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Oldbury-on-Severn

Oldbury-on-Severn is a small village near the mouth of the River Severn in South Gloucestershire. The village population at the 2011 census was 780, it is home to the nearby Oldbury nuclear power station, a Magnox power station which opened in 1967 and ceased operation on 29 February 2012. The area has been considered for nuclear'new build' totalling some 3000MWe of capacity – either two or three PWRs; this would be more than the river flow could provide cooling for and so natural-draught cooling towers with a possible height of 200m have been postulated as necessary. Village attractions include a footpath near the river, a pub known as the Anchor Inn plus the village hall and two churches, it is the home of Thornbury Sailing Club. The parish church is dedicated to St Arilda, a local saint and martyr whose origins may lie in the fourth or fifth century; the church is on a small hill and is an excellent viewpoint, for river travellers, waymark. Oldbury on Severn Community Website Oldbury-on-Severn.com Oldbury nuclear power station Stakeholder Group Thornbury Sailing Club

Sons of Haiti

The Sons of Haiti is a Haitian-American Masonic Grand Lodge and fraternal organization with headquarters in Renton, Washington. The organization has sub-chapters in Arizona, Georgia, Maryland, New York, New Jersey, Oregon and Washington; the group has jurisdiction over the King James Grand Lodge of Oregon AF&AM. African American Freemasonry originated in the early nineteenth century, at a time when it was rare for African-Americans to be admitted into mainstream Masonic Lodges in the United States. African-American Freemasonry has been prone to disharmony and schisms. Today, it is common for multiple, African-American Grand Lodges to exist in the same State, each declaring the others illegitimate and irregular; the Sons of Haiti were formally founded in 1962 after a preceding period when the organization was involved with lawsuits against other African American Masonic organizations in Washington. Following its founding, the organization was recognized by the Grand Lodges of Haiti, The Grande Loge de France, a Mexican Grand Lodge.

Prince Hall Freemasonry's Phylaxis Society describes the Sons of Haiti as "bogus" for not having descended from African Lodge Number 459 or the United Grand Lodges of England, Ireland, or Scotland. Sons of Haiti are not considered a legitimate body of Freemasonry by any regular Masonic body; the Supreme Council of the Sons of Haiti Lodge is located in Washington. The Renton City Council "recognized August 11, 2010 as Sons of Haiti Supreme Council Day". Before moving to Renton, the Supreme Council operated out of Washington Hall in Seattle, which they purchased in 1973, they rented the auditorium to various community groups, which used the rented space for concerts and other public gatherings. The building was sold in 2009 to Historic Seattle for $1.5 million. The organization has held annual Supreme Council planning and session events from 1983 to 2006 in locations ranging from Oakland, California to Nassau in the Bahamas; the Sons of Haiti acted as a volunteer group at the city of Portland, Oregon's 24th annual "Keep Alive The Dream" tribute to Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. in 2009.

Charitable entities associated with Sons of Haiti include: Sons of Haiti Manor Housing Association, 153 14th Ave, Washington, founded in 1995, a registered nonprofit Sons of Haiti Senior Housing Association, same address and founding date a registered nonprofit Peter P. Hinks and Stephen Kantrowitz, All Men Free and Brethren: Essays on the History of African American Freemasonry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2013

Slab climbing

Slab climbing is a type of rock climbing where the rock face is at an angle less steep than vertical. It is characterized by balance- and friction-dependent moves on small holds, it is not leadable, or climbable from the ground up, unless it has pre-drilled bolts to protect the climb, making most slab climbs either top rope climbing or sport climbing. Special techniques such as smearing are necessary to climb slab, it is distinctly different from crack climbing. Slab climbing is a new area of climbing, having become more popular in the last 30 years, some of the highest graded routes are being realized; the first routes put up on new cliffs always follow cracks, due to the ease of placing protection, or pieces of equipment which arrest a fall, while on lead. Slab climbs have cracks or other features that can be protected. Therefore, slab climbs are discovered well after the cracks are all climbed, since easier routes to the summit exist. Slab climbs can be dangerous to lead climb using traditional protection, or removable gear that fits into rock features, since the scarcity of natural features where protection can be placed results in long sections where the climber is exposed to long falls—over 150 feet on some routes.

As a result, it was not until the introduction of bolting routes that hard slab lines could be climbed. In 1927, Laurent Grivel designed the first rock drill and expansion bolt, which paved the way for protecting climbs such as slab; the next advancement for slab climbing did not come until 1980 when Boreal marketed the first "sticky rubber" shoe, making friction climbing more feasible. Before this, most climbing was done in boots or thick-soled shoes, which prevents the climber from making the balance dependent moves required on slab walls. Slab climbing saw a dramatic increase in the number of new routes with the introduction of lightweight, electric drills in the 1980s, but slowed down as criticism of permanent bolting grew, electric drills became illegal in many National Parks and Wilderness Areas. A new generation of climbers has begun to revive slab climbing, putting up some of the hardest routes in the world. Slab climbing is one of the most technically demanding styles of climbing. Unlike overhanging or vertical routes, where strong muscles are important, slab climbing demands intense concentration and precise foot placement.

A central technique used on slab walls is smearing: placing a foot directly on smooth rock where no feature exists. Pressure is applied and the friction between the shoe and the rock allows the climber to move on the wall. Smearing performance depends on the type of rock. Sticky rubber shoes increase friction. Smooth rock, such as quartzite, is difficult to smear on, while granite is much easier; the angle of the slab plays a large part in the difficulty of the move. A 60 degree slab is easier to smear on than an 80 degree slab. A good smear puts as much shoe in contact with the rock as possible; the foot should be kept flat, instead of using just the points of the toes to smear. Climbers must keep their center of gravity directly above their feet in slab climbing. A climber that keeps their weight too close to the wall risks pushing their feet off the wall; this means a climber will have their hips away from the rock, the opposite of traditional climbing technique. A climber’s hands are used to assist in this positioning by pushing out against the wall.

Slab climbing requires smooth movement over the rock, instead of jerky moves. Short steps should be taken to maintain balance, the arms should be kept in contact with the rock. Slab climbing never has dynamic moves. Falling is dangerous on slab because of poor protection and the nature of the rock; the climber will slide or tumble down the rock, instead of dropping through the air. This can cause serious skin injuries; when falling, climbers try to stay slide instead of tumbling. Rough rock is excellent for slab climbing. Sandstone and granite are both excellent for slab climbing, because the rock has lots of friction, making smearing easier. Limestone slab climbs are more difficult, due to the smoothness of the rock, quartzite slab climbs are rarer due to the polished nature of the rock. List of climbers List of climbing topics List of climbing knots Glossary of climbing terms

Sanjoy Bhattacharya

Sanjoy Bhattacharya, FRAS, is an academic and historian, Professor in the History of Medicine and Director of the World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre for Global Health Histories, all at the University of York. Bhattacharya completed his undergraduate studies at St. Stephen's College, before earning a Master of Arts degree from Jawaharlal Nehru University, a doctorate from the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, he was appointed a Wellcome Trust research fellow at Sheffield Hallam University in 1997, took up a research fellowship at the University of Oxford four years later. He is editor of the journal Medical History. In 2011, Bhattacharya was elected a Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Bhattacharya's research focuses on the medical and social history of South Asia in the 19th and 20th centuries and the modern history of global health programmes

Studholme Hodgson

Field Marshal Studholme Hodgson was a British Army officer who served during the 18th century. After serving as an Aide-de-Camp to the Duke of Cumberland at the Battle of Fontenoy during the War of the Austrian Succession and at the Battle of Culloden during the Jacobite Rebellion, he became correspondent to William Barrington, the Secretary at War, during the French and Indian War, he went on to command the British expedition which captured Belle Île in June 1761 during the Seven Years' War so enabling the British Government to use the island as a bargaining piece during the negotiations leading up to the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Born the son of John Hodgson, a merchant from Carlisle, educated at Carlisle Grammar School, Hodgson was commissioned as an ensign in the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards and lieutenant in the Army on 2 January 1728, he was promoted to captain in his regiment and lieutenant in the Army on 3 February 1741. Hodgson was appointed Aide-de-Camp to the Duke of Cumberland in early 1745 and fought under Cumberland at the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745 during the War of the Austrian Succession.

He fought under Cumberland at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746 during the Jacobite Rebellion. Promoted to captain in his regiment and lieutenant colonel in the Army on 18 May 1847, he became correspondent to William Barrington, the Secretary at War, in 1755 during the French and Indian War. Hodgson raised a new regiment in 1756 and served under Sir John Mordaunt, as a brigade commander, during the unsuccessful Raid on Rochefort in September 1757 during the Seven Years' War. Promoted to major-general on 15 September 1759, he became colonel of the 5th Regiment of Foot in October 1759. Hodgson led a British raid off the coast of France. After the initial British attack was repulsed a second attempt forced a beachhead. A second landing was made and, after a six-week siege, the island's main citadel at Le Palais was stormed, consolidating British control of the island in June 1761, he was much congratulated by both the King and William Pitt, Secretary of State for the Southern Department, as this "important and critical operation" enabled the British Government to use Belle Île as a bargaining piece during the negotiations leading up to the Treaty of Paris in 1763.

Promoted to lieutenant general on 23 March 1765, he became Governor of Fort George and Fort Augustus in September 1765. Hodgson became colonel of the 4th Regiment of Foot in November 1768 and, having been promoted to full general on 2 April 1778, he became colonel of the 7th Dragoon Guards in June 1782 and colonel of the 11th Light Dragoons in March 1789. Hodgson was promoted to field marshal on 30 July 1796, he died at his home in Old Burlington Street in London on 20 October 1798 and was buried at St James's Church, Piccadilly. In July 1756 Hodgson married Catherine Howard, sister of Field Marshal Sir George Howard. Cannon, Richard. Historical Records of the British Army. Heathcote, Tony; the British Field Marshals, 1736–1997: A Biographical Dictionary. Barnsley: Leo Cooper. ISBN 0-85052-696-5

Rosa Rolanda

Rosa Rolanda was an American multidisciplinary artist and choreographer. Rolanda was born in Azusa, California, in 1895, her father, Henry Charles Cowan, was an engineer and her mother, Guadalupe Ruelas, was of Mexican descent. Rolanda began her artistic career in New York in 1916 as a celebrated dancer in Broadway revues, she became involved with the Mexican artist Miguel Covarrubias in 1924, in the following year the couple traveled to Mexico, where Rolanda began to take photographs. Albums of her images were published in Covarrubias's best-selling books Island of Bali and Mexico South: Isthmus of Tehuantepec, her work was featured in the "Ameridinian" issue of Wolfgang Paalen's journal DYN, published in 1943. During the late 1920s or early 1930s, Rolanda experimented with photograms, creating significant series of surrealist self-portraits that may have been influenced by Man Ray, who photographed Rolanda in Paris in 1923, she began painting around 1926. The majority of Rolanda's canvases depict colorful, folkloric scenes of children and festivals, portraits of friends such as the movie actresses Dolores del Río and María Félix, self-portraits.

Rolanda and Covarrubias married in 1930, by 1935 they had permanently settled into his family home in Tizapan El Alto, close to Mexico City. In 1952 Rolanda exhibited her paintings in a solo show at the prominent Galeria Souza in Mexico City.—P. 7. By 1952, Covarrubias had separated from Rolanda in pursuit of one of his own students, Rocío Sagaón. At this point, Rolanda was producing works, such as the Autorretrato, conveyed her innermost turmoils onto canvas, she died in 1970 in Mexico. Rosa Rolanda at the Internet Broadway Database Rosa Rolanda on IMDb