Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century. It drew upon the principles of French neoclassicism, but incorporated Gothic and Renaissance elements, used modern materials, such as iron and glass, it was an important style in France until the end of the 19th century. It had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many prominent American architects who studied at the Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan; the "Beaux Arts" style evolved from the French classicism of the Style Louis XIV, French neoclassicism beginning with Louis XV and Louis XVI. French architectural styles before the French Revolution were governed by Académie royale d'architecture following the French Revolution, by the Architecture section of the Académie des Beaux-Arts; the Academy held the competition for the "Grand Prix de Rome" in architecture, which offered prize winners a chance to study the classical architecture of antiquity in Rome.
The formal neoclassicism of the old regime was challenged by four teachers at the Academy, Joseph-Louis Duc, Félix Duban, Henri Labrouste and Léon Vaudoyer, who had studied at the French Academy in Rome at the end of the 1820s, They wanted to break away from the strict formality of the old style by introducing new models of architecture from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Their goal was to create an authentic French style based on French models, their work was aided beginning in 1837 by the creation of the Commission of Historic Monuments, headed by the writer and historian Prosper Mérimée, by the great interest in the Middle Ages caused by the publication in 1831 of The Hunchback of Notre-Dame by Victor Hugo. Their declared intention was to "imprint upon our architecture a national character."The style referred to as Beaux-Arts in English reached the apex of its development during the Second Empire and the Third Republic that followed. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without major interruption until 1968.
The Beaux-Arts style influenced the architecture of the United States in the period from 1880 to 1920. In contrast, many European architects of the period 1860–1914 outside France gravitated away from Beaux-Arts and towards their own national academic centers. Owing to the cultural politics of the late 19th century, British architects of Imperial classicism followed a somewhat more independent course, a development culminating in Sir Edwin Lutyens's New Delhi government buildings; the Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial Roman architecture between Augustus and the Severan emperors, Italian Renaissance, French and Italian Baroque models but the training could be applied to a broader range of models: Quattrocento Florentine palace fronts or French late Gothic. American architects of the Beaux-Arts generation returned to Greek models, which had a strong local history in the American Greek Revival of the early 19th century. For the first time, repertories of photographs supplemented meticulous scale drawings and on-site renderings of details.
Beaux-Arts training made great use of clasps that link one architectural detail to another. Beaux-Arts training emphasized the production of quick conceptual sketches finished perspective presentation drawings, close attention to the program, knowledgeable detailing. Site considerations tended toward urbane contexts. All architects-in-training passed through the obligatory stages—studying antique models, constructing analos, analyses reproducing Greek or Roman models, "pocket" studies and other conventional steps—in the long competition for the few desirable places at the Académie de France à Rome with traditional requirements of sending at intervals the presentation drawings called envois de Rome. Beaux-Arts architecture depended on sculptural decoration along conservative modern lines, employing French and Italian Baroque and Rococo formulas combined with an impressionistic finish and realism. In the façade shown above, Diana grasps the cornice she sits on in a natural action typical of Beaux-Arts integration of sculpture with architecture.
Overscaled details, bold sculptural supporting consoles, rich deep cornices and sculptural enrichments in the most bravura finish the client could afford gave employment to several generations of architectural modellers and carvers of Italian and Central European backgrounds. A sense of appropriate idiom at the craftsman level supported the design teams of the first modern architectural offices. Characteristics of Beaux-Arts architecture included: Flat roof Rusticated and raised first story Hierarchy of spaces, from "noble spaces"—grand entrances and staircases—to utilitarian ones Arched windows Arched and pedimented doors Classical details: references to a synthesis of historicist styles and a tendency to eclecticism.
Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States; as of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.808 million, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area, the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2017 population of 9,764,315. Baltimore is the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic; the city's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy.
Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University are the city's top two employers. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, Ogden Nash, H. L. Mencken. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry, his poem popularized as a song. Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country, is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, Mount Vernon; these were added to the National Register between 1969–1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Nearly one third of the city's buildings are designated as historic in the National Register, more than any other U. S. city. The city has 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.
S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives; the city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house." The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture, called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans.
The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia. Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line. European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County; the original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground. The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans.
In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point in 1706 for the tobacco trade; the Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east; the three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub, in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example King George, King and Caroline streets. Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean; the profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county.
Its square was a center of community discussions. Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Lexington Market, founded in 1782, i
Mead Johnson & Company, LLC is a leading manufacturer of infant formula both domestically and globally with its flagship product Enfamil. The company dates back to a firm created by Edward Mead Johnson, one of the co-founders of Johnson & Johnson, who created his own business in 1895, renamed Mead Johnson & Company in 1905; the company was majority owned by Bristol-Myers Squibb after an acquisition in 1967, but was spun-off in 2009 as an independent firm. In the year end 31 December 2016, Mead Johnson reported net sales of $3,743 million. Fifty percent of those sales were generated in Asia, 17% in Latin America and 33% in North America/Europe. For the same time period, the company reported total assets of $4,088 million. In February 2017, British consumer goods company Reckitt Benckiser bid $16.7 billion for the company. On June 15, 2017 MJN announced; as a result, MJN's common stock is no longer traded on the New York Stock Exchange, effective the announcement date. Edward Mead Johnson had founded Johnson in 1886 together with his brothers.
In 1895, Johnson developed a side business called The American Ferment Company to create a digestive aid. In 1897, E. Mead Johnson left the family business to go out into business on his own in Jersey City, New Jersey, in 1905, the company was re-established as Mead Johnson & Company; the firm's first major infant formula was developed in 1910, Dextri-Maltose, a carbohydrate-based milk modifier was introduced in 1911, making it the first American product for infants to be clinically approved and recommended by doctors. The firm moved to Evansville, Indiana, in 1915, in the wake of World War I, as part of an effort to have easier access to the raw agricultural ingredients that were needed for its products, which required Johnson to build a series of new plants and factories to replace the ones he had left behind in New Jersey. Edward Mead Johnson died in 1934, Lambert Mead Johnson succeeded his father as president, served in the position until 1955, making him the longest-serving president in company history.
D. Mead Johnson was the third generation of the family to serve as chief executive of the firm. During his tenure, which lasted from 1955 until the firm's takeover by Bristol-Myers in 1968, the firm's annual sales tripled to $131 million, grew to nearly 4,400 employees. Bristol-Myers reached agreement in August 1967 for a deal under which Mead Johnson would be acquired, with shareholders receiving a mix of common and preferred stock in a deal valued at $240 million. Mead Johnson's net sales in 1966 were $131 million with earnings of $7.3 million. Bristol-Myers announced in February 2009 that it was going to spin off Mead Johnson to focus on its primary pharmaceutics business, with an initial public offering estimated to bring in $562.5 million and would leave Bristol-Myers with 90% ownership of the firm. A plan offered in November 2009 would allow shareholders of Bristol-Myers to exchange one dollar of stock in that company for $1.11 worth of shares in Mead Johnson for the 133.5 million shares in the firm, which would value the company at $7.7 billion based on the stock's current closing price.
The stock swap was intended to provide a tax-free exchange. CEO James M. Cornelius of Bristol-Myers said that "With a successful execution of this split-off, we consider ourselves a BioPharma company". In February 2017 it was announced that Reckitt Benckiser was in advanced negotiations to acquire Mead Johnson. On February 10, 2017, Reckitt Benckiser Group announced it had agreed to buy Mead Johnson Nutrition Co. for $16.6 billion. RB's intention was to acquire Mead Johnson Nutrition for $90 per share in cash. In order to effect the transaction, RB incorporated a subsidiary in Delaware into which Mead Johnson Nutrition has merged, with Mead Johnson Nutrition being the surviving entity at completion. Mead Johnson announced on June 12, 2017 that the final regulator approval to complete the acquisition had been received. On June 15, 2017 the merger was completed and Mead Johnson became the Infant Formula and Child Nutrition Division of RB. Mead Johnson Nutrition
TJ Maxx is an American department store chain, selling at prices lower than other major similar stores. It has more than 1,000 stores in the United States, making it one of the largest clothing retailers in the country; the company is part of the TJX Companies, which owns HomeGoods/HomeSense, "off-price" retail chains Sierra in the United States, Marshalls in the US and Canada, Winners in Canada. Under the name TK Maxx, its parent company TJX operates stores throughout the United Kingdom, Germany, Poland and The Netherlands, it sells men's, women's and children's apparel and shoes, toys and beauty, home products ranging from furniture to kitchen utensils. TJ Maxx and Marshalls operate as sister stores, share a similar footprint throughout the country. While their prices are nearly identical and they have similar store layouts, TJ Maxx has a more upscale appearance than Marshalls and sells a larger range of fine jewelry and accessories; some higher-volume stores have a high-end designer department called The Runway.
The CEO of TJX companies is Ernie Herrman. In 1976, TJ Maxx was founded in Framingham, Massachusetts by Bernard Cammarata, as a nameplate of the Zayre chain of discount department stores; when Zayre sold their own nameplate to Ames, a rival discount department store, Zayre was renamed as "TJX Companies, Incorporated". In March 2009, its e-commerce site was launched, at first only selling handbags, the range expanded to include clothing, jewelry, other accessories, some home goods. Business Insider described TJ Maxx as "Macy's worst nightmare" in an oft-quoted 2016 article by Mallory Schlossberg. In a article Schlossberg reported on how TJ Maxx's soaring sales "should be concerning for ailing department stores that are fighting to get people to pay full price." As off-price retailers are becoming an increasing threat to traditional department stores, signaling a change in consumer buying habits, TJ Maxx's revenue grew to surpass that of Macy's. According to The Economist, "the overheads at TJX and Ross are, as a percentage of sales, about half those of Macy's or Nordstrom" and Fortune stated that "the quicker inventory turn and the sense that an item on a rack might not be there the following week at a TJ Maxx or a Marshalls has led to a boom in this area of retail and made such stores a rarity in the business: shoppers are coming to stores."
In 2007, the company disclosed a computer security breach dating back to 2005: computer hackers had gained access to information on credit and debit card accounts for transactions since January 2003. This exposed more than 100 million customers to potential theft from their accounts. According to the company, this affected customers who used their card between January 2003 and June 2004 at any branch of TJ Maxx. Details were stolen by hackers installing software via wi-fi in June 2005, that allowed them to access personal information on customers; the breach continued until January 2007. Affected TJX stores included TJ Maxx, Winners, HomeSense, A. J. Wright, KMaxx, Bob's Stores in the United States and HomeGoods stores in Canada, TK Maxx stores in the UK and Ireland. Eleven people from around the world were charged with the breach in 2008. In 2007, outside security provider Protegrity estimated that TJ Maxx's losses as a result of the data breach might reach £800 million in the following years, as a result of paying for credit checks and administrative costs for managing the fallout from the breach.
The TJ Maxx Corporation was sued by the Massachusetts Bankers Association and co-plaintiffs including Maine and Connecticut Associated Banks for the data theft. In March 2010, computer hacker Albert Gonzalez was sentenced to 20 years in federal prison after confessing to stealing credit and debit card details from a number of companies, including TJ Maxx. TJ Maxx official website The TJX Companies official web site
The Victory Theatre is a 1,950 seat venue in Evansville, Indiana. It is home to the Evansville Philharmonic Orchestra and hosts local ballet and modern dance companies, theatre companies, touring productions. Opened on June 16, 1921 and seating 2,500 patrons, the theater was part of the Sonntag Hotel – Victory Theater complex, organized by Marcus Sonntag and associates who were stockholders in the American Trust and Savings Bank across Sixth Street from the theater. Along with Frederick H. Gruneberg, St. President of the Consolidated Theaters Corporation and his associates contracted with Hoffman Construction Company to build the theater, it was air conditioned with commercial ice. The Victory featured a daily program of four vaudeville acts, a movie, a comedy routine, organ music and a ten-piece orchestra. In 1926 the Victory was renamed Loew's Victory. In 1928 Loew's featured Evansville's first "talking picture," an epic titled "Tenderloin." That year, "The Jazz Singer," featuring Al Jolson, became the first stand-alone talkie shown in the city.
The Loews's Victory Theatre closed in 1971. As the independent Victory Theatre it was divided into a triplex, but was closed in 1979; the theater was reopened in 1998 after a $15 million renovation. The Victory was designed by architect John Pridmore of Chicago; the exterior is in the restrained style characteristic of commercial buildings of the era, but the auditorium is more ornate. The stage, 68 feet wide and 82 feet deep, was at the time it was built one of the largest in the Midwest. In 1982 it was added to the National Register of Historic Places, it is co-managed with The Ford Center by VenuWorks. Media related to Victory Theatre at Wikimedia Commons The Centre website Historic Evansville.
Evansville Vanderburgh Public Library
The Evansville Vanderburgh Public Library is a public library system serving Evansville and Vanderburgh County in Indiana, USA. The EVPL supplements the services provided by the Evansville Vanderburgh School Corporation and has the authority to approve the tax levy of the independently run and operated Willard Library; the EVPL had a total circulation of 2,922,126 and had 1,842,085 in-person visits to its system in 2013, making it one of the largest public library systems in Indiana. EVPL was rated a five star library by the Library Journal, which places it in the top 1% of public libraries in the U. S. EVPL obtained a Top Ten library ranking in the 2010 edition of Hennen's American Public Library Ratings, achieving a number eight ranking within its population category. Evansville's public library system was started in 1848 in the county auditor's office. John Ingle, Jr. was given money to purchase 1,000 books with money approved by the county commissioners. The books were stored in the County Auditor's Office at the old courthouse at Third and Main Streets.
The Evansville Library Association was formed in 1855 and Mr. Ingle served as its first President. One thousand shares of stock were authorized at $30.00 per share, stockholders and patrons who paid $5.00 a year could borrow books. At this point the books were kept at a building at Main Streets. In the 1850s and 1860s Pigeon Township, the Mechanics' Association and a local group of Catholics opened libraries. By 1874 the County Library had amassed about 3,500 books, but that year the library association closed and gave its books to the city for free public use. Therefore, a new city library was governed by the school board, it was funded through a newpenny tax and located in the former German Reformed Church building at the corner of Seventh and Vine Streets. This library gave its collection to Willard Library when it opened; the foundation for what is now the EVPL began in 1908 when the West Side Business Association decided it wanted to expand library services to that area and sent a request to Andrew Carnegie for funds to build four locations for a new library system in Evansville.
Carnegie offered $50,000 for two locations if the city provided the land. He gave the money to the city in 1911 and two new branches - what is now the East and West Branches - opened on January 1, 1913. Both branches are still operational. Carnegie gave $10,000 to establish the Cherry Street Library to serve the city's black community, it opened in 1914. Miss Ethel McCollough, for whom the McCollough Branch is named, became head librarian during the 1920s, she provided the leadership. In 1922 she and the library commissioned a neighborhood survey that sent a citizen's advisory committee out on several hundred home visits. Historians have described the Evansville survey as "exceptional for its time", because it relied neither on impressionistic observations nor on indirect sources like circulation records; the old Central Library in downtown Evansville was an Art Deco building. It was built in 1931 and opened in 1932; the old building now houses the Children's Museum of Evansville. The new 145,000 square foot Central Library building opened in September 2004, replacing a building one-fourth of its size.
In 2013, the EVPL purchased land nearby from the Evansville Rescue Mission, further expanding the Central Library footprint. There are over 130 public access computers. Other features include the READ Center with story room, an enclosed garden and activity area, the Popular Materials Center which includes the Teen Zone, the Reference and Technology Center, study rooms and meeting rooms, the Talking Books Service, a book corner, a garden; the Central Library features the Indiana Room, which contains volumes of information on Evansville history in addition to a large, indexed clipping file that can be used for local research. Local artists' work is found throughout the library; the EVPL has an extensive collection of local history articles. After the Evansville Press ceased publication on December 31, 1998, it donated its archives jointly to the EVPL and Willard Library; the library houses the Browning Genealogy Database, the lifetime work of Charles Browning, who compiled the obituary records of Vanderburgh County and surrounding southwestern Indiana from the Evansville newspapers.
Browning's two monumental biographical works, People of Evansville in World War II, his People Study, are now online. This project was supported by the Institute of Museums and Library Services under the provisions of the Library Services and Technology Act by the Indiana State Library and Historical Bureau; the East and West Branch Libraries are Carnegie Libraries built in the style of Beaux Arts Classicism. Negotiations between Andrew Carnegie and the Evansville library committee began in 1909 with a petition to Carnegie for funding a west side library. Over a two-year correspondence, the request was expanded to include a facility for Evansville's growing "East End." In January 1911, Carnegie agreed to give $50,000 for building two libraries. Land between Bayard Park and the Chandler Avenue School was purchased for the east side library from the school board with money raised by Bayard Park residents through popular subscription and by a generous contribution from one of Evansville's own industrialists and benefactors, Major Albert Carl Rosencranz, owner of Vulcan Plow Works.
Construction on both $25,000 buildings began in summer 1911 on plans prepared by Carnegie-approved architects Clifford Shopbell & Company of Evansville. The style of each building was a simplified version of Beaux Arts Classicism; the Shopbell interpretation featur
Swonder Ice Arena
Swonder Ice Arena is an arena and recreational sport facility in Evansville, Indiana. It features two NHL size sheets of ice for figure skating and open skating. One sheet of ice is open all year. Sound and light, designed with the technology used at the 2002 Olympics, are in use when the skaters skate. Leagues for hockey from beginner to adult take place year round. On the second level there is a 10,000-square-foot workout facility with a running/walking track; the current Swonder Ice Arena replaced the older Swonder Ice Rink. Current seating capacity for spectators is 1,500 - 1,000 in the primary rink and 500 in the secondary rink. Swonder was the home of a professional minor league ice hockey team, the Evansville IceMen of the Central Hockey League. Swonder is home to the Rollergirls of Southern Indiana and local high school and youth hockey teams compete throughout the winter. In January 2012, the Evansville Rage of the Continental Indoor Football League moved to Swonder due to large ticket requests.
Swonder is home to the local Indiana State High School Hockey League team, the Evansville Thunder. In 2010, Swonder formed the first theatre on ice team in Indiana. River City Ice Theatre competed at the 2012 U. S. Figure Skating Theater on Ice National Competition in Strongsville, OH where they received a second place award out of 37 teams for best original theme/story. In 2012, River City Ice Theatre was adopted by the Greater Evansville Figure Skating Club and became a 5013 organization. In 2015, the junior ice hockey team, the Evansville Jr. Thunderbolts of the North American 3 Hockey League, began play at Swonder. Sports in Evansville Official Swonder Ice Arena website