The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of universal access to all knowledge. As of October 2016, its collection topped 15 petabytes, in addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains over 150 billion web captures, the Archive oversees one of the worlds largest book digitization projects. Founded by Brewster Kahle in May 1996, the Archive is a 501 nonprofit operating in the United States. It has a budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources, revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, donations. Its headquarters are in San Francisco, where about 30 of its 200 employees work, Most of its staff work in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities, San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond, the Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium and was officially designated as a library by the State of California in 2007.
Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in 1996 at around the time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet. In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities, the archived content wasnt available to the general public until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, Now the Internet Archive includes texts, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of projects, the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It. According to its web site, Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture, without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form, the Archives mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers and scholars. In August 2012, the Archive announced that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for over 1.3 million existing files, on November 6,2013, the Internet Archives headquarters in San Franciscos Richmond District caught fire, destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.
The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage, in November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the archive to be based somewhere in the country of Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build an archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump. Kahle was quoted as saying that on November 9th in America and it was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and it means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions
Panic of 1857
The Panic of 1857 was a financial panic in the United States caused by the declining international economy and over-expansion of the domestic economy. Because of the interconnectedness of the economy by the 1850s. In Britain, the Palmerston government circumvented the requirements of the Peel Banking Act of 1844, surfacing news of this circumvention set off the Panic in Britain. Beginning in September 1857, the downturn did not last long, however. The sinking of the SS Central America contributed to the panic of 1857, American banks did not recover until after the civil war. By the mid 1850s, the amount of gold mined began to decline, eastern banks became cautious with their loans to the west and some even refused to accept western bank-issued paper currencies. The Supreme Court ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford was handed down in March 1857. After Scott sued for his freedom, Chief Justice Roger Taney ruled that Scott was not a citizen because he was an African American and therefore did not have the right to sue in court.
The ruling made the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, and it was clear that the decision would have a significant impact on the development of western territories. Soon after the ruling, the struggle between free soil and slavery in the territories began. The western territories were now opened to the possibility that slavery might expand into them, Kansas land warrants and western railroad securities prices declined slightly just after the Dred Scott decision in early March. This fluctuation in railroad securities proved that political news about future territories called the tune in the land, before 1857, the railroad industry was booming due to large migrations of people to the west, especially in Kansas. With the large influx of people, the became a profitable industry. Many of these never made it past the stage of a paper railroad. Prices of railroad stocks as a whole began to experience a stock bubble, in the meantime, the aforementioned Dred Scott decision lent uncertainty to railroads in general.
In July 1857, railroad stocks saw their peak values, on August 11,1857, N. H. Wolfe and Company, the oldest flour and grain company in New York City, failed. The failure shook investor confidence and began a slow selloff in the market continued into late August. On the morning of August 24,1857, the president of Ohio Life Insurance, Ohio Life was an Ohio-based bank with a second main office in New York City
Ferdinand Wythe Peck was a wealthy Chicago, Illinois and philanthropist, best known for financing Chicagos Auditorium Building. He was the youngest son of Mary Kent Peck and Phillip F. W. Peck, the family moved from Rhode Island to Chicago in the 1830s and made a fortune in real estate. Peck and his brothers took over the fortune when their father died. Ferdinand was an individual, and was involved in many projects around the city. He was a member of the Illinois humane society. He was a patron of the arts, particularly concerned with making art available to the working classes. To this end, he organized the Chicago Grand Opera Festival in 1885, out of the Festival grew a desire for a more permanent expression of his ideals. Shortly after the Haymarket Square riot, he began planning in earnest for what would become the Auditorium Building, to make his idea real, Peck hired architects Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan, who had worked for him previously to prepare the space for the Grand Opera Festival.
Peck provided much of the funding and the vision for the building. There is currently a school in southwest Chicago named after him. There is a named after him at 3826 West 58th Street, in Chicago. Chicagos Auditorium Building, Opera or Anarchism Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 57,2, June 1998
University of Chicago Divinity School
The University of Chicago Divinity School is a private graduate institution at the University of Chicago dedicated to the training of academics and clergy across religious boundaries. Formed under Baptist auspices, the school today lacks any sectarian affiliations, the school offers courses leading to the Ph. D. Div. /A. M. With the Irving B. Harris School of Public Policy Studies A. M. R. S. /J. D, with the University of Chicago Law School M. Div. /A. M. Kitagawa, the Dean of the Divinity School from 1970 to 1980, the Institute for the Advanced Study of Religion officially opened in October 1979, with Professor Marty as its director. The program sponsors workshops and seminars throughout the academic year, affiliated faculty include Daniel A. Arnold, Steven Collins, Paul Copp, Matthew Kapstein, James Ketelaar, Gary A. Tubb, and Christian K. Wedemeyer. Completed in 1926, Swift Hall was designed by Coolidge and Hodgdon in the collegiate Gothic style of architecture and it contains lecture halls, seminar rooms, faculty offices, a student-run coffee shop, a commons, and administrative offices.
The lecture hall was formerly the home of the Divinity Library, before its holdings were consolidated into the research library. Southwest of Swift Hall and connected to it by a beautiful stone cloister is the Joseph Bond Chapel, both Swift Hall and Bond Chapel were designed by the architects Coolidge and Hodgdon at the end of the Gothic revival period in America. The Chapel was given by Mrs. Joseph Bond in memory of her husband, a former Trustee of the Baptist Theological Union, the predecessor institution of the Divinity School. Mr. and Mrs. Bonds daughter, married Edgar J. Goodspeed, after her death in 1949, Mr. Goodspeed donated the stained-glass windows in her memory. The cornerstone of the chapel was laid by Mrs. Bond on April 30,1925, in 2012-13, the Chapel was renovated and its organ was replaced by the Reneker Organ. It was dedicated in 1984 in honor of the late Robert W. Reneker and was moved to Bond Chapel in the autumn of 2012. The cloister connecting Bond Chapel to Swift Hall was reconstructed in 2014, a cloister garden is due to be installed between Swift and Bond in 2015.
As a Divinity School chapel in a university, its main function is to provide a sanctuary for reflection, worship. Wendy Doniger, scholar of Hinduism and comparative mythology, jean Bethke Elshtain, political philosopher and ethicist Michael Fishbane, Semitic languages, biblical studies, and Judaica Franklin I. Gamwell, scholar of ethical and political theory W. Clark Gilpin, historian of modern Christianity Dwight Hopkins, black theology, toward encouraging critical conversations in the field, HR publishes review articles and comprehensive book reviews by distinguished authors. Founded in 1890, Ethics publishes scholarly work in moral and legal philosophy from a variety of perspectives, including social and political theory, law. In addition to articles, Ethics publishes review essays, discussion articles
Amasa Leland Stanford was an American tycoon, industrialist and the founder of Stanford University. Migrating to California from New York at the time of the Gold Rush, he became a merchant and wholesaler. He served one term as governor of California after his election in 1861. As president of Southern Pacific Railroad and, beginning in 1861, Central Pacific, he had power in the region. He is widely considered a robber baron, Stanford was born in 1824 in what was Watervliet, New York. He was one of eight children of Josiah and Elizabeth Phillips Stanford, among his siblings were New York State Senator Charles Stanford and Australian businessman and spiritualist Thomas Welton Stanford. His immigrant ancestor, Thomas Stanford, settled in Charlestown, ancestors settled in the eastern Mohawk Valley of central New York about 1720. Stanfords father was a farmer of some means, Stanford was raised on family farms in the Lisha Kill and Roessleville areas of Watervliet. The family home in Roessleville was called Elm Grove, the Elm Grove home was razed in the 1940s.
Stanford attended the schools until 1836 and was tutored at home until 1839. He attended Clinton Liberal Institute, in Clinton, New York, in 1845, he entered the law office of Wheaton and Hadley in Albany. After being admitted to the bar in 1848, Stanford migrated with other settlers, moving to Port Washington, Wisconsin. His father presented him with a law library said to be the finest north of Milwaukee, in 1850, Stanford was nominated by the Whig Party as Washington County, Wisconsin district attorney. On September 30,1850, Stanford married Jane Elizabeth Lathrop in Albany and she was the daughter of Dyer Lathrop, a merchant of that city, and Jane Anne Lathrop. The couple did not have any children for years, until their only child, in 1852, having lost his law library and other property to a fire, Stanford followed his five brothers to California during the California Gold Rush. His wife, returned temporarily to Albany and her family and he served as a justice of the peace and helped organize the Sacramento Library Association, which became the Sacramento Public Library.
In 1855, he returned to Albany to join his wife, in 1856, he and Jane moved to Sacramento, where he engaged in mercantile pursuits on a large scale. His other three associates were Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins, and Collis P. Huntington and they hired Theodore Dehone Judah as the chief engineer
John D. Rockefeller
John Davison Rockefeller Sr. was an American oil industry business magnate and philanthropist. He is widely considered the wealthiest American of all time, born into a large family in upstate New York, he was shaped by his con man father and religious mother. His family moved several times before settling in Cleveland, Ohio. Rockefeller became an assistant bookkeeper at the age of 16, and went into a partnership with Maurice B. Clark. After buying them out, he and his brother William founded Rockefeller & Andrews with Samuel Andrews, instead of drilling for oil, he concentrated on refining. In 1867, Henry Flagler entered the partnership, the Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler company grew by incorporating local refineries. As kerosene and gasoline grew in importance, Rockefellers wealth soared and he became the richest person in the country, Oil was used throughout the country as a light source until the introduction of electricity and as a fuel after the invention of the automobile. Furthermore, Rockefeller gained enormous influence over the industry, which transported his oil around the country.
Standard Oil was the first great business trust in the United States, Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry, and along with other key contemporary industrialists such as steel magnate Andrew Carnegie, defined the structure of modern philanthropy. His peak net worth was estimated at $336 billion in 1913, Rockefeller spent the last 40 years of his life in retirement at his estate in Westchester County, New York. His foundations pioneered the development of research and were instrumental in the eradication of hookworm. Rockefeller was the founder of both the University of Chicago and Rockefeller University and funded the establishment of Central Philippine University in the Philippines and he was a devout Northern Baptist, and supported many church-based institutions. Rockefeller adhered to total abstinence from alcohol and tobacco throughout his life and he was a faithful congregant of the Erie Street Baptist Mission Church, where he taught Sunday school, and served as a trustee and occasional janitor.
Religion was a force throughout his life, and Rockefeller believed it to be the source of his success. Rockefeller was the second of six children and eldest son born in Richford, New York, to con artist William Avery Bill Rockefeller and his siblings were Lucy, William Jr. Mary, and twins Franklin and Frances. His father was of English and German descent while his mother was of Scots-Irish descent, Bill was first a lumberman and a traveling salesman who identified himself as a botanic physician and sold elixirs. The locals referred to the mysterious but fun-loving man as Big Bill and he was a sworn foe of conventional morality who had opted for a vagabond existence and who returned to his family infrequently. Throughout his life, Bill was notorious for shady schemes, in between the births of Lucy and John and his mistress/housekeeper Nancy Brown had a daughter named Clorinda who died young
Composed of twelve schools and colleges, Northwestern offers 124 undergraduate degrees and 145 graduate and professional degrees. Northwestern was founded in 1851 by John Evans, for whom the City of Evanston is named and its founding purpose was to serve the Northwest Territory, an area that today includes the states of Ohio, Illinois, Michigan and parts of Minnesota. Instruction began in 1855, women were admitted in 1869, the main campus is a 240-acre parcel in Evanston, along the shores of Lake Michigan 12 miles north of downtown Chicago. The universitys law and professional schools are located on a 25-acre campus in Chicagos Streeterville neighborhood, in 2008, the university opened a campus in Education City, Qatar with programs in journalism and communication. In 2016, Northwestern opened its San Francisco space at 44 Montgomery St. which hosts journalism, Northwestern is a large research university with a comprehensive doctoral program and it attracts over $650 million in sponsored research each year.
Northwestern has the tenth largest university endowment in the United States, in 2017, the university accepted 9. 0% of undergraduate applicants from a pool of 37,255. Northwestern is a member of the Big Ten Conference and remains the only private university in the conference. The Northwestern Wildcats compete in 19 intercollegiate sports in the NCAAs Division I Big Ten Conference, on January 28,1851, the Illinois General Assembly granted a charter to the Trustees of the North-Western University, making it the first chartered university in Illinois. The schools nine founders, all of whom were Methodists, knelt in prayer, John Evans, for whom Evanston is named, bought 379 acres of land along Lake Michigan in 1853, and Philo Judson developed plans for what would become the city of Evanston, Illinois. The first building, Old College, opened on November 5,1855, to raise funds for its construction, Northwestern sold $100 perpetual scholarships entitling the purchaser and his heirs to free tuition.
Willard Residential College is named in her honor, Northwestern admitted its first women students in 1869, and the first woman was graduated in 1874. Northwestern fielded its first intercollegiate football team in 1882, becoming a member of the Big Ten Conference. In the 1870s and 1880s, Northwestern affiliated itself with already existing schools of law, Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law is the oldest law school in Chicago. The Association of American Universities invited Northwestern to become a member in 1917, in 1933, a proposal to merge Northwestern with the University of Chicago was considered but rejected. Northwestern was one of the first six universities in the country to establish a Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps in the 1920s, after the golden years of the 1920s, the Great Depression in the United States hit Northwestern hard. Its annual income dropped 25 percent from $4.8 million in 1930-31 to $3.6 million in 1933-34. Investment income shrank, fewer parents could pay full tuition, and annual giving from alumni, the university responded with two salary cuts of 10 percent each for all employees.
It imposed a freeze, a building freeze, and slashed appropriations for maintenance, books
Harris School of Public Policy Studies
The University of Chicago Harris School of Public Policy is the public policy school of the University of Chicago in Chicago, United States. It is ranked in the top five policy analysis schools in the United States and it is located on the Universitys main campus in Hyde Park. In addition to studies and policy analysis, the school requires its students to pursue training in economics and statistics through preliminary examinations. Degree program is offered to students looking to pursue a career designing and conducting policy-relevant research, – Joint Degree with the Center for Middle Eastern Studies M. P. P. /M. Div. – Joint Degree with the Divinity School M. P. P. /M. B. A, – Joint Degree with the Booth School of Business M. P. P. /J. D. – Joint Degree with the Law School M. P. P. /A. M, henry Schultz Distinguished Service Professor of Economics, and director of the Center for the Economics of Human Development. Jens Ludwig - McCormick Foundation Professor of Social Service Administration and Public Policy Harris School Website
Bath Iron Works
Bath Iron Works is a major American shipyard located on the Kennebec River in Bath, Maine. Since its founding in 1884, BIW has built private and military vessels, the shipyard has built and sometimes designed battleships, frigates and destroyers, including the Arleigh Burke class, which are currently among the worlds most advanced surface warships. Since 1995, Bath Iron Works has been a subsidiary of General Dynamics, during World War II, ships built at BIW were considered by sailors and Navy officials to be of superior toughness, giving rise to the phrase Bath-built is best-built. Bath Iron Works was incorporated in 1884 by General Thomas W. Hyde, after the war, Hyde bought a local shop that helped make windlasses and other iron hardware for the wooden ships built in Baths many shipyards. He expanded the business by improving its practices, entering new markets, by 1882, Hyde Windlass was eyeing the new and growing business of iron shipbuilding, two years later, it incorporated as Bath Iron Works.
On February 28,1890, BIW won its first contract for complete vessels, the Machias, one of these 190-foot gunboats, was the first ship launched by the company. In 1892, the yard won its first commercial contract for a steel vessel, in the 1890s, the company built several yachts for wealthy sailors. In 1899, General Hyde, suffering from the Brights Disease that would kill him that year, resigned from management of the shipyard, leaving his sons Edward and that year the shipyard began construction of the Georgia, the only battleship to be built in Bath. The ship dominated the yard for five years until its launching in 1904, the yard faced numerous challenges because of the weight of armor and weapons. In sea trials, the Georgia averaged 19.26 knots for four hours, making her the fastest ship in her class, the company continued to rely on Navy contracts, which provided 86% of the value of new contracts between 1905 and 1917. The yard produced fishing trawlers and yachts throughout the first half of the century, at peak production during World War II, the shipyard launched a destroyer every 17 days.
Bath Iron Works ranked 50th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts, in 1981, Falcon Transport ordered two tankers, the last commercial vessels built by BIW. In 1988, the USS Samuel B, commissioned two years earlier at Bath, survived a mine explosion that tore a hole in its engine room and flooded two compartments. Over the next two years, BIW repaired the Roberts in unique fashion, the guided missile frigate was towed to the companys dry dock in Portland and put up on blocks, where its damaged engine room was cut out of the ship. Meanwhile, workers in Bath built a 315-ton replacement, when it was ready, the module was floated south to Portland, placed on the dry dock, slid into place under the Roberts, jacked up, and welded into place. In 2001, BIW wrapped up an effort to build an enormous concrete platform. Instead of being built on a way so that they could slide into the Kennebec at launch. This greatly reduced the work involved in building and launching the ships, the 750-foot,28, 000-ton dry dock was built by Chinas Jiangdu Yuchai Shipbuilding Company for $27 million
Stephen A. Douglas
Stephen Arnold Douglas was an American politician from Illinois and the designer of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. He was a U. S. representative, a U. S. senator, Douglas had previously defeated Lincoln in a Senate contest, noted for the famous Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858. He was nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short in physical stature, Douglas was well known as a resourceful party leader, and an adroit, skillful tactician in debate and passage of legislation. He was a champion of the Young America movement which sought to modernize politics and replace the agrarian, as chairman of the Committee on Territories, Douglas dominated the Senate in the 1850s. Opposition to this led to the formation of the Republican Party, Douglas initially endorsed the Dred Scott decision of 1857. But during the 1858 Senate campaign, he argued its effect could be negated by popular sovereignty and he opposed the efforts of President James Buchanan and his Southern allies to enact a Federal slave code and impose the Lecompton Constitution on Kansas.
In 1860, the conflict over slavery led to the split in the Democratic Party in the 1860 Convention, hardline pro-slavery Southerners rejected Douglas, and nominated their own candidate, Vice President John C. Breckinridge, while the Northern Democrats nominated Douglas, Douglas deeply believed in democracy, arguing the will of the people should always be decisive. When civil war came in April 1861, he rallied his supporters to the Union cause with all his energies and he was born Stephen Arnold Douglass in Brandon, Vermont, to Stephen Arnold Douglass and Sarah Fisk. Douglas dropped the s from his name some years later. His father, a physician and Middlebury College graduate, died suddenly when Stephen was just a few months old and he grew up with his mother and was educated in the local schools. As a teenager, he was apprenticed to a cabinetmaker in Middlebury and his mother remarried in 1830 and moved to western New York. Although he wished to attend Middlebury College like his father, his family couldnt support his continued formal education, instead, he began to teach school while studying law with Walter and Levi Hubbell.
While studying law he became friendly with Henry B, payne, a law student in another attorneys office. Payne became a prominent businessman and politician in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1833 Douglas migrated first to Cleveland, and to Winchester, where he served as an itinerant teacher and opened a school for three months at three dollars a pupil. He settled in Jacksonville, where he was admitted to the bar, Douglas became a member of the Masonic fraternity in Springfield Lodge No.4 in Springfield, Illinois in 1839. He was a member of several Masonic organizations in Springfield, in March 1847 he married Martha Martin, the 21-year-old daughter of wealthy Colonel Robert Martin of North Carolina. The year after their marriage, her father died and bequeathed Martha a 2, 500-acre cotton plantation with 100 slaves on the Pearl River in Lawrence County, Mississippi
Born near Bridgewater, Wood attended the common schools, Montrose Academy, and Wyoming Seminary. He moved to Illinois in 1859 and for two years was principal of a school in Lee County. During the Civil War, he enlisted as first lieutenant of Company C, thirty-fourth Regiment, Illinois Volunteer Infantry and he was promoted to captain May 1,1862. He was honorably discharged on January 29,1863, Wood graduated from the Union College of Law in 1864. He was admitted to the bar in 1864 and engaged in the practice of law in Effingham and he served as member of the Illinois House of Representatives in 1872, and was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1876 and 1888. He served as mayor of Effingham, Illinois 1881-1883, Wood was elected as a Republican to the Fifty-fourth Congress. He was a candidate for reelection in 1896 to the Fifty-fifth Congress. He resumed the practice of law in Effingham, Illinois and he served as president of the Effingham State Bank 1903-1912, and chairman of the board of directors 1912-1915.
He died in Effingham on August 27,1915 and he was interred in Oakridge Cemetery. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, retrieved on 2009-03-26 This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http, //bioguide. congress. gov