San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Buff is the pale orange-brown colour of the undyed leather of several animals. As an RYB quaternary colour, it is the colour produced by an equal mix of the tertiary colours citron and russet; the first recorded use of the word buff to describe a colour was in The London Gazette of 1686, describing a uniform to be "...a Red Coat with a Buff-colour'd lining". It referred to the colour of undyed buffalo leather, such as soldiers wore as some protection: an eyewitness to the death in the Battle of Edgehill of Sir Edmund Verney noted "he would neither put on arms or buff coat the day of the battle"; such buff leather was suitable for serving as a buffer between polished objects. It is not clear which bovine "buffalo" referred to, but it may not have been any of the animals called "buffalo" today; the word buff meaning "enthusiast" or "expert" derives from the colour "buff" from the buff-coloured uniform facings of 19th-century New York City volunteer firemen, who inspired partisan followers among keen fire watchers."In the buff", today meaning naked applied to English soldiers wearing the buff leather tunic, their uniform until the 17th century.
The "naked" signification is due to the perception. Sand and loess tend to be buff in many areas; because buff is effective in camouflage, it is naturally selected. Many species are named for their buff markings, including the buff arches moth, the buff-bellied climbing mouse, at least sixty birds, including the buff-fronted quail-dove, the buff-vented bulbul, the buff-spotted flufftail. In areas where buff raw materials are available, buff walls and buildings may be found. Cotswold stone is an example of such a material. Unless bleached or dyed, paper products, such as Manila paper, tend to be buff. Buff envelopes are used extensively in commercial mailings. Buff paper is sometimes favoured by artists seeking a neutral background colour for drawings those featuring the colour white. Buff domesticated animals and plants have been created, including dogs and poultry; the word buff is used in written standards of several breeds, some, such as the Buff turkey, are named "buff". In 16th- and 17th-century European cultures, buff waistcoats, were considered proper casual wear.
In the 17th century, the traditional colour of formal dress boot uppers was described as "buff". Clothing depicted on John Bull, a national personification of Britain in general and England in particular, in political cartoons and similar graphic works, has been buff coloured. Bull's buff waistcoats, topcoats and boot uppers were typical of 16th- and 17th-century Englishmen. Buff is a traditional European military uniform colour. Buff has good camouflage qualities as sand and dry vegetation are buff in many areas; the term buff coat refers to a part of 17th-century European military uniforms. Such coats were intended to protect the wearer, the strongest and finest leathers tend to be buff, so the term "buff coats" came to refer to all such coats if the colour varied; the Royal East Kent Regiment was nicknamed "The Buffs" from the colour of their waistcoats. The phrase "Steady the Buffs!", popularised by Rudyard Kipling in his 1888 work Soldiers Three, has its origins during 2nd Battalion's garrison duties in Malta.
Adjutant Cotter, not wanting to be shown up in front of his former regiment, the 21st Royal Fusiliers, spurred his men on with the words: "Steady, the Buffs! The Fusiliers are watching you." The uniform of the American Continental Army was blue. Buff is the traditional colour of the U. S. Army Quartermaster Corps; the U. S. Army Institute of Heraldry specifies a "buff" tincture for certain coats of arms treating it as a metal for purposes of the rule of tincture; the colours of George Washington University and Hamilton College are buff and blue, modelled on the military uniform of General George Washington and the Continental Army. Both General Washington and Alexander Hamilton, as chief of staff, had a role in the design of the uniforms. Other school colours described as "buff and blue" include Gallaudet University in Washington, D. C. and Punahou School in Honolulu, Hawaii. Buff is one of three colours of the Alpha Gamma Delta fraternity, one of two colours of the Delta Chi fraternity; the flags of Delaware and New Jersey, the former flags of New York and Maine feature buff.
The colours of the Whigs, an 18th-century British political party as well as an American one, were buff and blue. The funnels of the RMS Titanic and all other ships of the White Star Line were designated to be "buff with a black top" in order to indicate their ownership. There is some uncertainty among experts, however, as to the exact shade of what is now called "White Star buff". There is no surviving paint or formula, although there are many painted postcards and at least seven colour photographs of White Star liners, the shades of the funnels in these varies due to many factors including the conditions under which they were made and the ageing of the pigments in which they were printed. Speaking to scale modellers, the Titanic Research and Modeling Association recommend a colour "in the range of the Marschall color", meaning the colour in illustrations in a particular book; as a inexpensive and readily-available paint colour, one which went well alongside the near-universal black hull and white superstructure used on steamships at the time, White Star was far from the only shipping line to use a shade of buff as a funnel colour.
The Orient Line and Norddeutscher Lloyd used an buff funnel without the black top, while Canadian Pacific and the Swed
CMYK color model
The CMYK color model is a subtractive color model, used in color printing, is used to describe the printing process itself. CMYK refers to the four inks used in some color printing: cyan, magenta and key; the CMYK model works by or masking colors on a lighter white, background. The ink reduces the light; such a model is called subtractive because inks "subtract" the colors red and blue from white light. White light minus red leaves cyan, white light minus green leaves magenta, white light minus blue leaves yellow. In additive color models, such as RGB, white is the "additive" combination of all primary colored lights, while black is the absence of light. In the CMYK model, it is the opposite: white is the natural color of the paper or other background, while black results from a full combination of colored inks. To save cost on ink, to produce deeper black tones and dark colors are produced by using black ink instead of the combination of cyan and yellow. With CMYK printing, halftoning allows for less than full saturation of the primary colors.
Magenta printed with a 20% halftone, for example, produces a pink color, because the eye perceives the tiny magenta dots on the large white paper as lighter and less saturated than the color of pure magenta ink. Without halftoning, the three primary process colors could be printed only as solid blocks of color, therefore could produce only seven colors: the three primaries themselves, plus three secondary colors produced by layering two of the primaries: cyan and yellow produce green and magenta produce blue and magenta produce red, plus layering all three of them resulting in black. With halftoning, a full continuous range of colors can be produced. To improve print quality and reduce moiré patterns, the screen for each color is set at a different angle. While the angles depend on how many colors are used and the preference of the press operator, typical CMYK process printing uses any of the following screen angles: The "black" generated by mixing commercially practical cyan and yellow inks is unsatisfactory, so four-color printing uses black ink in addition to the subtractive primaries.
Common reasons for using black ink include: In traditional preparation of color separations, a red keyline on the black line art marked the outline of solid or tint color areas. In some cases a black keyline was used when it served as both a color indicator and an outline to be printed in black; because the black plate contained the keyline, the K in CMYK represents the keyline or black plate sometimes called the key plate. Text is printed in black and includes fine detail, so to reproduce text or other finely detailed outlines, without slight blurring, using three inks would require impractically accurate registration. A combination of 100% cyan and yellow inks soaks the paper with ink, making it slower to dry, causing bleeding, or weakening the paper so much that it tears. Although a combination of 100% cyan and yellow inks should, in theory absorb the entire visible spectrum of light and produce a perfect black, practical inks fall short of their ideal characteristics and the result is a dark muddy color that does not quite appear black.
Adding black ink absorbs more light and yields much better blacks. Using black ink is less expensive than using the corresponding amounts of colored inks; when a dark area is desirable, a colored or gray CMY "bedding" is applied first a full black layer is applied on top, making a rich, deep black. A black made with just CMY inks is sometimes called a composite black; the amount of black to use to replace amounts of the other ink is variable, the choice depends on the technology and ink in use. Processes called under color removal, under color addition, gray component replacement are used to decide on the final mix. CMYK or process color printing is contrasted with spot color printing, in which specific colored inks are used to generate the colors appearing on paper; some printing presses are capable of printing with both four-color process inks and additional spot color inks at the same time. High-quality printed materials, such as marketing brochures and books include photographs requiring process-color printing, other graphic effects requiring spot colors, finishes such as varnish, which enhances the glossy appearance of the printed piece.
CMYK are the process printers which have a small color gamut. Processes such as Pantone's proprietary six-color Hexachrome expand the gamut. Light, saturated colors cannot be created with CMYK, light colors in general may make visible the halftone pattern. Using a CcMmYK process, with the addition of light cyan and magenta inks to CMYK, can solve these problems, such a process is used by many inkjet printers, including desktop models. Comparisons between RGB displays and CMYK prints can be difficult, since the color reproduction technologies and properties are different. A computer monitor mixes shades of red and blue light to create color pictures. A CMYK printer instead uses light-absorbing cyan and yellow inks, whose colors are mixed using dithering, halftoning, or some other optical technique. Similar to monitors, the inks used in printing produ
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Colorfulness and saturation are attributes of perceived color relating to chromatic intensity. As defined formally by the International Commission on Illumination they describe three different aspects of chromatic intensity, but the terms are used loosely and interchangeably in contexts where these aspects are not distinguished. Colorfulness is the "attribute of a visual perception according to which the perceived color of an area appears to be more or less chromatic". A note accompanying this definition in effect implies that the perception of colorfulness evoked by an object depends not only on its spectral reflectance but on the strength of the illumination, increases with the latter unless the brightness is high. Chroma is the "colorfulness of an area judged as a proportion of the brightness of a illuminated area that appears white or transmitting". A note accompanying this definition in effect implies that an object with a given spectral reflectance exhibits constant chroma for all levels of illumination, unless the brightness is high.
Thus if a uniformly colored object is unevenly lit, it will exhibit greater colorfulness where it is most lit, but will be perceived to have the same chroma over its entire surface. While colorfulness is an attribute of the color of the light reflected from different parts of the object, chroma is an attribute of the color seen as belonging to the object itself,and describes how different from a grey of the same lightness such an object color appears to be. Saturation is the "colorfulness of an area judged in proportion to its brightness", which in effect is the perceived freedom from whitishness of the light coming from the area. A note accompanying this definition in effect indicates that an object with a given spectral reflectance exhibits constant saturation for all levels of illumination, unless the brightness is high. Since the chroma and lightness of an object are its colorfulness and brightness judged in proportion to the same thing, the saturation of the light coming from that object is in effect the chroma of the object judged in proportion to its lightness.
On a Munsell hue page, lines of uniform saturation thus tend to radiate from near the black point, while lines of uniform chroma are vertical. As colorfulness and saturation are defined as attributes of perception they can not be physically measured as such, but they can be quantified in relation to psychometric scales intended to be perceptually for example the chroma scales of the Munsell system; the saturation of a color is determined by a combination of light intensity and how much it is distributed across the spectrum of different wavelengths. The purest color is achieved by using just one wavelength at a high intensity, such as in laser light. If the intensity drops as a result the saturation drops. To desaturate a color of given intensity in a subtractive system, one can add white, gray, or the hue's complement. Various correlates of saturation follow. CIELUV and CIELABIn CIELUV, saturation is equal to the chroma normalized by the lightness: s u v = C u v ∗ L ∗ = 13 2 + 2 where is the chromaticity of the white point, chroma is defined below.
By analogy, in CIELAB this would yield: s a b = C a b ∗ L ∗ = a ∗ 2 + b ∗ 2 L ∗ The CIE has not formally recommended this equation since CIELAB has no chromaticity diagram, this definition therefore lacks direct connection with older concepts of saturation. This equation provides a reasonable predictor of saturation, demonstrates that adjusting the lightness in CIELAB while holding fixed does affect the saturation, but the following formula is in agreement with the human perception of saturation: The formula proposed by Eva Lübbe is in agreement with the verbal definition of Manfred Richter: Saturation is the proportion of pure chromatic color in the total color sensation. S a b = C a b ∗ C a b ∗ 2 + L ∗ 2 100 % where Sab is the saturation, L* the lightness and C*ab is the chroma of the color. CIECAM02In CIECAM02, saturation equals the square root of the colorfulness divided by the brightness: s = M / Q This definition is inspired by experimental work done with the intention of
Citrine is a colour, the most common reference for, certain coloured varieties of quartz which are a medium deep shade of golden yellow. Citrine has been summarized at various times as greenish-yellow, brownish yellow or orange; the original reference point for the citrine colour was the citron fruit. The first recorded use of citrine as a colour in English was in 1386, it was borrowed from a medieval classical Latin word with the same meaning. In late medieval and early modern English the citrine colour-name was applied in a wider variety of contexts than it is today and could be "reddish or brownish yellow. In today's English citrine as a colour is confined to the contexts of gemstones, including quartz, some animal and plant names. E.g. the citrine wagtail, an Asian bird species with golden-yellow plumage, or the citrine warbler, citrine canary-flycatcher, citrine forktail, etc. List of colours Jewelry and Gemstone Glossary of Terms: Citrine
The color amber is a pure chroma color, located on the color wheel midway between the colors of yellow and orange. The color name is derived from the material known as amber, found in a range of yellow-orange-brown-red colors. In English the first recorded use of the term as a color name, rather than a reference to the specific substance, was in 1500. Amber is one of several technically defined colors used in automotive signal lamps. In North America, SAE standard J578 governs the colorimetry of vehicle lights, while outside North America the internationalized European ECE regulations hold force. Both standards designate a range of orange-yellow hues in the CIE color space as "amber". In the past, the ECE amber definition was more restrictive than the SAE definition, but the current ECE definition is identical to the more permissive SAE standard; the SAE formally uses the term "yellow amber", though the color is most referred to as "yellow". This is not the same as selective yellow, a color used in some fog headlamps.
ECE amber was defined according to the 1968 Convention on Road Traffic, as follows: Recent revisions to the ECE regulations have aligned ECE Amber with SAE Yellow, defined as follows: The entirety of these definitions lie outside the gamut of the sRGB color space — such a pure color cannot be represented using RGB primaries. The color box shown above is a desaturated approximation, created by taking the centroid of the standard definition and moving it towards the D65 white point, until it meets the sRGB gamut triangle. Computers The Digital Equipment Corporation VT220 computer terminals were available with amber phosphors in their CRTs. Interior design The original Amber Room in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg was a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. Due to its singular beauty, it was sometimes dubbed the Eighth Wonder of the World. Sports In Gaelic games, Armagh play in a darker Amber color, Offaly play in the original colors of the Irish flag and Kilkenny play in black and amber, albeit a more yellow amber.
Amber is a color worn by English Football Clubs Hull City AFC, Bradford City AFC, Barnet FC, Shrewsbury Town FC, Mansfield Town, Cambridge United FC and Sutton United. The color is worn by the Scottish football club Motherwell FC, as well as many other sports clubs around the world. Traffic engineering Amber is used in traffic lights and turn signals. Business management Amber is used in business management to indicate a status of work, as in RAG status. R stands for Red, A stands for Amber represented as the color Yellow in the reports, G stands for Green. Green indicates that all is well and no action is needed, Yellow indicates a wait-and-watch approach or some action to make the status Green, Red indicates that the work or project is not as planned and requires immediate attention and corrective actions to turn it to Green status. Amber Alert The appearance of the word "amber" here is only a coincidence. Spectral color List of colors UNECE Regulation No. 6: Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Direction Indicators for Motor Vehicles and their Trailers UNECE Regulation No. 48: Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Vehicles with Regard to the Installation of Lighting and Light-Signalling Devices