Continental Celtic languages
The Continental Celtic languages are the Celtic languages, now extinct, that were spoken on the continent of Europe, as distinguished from the Insular Celtic languages of the British Isles and Brittany. Continental Celtic is a geographic, not grouping of the ancient Celtic languages; the Continental Celtic languages were spoken by the people known to Roman and Greek writers as Keltoi, Celtae and Galatae. These languages were spoken in an arc stretching across from Iberia in the west to the Balkans and Anatolia in the east. Though Breton is spoken in continental Europe, has been since at least the 6th century AD, it is not considered one of the Continental Celtic languages, it is a Brittonic language related to Cornish and Welsh. Whilst it has been suggested that there is a Gaulish substratum in the Vannetais dialect the historical and linguistic evidence shows otherwise. Although it is that Celts spoke dozens of different languages and dialects across Europe in pre-Roman times, only a small number have been attested: Lepontic was spoken on the southern side of the Alps.
It is evidenced in a number of inscriptions as well as place names. Gaulish was the main language spoken in greater Gaul; this is considered to be divided into two dialects and Transalpine. It is evidenced in a number of inscriptions as well as place names and tribal names in writings of classical authors, it may have been a substratum to Breton. Galatian, spoken around Ankara. Classical writers say. There is evidence of invasion and settlement of the Ankara area by Celts from Europe. Noric, the name given sometimes to the Celtic dialects spoken in Central and Eastern Europe, it was spoken in Slovenia. Celtiberian or Northeastern Hispano-Celtic is the name given to the language in northeast Iberia, between the headwaters of the Douro, Tagus, Júcar and Turía rivers and the Ebro river, it is attested in some 200 inscriptions as well as place names. It is distinct from the Iberian language. Gallaecian known as Gallaic or Northwestern Hispano-Celtic, attested in a small corpus of Latin inscriptions containing isolated words and sentences that are unmistakably Celtic.
It was spoken in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, comprising the northern half of Portugal and Galicia. The modern term Continental Celtic is used in contrast to Insular Celtic. While many researchers agree that Insular Celtic is a distinct branch of Celtic, having undergone common linguistic innovations, there is no evidence that the Continental Celtic languages can be grouped. Instead, the group called Continental Celtic is paraphyletic and the term refers to non-Insular Celtic languages. Since little material has been preserved in any of the Continental Celtic languages, historical linguistic analysis based on the comparative method is difficult to perform. However, other researchers see the Brittonic languages and Gaulish as forming part of a sub-group of the Celtic languages known as P-Celtic. Continental languages are all P-Celtic except for Celtiberian, Q-Celtic, have had a definite influence on all the Romance languages. Italo-Celtic Ball M and Fife J; the Celtic Languages. Cowgill, Warren.
"The origins of the Insular Celtic conjunct and absolute verbal endings". In H. Rix. Flexion und Wortbildung: Akten der V. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, Regensburg, 9.–14. September 1973. Wiesbaden: Reichert. Pp. 40–70. ISBN 3-920153-40-5. Galliou, Patrick; the Bretons. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-16406-5. ISBN 063120105X. McCone, Kim. "The PIE stops and syllabic nasals in Celtic". Studia Celtica Japonica. 4: 37–69. McCone, Kim. "Relative Chronologie: Keltisch". In R. Beekes. Rekonstruktion und relative Chronologie: Akten Der VIII. Fachtagung Der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, Leiden, 31. August–4. September 1987. Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck. Pp. 12–39. ISBN 3-85124-613-6. Schrijver, Peter. Studies in British Celtic historical phonology. Amsterdam: Rodopi. ISBN 90-5183-820-4. Stifter, Old Celtic 2008
Tywyn spelled to Towyn, is a town and seaside resort on the Cardigan Bay coast of southern Gwynedd, Wales. It was in the historic county of Merionethshire, it is famous as the location of the Cadfan Stone, a stone cross with the earliest known example of written Welsh, the home of the Talyllyn Railway. The name derives from the Welsh tywyn: extensive sand dunes are still to be found to the north and south of the town. In Middle Welsh, the spelling was Tywyn. In the Early Modern period, the spelling Towyn became common in order to reflect a slight change in pronunciation at that time; the modern spelling Tywyn better reflects the current pronunciation in modern Welsh as spoken in north Wales. With the standardisation of the orthography of the Welsh language in the first part of the 20th century, the spelling Tywyn came to dominate, was accepted as the official name of the town in both languages in the 1970s. In Welsh, the town is sometimes referred to as Tywyn Meirionnydd. In origin, this usage refers to the cantref of Meirionnydd, but is now understood as referring to the historical county of the same name.
In English, during the late 19th century and until the middle of the 20th century, the town was sometimes called Towyn-on-Sea. The place-name element tywyn is found in many other parts of Wales, most notably Towyn near Abergele. Tywyn was the location of the first religious community administered by the Breton saint Cadfan upon his arrival in Gwynedd, prior to his departure to found a monastery on Bardsey Island off the Llyn Peninsula; the church contains some early material. The town's historic centre lies around the church of St Cadfan's. In the second half of the 19th century the town expanded mainly towards the sea. To the north of the town lie the reclaimed salt marshes of Morfa Tywyn and Morfa Gwyllt, beyond which lie the Broad Water lagoon and the mouth of the Afon Dysynni. To the north-east lie the rich farmland of Bro Dysynni and the village of Bryncrug, to the east the hills of Craig y Barcud and Craig Fach Goch. To the south towards Aberdyfi is the mouth of the Afon Dyffryn Gwyn and Penllyn Marshes.
The Tywyn coastal defence scheme, a £7.6m civil engineering project, to provide a new rock breakwater above the low-tide level, rock groynes, rock revetment to protect 80 sea-front properties was unveiled by Jane Davidson, the Minister for Environment and Housing in the Welsh Assembly Government, on 24 March 2011. At the time of the 2001 census, 40.5% of the population were recorded as Welsh speakers. By the 2011 census this had decreased to 37.5%. These high figures reflect the use of both Welsh and English as the medium of instruction in Ysgol Penybryn, the town's primary school. An Estyn inspection report in 2010 noted that about 11% of the children at the school came from homes where Welsh was the main language; the town's Welsh dialect has several notable features, with one Victorian observer stating that three languages were spoken there: English, Welsh and'Tywynaeg'. During the 1860s, in the town's British School, a'Welsh stick' was used to punish children who were caught speaking Welsh.
Yet Welsh was the dominant language in Tywyn until the middle of the 20th century. Tywyn is now a anglicised town, with the majority of its population having been born in England according to the 2011 census. More respondents claimed an English-only identity than a Welsh-only identity; the church is of interest for two medieval effigies, for a stone inscribed with what is believed to be the oldest known writing in the Welsh language, dating back to the 8th century AD, rescued from a local gateway in the 18th century. Improved transport links during the 19th century increased Tywyn's appeal as a tourist destination. In the early decades of thatcentury, a creek of the river Dysynni allowed ships to approach the town's northern fringes, where there was a shipbuilding yard; the draining of the salt marsh and the channelling of the river brought this industry to an end, but during the early part of that century the town was made more accessible by building new roads along the coast to Aberdyfi and Llwyngwril.
The railway arrived in the mid-1860s, had a significant effect on the town. Tywyn railway station opened in 1863; the station is still open, is served by the Cambrian Line. Slate-quarrying in the Abergynolwyn area led to the building in 1865 of the Talyllyn Railway, a narrow-gauge line designed to carry slates to Tywyn. Two stations were opened in the town. Tywyn Wharf railway station was opened to enable slates to be unloaded onto a wharf adjacent to the main railway line, it is now the Talyllyn's western terminus and principal station. Pendre railway station was the passenger station, now houses the locomotive and carriage sheds and works. Notable visitors who stayed at Tywyn in the 19th century include: Thomas Love Peacock Thomas Fremantle, 1st Baron Cottesloe Ignatius Spencer Charles Darwin William Morris Elizabeth Blackwell The beach and its extensive promenade have long been key attractions. In 1877, a pier was built at Tywyn; the street called'Pier Road', which leads from the town to the beach, offers a suggestion as to its location.
The promenade was completed in 1889 at the cost of some £30,000, paid for by John Corbett of Ynysymaengwyn. There has been extensive bungalow
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium, as of March 2019 the most recent version, Unicode 12.0, contains a repertoire of 137,993 characters covering 150 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets and emoji. The character repertoire of the Unicode Standard is synchronized with ISO/IEC 10646, both are code-for-code identical; the Unicode Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings, a set of reference data files, a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization, collation and bidirectional display order. Unicode's success at unifying character sets has led to its widespread and predominant use in the internationalization and localization of computer software; the standard has been implemented in many recent technologies, including modern operating systems, XML, the.
NET Framework. Unicode can be implemented by different character encodings; the Unicode standard defines UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-32, several other encodings are in use. The most used encodings are UTF-8, UTF-16, UCS-2, a precursor of UTF-16. UTF-8, the dominant encoding on the World Wide Web, uses one byte for the first 128 code points, up to 4 bytes for other characters; the first 128 Unicode code points are the ASCII characters, which means that any ASCII text is a UTF-8 text. UCS-2 uses two bytes for each character but can only encode the first 65,536 code points, the so-called Basic Multilingual Plane. With 1,114,112 code points on 17 planes being possible, with over 137,000 code points defined so far, UCS-2 is only able to represent less than half of all encoded Unicode characters. Therefore, UCS-2 is outdated, though still used in software. UTF-16 extends UCS-2, by using the same 16-bit encoding as UCS-2 for the Basic Multilingual Plane, a 4-byte encoding for the other planes; as long as it contains no code points in the reserved range U+D800–U+DFFF, a UCS-2 text is a valid UTF-16 text.
UTF-32 uses four bytes for each character. Like UCS-2, the number of bytes per character is fixed. However, because each character uses four bytes, UTF-32 takes more space than other encodings, is not used. Unicode has the explicit aim of transcending the limitations of traditional character encodings, such as those defined by the ISO 8859 standard, which find wide usage in various countries of the world but remain incompatible with each other. Many traditional character encodings share a common problem in that they allow bilingual computer processing, but not multilingual computer processing. Unicode, in intent, encodes the underlying characters—graphemes and grapheme-like units—rather than the variant glyphs for such characters. In the case of Chinese characters, this sometimes leads to controversies over distinguishing the underlying character from its variant glyphs. In text processing, Unicode takes the role of providing a unique code point—a number, not a glyph—for each character. In other words, Unicode represents a character in an abstract way and leaves the visual rendering to other software, such as a web browser or word processor.
This simple aim becomes complicated, because of concessions made by Unicode's designers in the hope of encouraging a more rapid adoption of Unicode. The first 256 code points were made identical to the content of ISO-8859-1 so as to make it trivial to convert existing western text. Many identical characters were encoded multiple times at different code points to preserve distinctions used by legacy encodings and therefore, allow conversion from those encodings to Unicode without losing any information. For example, the "fullwidth forms" section of code points encompasses a full Latin alphabet, separate from the main Latin alphabet section because in Chinese and Korean fonts, these Latin characters are rendered at the same width as CJK characters, rather than at half the width. For other examples, see duplicate characters in Unicode. Based on experiences with the Xerox Character Code Standard since 1980, the origins of Unicode date to 1987, when Joe Becker from Xerox with Lee Collins and Mark Davis from Apple, started investigating the practicalities of creating a universal character set.
With additional input from Peter Fenwick and Dave Opstad, Joe Becker published a draft proposal for an "international/multilingual text character encoding system in August 1988, tentatively called Unicode". He explained that "he name'Unicode' is intended to suggest a unique, universal encoding". In this document, entitled Unicode 88, Becker outlined a 16-bit character model: Unicode is intended to address the need for a workable, reliable world text encoding. Unicode could be described as "wide-body ASCII", stretched to 16 bits to encompass the characters of all the world's living languages. In a properly engineered design, 16 bits per character are more than sufficient for this purpose, his original 16-bit design was based on the assumption that only those scripts and characters in modern use would nee
Welsh or y Gymraeg is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages. It is spoken natively in Wales, by some in England, in Y Wladfa, it has been known in English as "Cambrian", "Cambric" and "Cymric". Of usual residents in Wales aged three and over, 19.0% were able to speak Welsh according to the United Kingdom Census 2011. According to the 2001 Census, 20.8 per cent of the population aged 3+ were able to speak Welsh. This suggests that there was a decrease in the number of Welsh speakers in Wales from 2001 to 2011 – from about 582,000 to 562,000 respectively; the Annual Population Survey conducted by the ONS for the year ending in December 2018 suggested that 898,700 people or 29.8 per cent of people aged three or over in Wales were able to speak Welsh. The results for the most recent National Survey for Wales suggested that 19 percent of the population aged 16 and over were able to speak Welsh, with an additional 12 percent noting that they had ‘some Welsh speaking ability’; the Welsh Language Measure 2011 gave the Welsh language official status in Wales, making it the only language, de jure official in any part of the United Kingdom, with English being de facto official.
The Welsh language, along with English, is a de jure official language of the National Assembly for Wales. The language of the Welsh developed from the language of Britons, according to academic T. M. Charles-Edwards; the emergence of Welsh was not instantaneous and identifiable. Instead, the shift occurred over a long period of time, with some historians claiming that it had happened by as late as the 9th century, with a watershed moment being that proposed by Kenneth H. Jackson, the Battle of Dyrham, a military battle between the West Saxons and the Britons in 577 AD. which split the South Western British from direct overland contact with the Welsh. Four periods are identified in the history of Welsh, with rather indistinct boundaries: Primitive Welsh, Old Welsh, Middle Welsh, Modern Welsh; the period following the language's emergence is sometimes referred to as Primitive Welsh, followed by the Old Welsh period –, considered to stretch from the beginning of the 9th century to sometime during the 12th century.
The Middle Welsh period is considered to have lasted from until the 14th century, when the Modern Welsh period began, which in turn is divided into Early and Late Modern Welsh. The name Welsh originated as an exonym given to its speakers by the Anglo-Saxons, meaning "foreign speech"; the native term for the language is Cymraeg: North/Central Wales pronunciation /kɘm'raɪg/, South Wales pronunciation /kɘm'ra:g/. Welsh evolved from the Celtic language spoken by the ancient Celtic Britons. Classified as Insular Celtic, the British language arrived in Britain during the Bronze Age or Iron Age and was spoken throughout the island south of the Firth of Forth. During the Early Middle Ages the British language began to fragment due to increased dialect differentiation, thus evolving into Welsh and the other Brittonic languages, it is not clear. Kenneth H. Jackson suggested that the evolution in syllabic structure and sound pattern was complete by around 550, labelled the period between and about 800 "Primitive Welsh".
This Primitive Welsh may have been spoken in both Wales and the Hen Ogledd – the Brittonic-speaking areas of what is now northern England and southern Scotland – and therefore may have been the ancestor of Cumbric as well as Welsh. Jackson, believed that the two varieties were distinct by that time; the earliest Welsh poetry – that attributed to the Cynfeirdd or "Early Poets" – is considered to date to the Primitive Welsh period. However, much of this poetry was composed in the Hen Ogledd, raising further questions about the dating of the material and language in which it was composed; this discretion stems from the fact that Cumbric was believed to have been the language used in Hen Ogledd. An 8th-century inscription in Tywyn shows the language dropping inflections in the declension of nouns. Janet Davies proposed; this is evidenced by the dropping of final syllables from Brittonic: *bardos "poet" became bardd, *abona "river" became afon. Though both Davies and Jackson cite minor changes in syllable structure and sounds as evidence for the creation of Old Welsh, Davies suggests it may be more appropriate to refer to this derivative language as Lingua Brittanica rather than characterising it as a new language altogether.
The argued dates for the period of "Primitive Welsh" are debated, with some historians' suggestions differing by hundreds of years. The next main period is Old Welsh; as Germanic and Gaelic colonisation of Britain proceeded, the Brittonic speakers in Wales were split off from those in northern England, speaking Cumbric, those in the southwest, speaking what would become Cornish, so the languages diverged. Both the works of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin were during this era. Middle Welsh is the label attached to the Welsh of the 12th to 14th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period; this is the language of nearly all surviving early manuscripts of the Mabinogion, although the tales themselves are much older. It is
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu