plain stone sill. Above both second-story windows is a molded frieze, topping the frieze on the south side is a dentilled cornice below a paneled metal parapet. To its north, above the window, is a gable decorated with peaked paneling in its lower portion. On its north, separating a similar gable on the house, is a molded finial-topped square pillar rising from a corbel below the frieze. The roof itself is flat, with some modern membrane and mechanical equipment, at the west the house narrows to 28 feet wide. Attached to it is a deck,16 by 9 feet. However, it too is consistent with the houses in the area. The main entrance is a paneled door with a brass knocker