The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Old Globe Theatre
The Old Globe Theatre is a professional theatre company located in Balboa Park in San Diego, California. It produces about 15 plays and musicals annually in summer and winter seasons, the White Theatre houses the Karen and Donald Cohn Education Center. The Old Globe Theatre was built in 1935, designed by Richard Requa as part of the California Pacific International Exposition, like the original Globe, the theatre was open in the center with a roof over the seating on the sides. During the exposition, it hosted 50-minute versions of Shakespeare plays, at the end of the exposition, the Globe had been received so well that a nonprofit organization called the San Diego Community Theatre was formed to save the temporary structure from demolition. The committee leased the structure from the city, produced full-length plays, in 1939, a young actor and director named Craig Noel was hired as general director. During World War II the U. S. Navy took over all buildings in Balboa Park, the Community Theatre group stayed together, producing one-act plays in various venues around San Diego.
When the Globe was returned to use in 1947, Noel returned as general director. In 1949 he launched the Globes summer Shakespeare Festival in partnership with the department at University of San Diego. Since the Shakespeare festival has presented every summer except 1953. The Globe continued to produce a combination of modern plays along with Shakespeare, in 1981 Jack OBrien was hired as artistic director, while Noel became executive producer. The Cassius Carter Centre Stage, a theater in the round, was added in 1969 in what had been the Falstaff Tavern restaurant and it was rebuilt in 2009 as the Sheryl and Harvey White Theatre. In March 1978, the Globe Theatre was destroyed in a fire. The Globe Theatre was rebuilt and reopened in 1981, in 1984, the festival stage in turn succumbed to arson. It was rebuilt and is now named the Lowell Davies Festival Theatre, the entire three-theatre complex is called the Simon Edison Centre for the Performing Arts. The Globe has grown into an internationally known theatre complex, an influential powerhouse among regional theatres, in 1984 it received the Tony Award for best regional theatre.
Shows which originated at the Old Globe have gone on to Broadway to win nine Tony Awards, Old Globe official website Old Globe Theatre at the Internet Broadway Database
Cicely Tyson is an American actress. She was nominated for the Academy and Golden Globe Awards for Best Actress for her performance as Rebecca Morgan in Sounder, for this role she won the NSFC Best Actress and NBR Best Actress Awards. She starred in The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman, for which she won two Emmy Awards and was nominated for a BAFTA Award, during her career she has been nominated for twelve Primetime Emmy Awards, winning three. In 2011, she appeared in the film The Help, for which she received awards for her work as Constantine from the BFCA and SAG Awards. She starred on Broadway in The Trip to Bountiful as Carrie Watts, for which she won the Tony Award, Outer Critics Award and she previously received a Drama Desk Award in 1962 for her Off-Broadway performance in Moon on a Rainbow Shawl. On November 16,2016, it was announced that Tyson would be one of 21 new recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nations highest civilian honor. Tyson was born and raised in Harlem, the daughter of Frederica Tyson, a domestic, and William Augustine Tyson, who worked as a carpenter and her parents were immigrants from Nevis in the West Indies.
Her father arrived in New York City at age 21 and was processed at Ellis Island on August 4,1919, Tyson was discovered by a photographer for Ebony magazine and became a popular fashion model. Her first acting role was on the NBC series Frontiers of Faith in 1951, in 1961, Tyson appeared in the original cast of French playwright Jean Genets The Blacks, the longest running off-Broadway non-musical of the decade, running for 1,408 performances. On March 25,1963, Tyson appeared on the game show To Tell The Truth as a contestant for Shirley Abicair. She appeared with Sammy Davis, Jr. in the film A Man Called Adam, Tyson had a featured role in The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter, and appeared in a segment of Roots. In 1972, she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress for her role in the critically acclaimed Sounder, in 1974, she won two Emmy Awards for The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. In 1988 she received a Candace Award for Distinguished Service from the National Coalition of 100 Black Women, in 1991 she appeared in Fried Green Tomatoes as Sipsey. C.
Civil rights and criminal defense lawyer Dovey Johnson Roundtree, in 2005, Tyson co-starred in Because of Winn-Dixie and Diary of a Mad Black Woman. In 2011, Tyson appeared in her first music video in Willow Smiths 21st Century Girl and that same year she played Constantine Jefferson in the critically-acclaimed period drama The Help. At the 67th Tony Awards on June 9,2013, she won the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for her performance as Miss Carrie Watts in The Trip to Bountiful. She won the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actress in a Play, in 2013, Tyson had a supporting role in the horror film The Haunting in Connecticut 2, Ghosts of Georgia. Tyson has been married once, to jazz trumpeter Miles Davis on November 26,1981
The Longacre Theatre is a Broadway theatre located at 220 West 48th Street in midtown Manhattan. Designed by architect Henry Beaumont Herts in 1912, the theatre was named for Longacre Square, despite the rumor, a large number of performers who have appeared on stage here have taken home a Tony Award for their efforts. The Longacres first show was a production of the William Hurlbut-Frances Whitehouse comedy Are You a Crook. which opened on May 1,1913. With the exception of its use as a radio and television studio in the mid-1940s to early 1950s,2007, Talk Radio 2008, Boeing Boeing 2009, Burn the Floor 2010, La Cage aux Folles 2011, Chinglish 2012, Magic/Bird, The Performers. The production grossed $687,824.90 over eight performances, Broadway theatre Parker, John, ed. Whos Who in the Theatre. Broadway Theatre Guide Seating chart Longacre Theatre at the Internet Broadway Database
American Academy of Arts and Letters
The American Academy of Arts and Letters is a 250-member honor society, its goal is to foster and sustain excellence in American literature and art. The Academys galleries are open to the public on a published schedule, opened in 2014, a permanent exhibit is the recreated studio of composer Charles Ives. The auditorium is sought out by musicians wishing to live because the acoustics are considered among the worlds finest. The Academy was created in 1904 by the membership of the National Institute of Arts, the first seven academicians were elected from ballots cast by the entire membership. In 1908 poet Julia Ward Howe was elected, and thus became the first female academician, in 1976 the two groups combined under the name American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. In 1992 members adopted the current organizational title, the oldest organization associated with the group was founded in 1865 at Boston. The American Social Science Association produced the National Institute of Arts, the qualification for membership in this body was to have made notable achievements in art, music, or literature.
The membership was at first limited to 150, in 1904 the membership was increased by the Institutes introducing a two-tiered structure,50 elite members and 200 regular members. The people in the group were gradually elected over the next several years. The larger group was called the Institute, while the group was called the Academy. The strict two-tiered system persisted for 72 years, in 1976 members created an organization called the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. The combined Academy/Institute structure had a maximum of 250 living United States citizens as members, plus up to 75 foreign composers, artists and it established the annual Witter Bynner Poetry Prize in 1980 to support the work of a young poet. The two-tiered system persisted until 1993, when it was completely abandoned, the Academy holds a Congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, which means that it is one of the comparatively rare Title 36 corporations in the United States. The 1916 statute of incorporation established this institution amongst a number of other patriotic.
The federal incorporation was originally construed primarily as an honor, the special recognition neither implies nor accords Congress any special control over the Academy, which remains free to function independently. Active sponsors of Congressional action were Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, the process which led to the creation of this federal charter was accompanied by controversy, and the first attempt to gain the charter in 1910 failed. Sen. Lodge re-introduced legislation which passed the Senate in 1913, the Academy was incorporated under the laws of the State of New York in 1914, which factors in decision-making which resulted in Congressional approval in 1916. The Academy occupies three buildings on the west end of the Audubon Terrace complex created by Archer M. Huntington, the heir to the Southern Pacific Railroad fortune and a noted philanthropist
Ellen Burstyn is an American actress. Her career began in theatre during the late 1950s, and over the decade included several films. Burstyn is one of the few performers to have won the Triple Crown of Acting, in 2013, she was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame. Burstyn was born Edna Rae Gillooly in Detroit, the daughter of Correine Marie and she has described her ancestry as Irish, Pennsylvania Dutch, a little Canadian Indian. Burstyn has a brother, and a younger brother. Her parents divorced when she was young, and her brothers and she attended Cass Technical High School, a university-preparatory school which allowed students to choose a specific field of study. In high school, she was a cheerleader, a member of the student council and she dropped out of high school during her senior year after failing her classes. After dropping out of school, Burstyn got a job as a model in a Detroit department store and she relocated to Dallas, where she continued modeling before traveling to New York City.
From 1955 to 1956, Burstyn appeared as an away we go dancing girl on The Jackie Gleason Show under the name Erica Dean. Burstyn decided to become an actress and chose the name Ellen McRae as her professional name, Burstyn debuted on Broadway in 1957 and joined Lee Strasbergs The Actors Studio in New York City in 1967. In 1975, she won a Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play for her performance in the comedy Same Time, during 1964-1965, she had a recurring role as Dr. Kate Bartok on the NBC daytime television soap opera The Doctors. In 1967-1968, she co-starred as Julie Parsons opposite Dale Robertson in the ABC Western The Iron Horse and she was credited as Ellen McRae until 1967, when she and her then-husband Neil Nephew both changed their surname to Burstyn and she began to be credited as Ellen Burstyn. In 1971, Burstyn received Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role in the drama film The Last Picture Show, during the filming of The Exorcist, she injured her coccyx, which led to permanent injury to her spine.
She won the Academy Award for Best Actress in 1974 for her performance in the drama Alice Doesnt Live Here Anymore, directed by Martin Scorsese. She received Best Actress nominations in 1978 for Same Time, Next Year, in 1980 for the drama Resurrection, and for the drama Requiem for a Dream in 2000. In 1977, she was a member of the jury at the 27th Berlin International Film Festival, Burstyn hosted NBCs Saturday Night Live, a late-night sketch comedy and variety show, in December 1980. In 1990, she won the Sarah Siddons Award for her work in Chicago theatre, from 2000 to 2002, Burstyn appeared in the CBS television drama Thats Life. In January 2006, she starred as an Episcopal bishop in the NBC comedy-drama series The Book of Daniel, conservative groups including American Family Association and Focus on the Family urged supporters to complain to NBC affiliates that carried the show
CBS is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major facilities and operations in New York City. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the iconic logo. It has called the Tiffany Network, alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley. It can refer to some of CBSs first demonstrations of color television, the network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations that was purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paleys guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, in 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known simply as CBS, Inc. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, which was formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971, CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom.
The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated stations throughout the United States. The origins of CBS date back to January 27,1927, Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18,1927, with a presentation by the Howard Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, and fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep, particularly the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, in early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the networks Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, and their partner Jerome Louchenheim. With the record out of the picture, Paley quickly streamlined the corporate name to Columbia Broadcasting System. He believed in the power of advertising since his familys La Palina cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchenheim share of CBS, during Louchenheims brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H.
Grebes Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the networks flagship station. WABC was quickly upgraded, and the relocated to 860 kHz. The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, by the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures. The deal came to fruition in September 1929, Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time
Southern United States
The Southern United States, commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States and New Mexico, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia, which separated from Virginia in 1863, commonly is. Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries, while the states of Delaware and Maryland, as well as the District of Columbia permitted slavery prior to the start of the Civil War, they remained with the Union. However, the United States Census Bureau puts them in the South, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles, and cuisines, the Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European and some Native American components.
Since the late 1960s, black people have many offices in Southern states, especially in the coastal states of Virginia. Historically, the South relied heavily on agriculture, and was rural until after 1945. It has since become more industrialized and urban and has attracted national and international migrants, the American South is now among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. Houston is the largest city in the Southern United States, sociological research indicates that Southern collective identity stems from political and cultural distinctiveness from the rest of the United States. The region contains almost all of the Bible Belt, an area of high Protestant church attendance and predominantly conservative, studies have shown that Southerners are more conservative than non-Southerners in several areas, including religion, international relations and race relations. Apart from its climate, the experience in the South increasingly resembles the rest of the nation. The arrival of millions of Northerners and millions of Hispanics meant the introduction of cultural values, the process has worked both ways, with aspects of Southern culture spreading throughout a greater portion of the rest of the United States in a process termed Southernization.
The question of how to define the subregions in the South has been the focus of research for nearly a century, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, the Southern region of the United States includes sixteen states. As of 2010, an estimated 114,555,744 people, or thirty-seven percent of all U. S. residents, lived in the South, the nations most populous region. Other terms related to the South include, The Old South, the New South, usually including the South Atlantic States. The Solid South, region largely controlled by the Democratic Party from 1877 to 1964, before that, blacks were elected to national office and many to local office through the 1880s, Populist-Republican coalitions gained victories for Fusionist candidates for governors in the 1890s. Includes at least all the 11 former Confederate States, Southeastern United States, usually including the Carolinas, the Virginias, Kentucky, Alabama and Florida. The Deep South, various definitions, usually including Louisiana, Mississippi, occasionally, parts of adjoining states are included
A debut novel is the first novel a novelist publishes. First-time novelists without a previous published reputation, such as publication in nonfiction, magazines, or literary journals, sometimes new novelists will self-publish their debut novels, because publishing houses will not risk the capital needed to market books by an unknown author to the public. Most publishers purchase rights to novels, especially debut novels, through literary agents, for this reason, literary communities have created awards that help acknowledge exceptional debut novels. The books film rights were purchased soon after by producer Scott Rudin. For similar reasons that advances are not very large—novels frequently dont sell well until the author gains a literary reputation. There are exceptions, YouTube star Zoella published her debut novel Girl Online in November 2014, the novel saw huge sales because she already had an established audience, and publishers were willing to run a large print run. By comparison, bestselling Fifty Shades of Grey sold 14,814 copies in its first week, or popular novels like Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone, only receive small initial print runs.
Debut novels that do well will be reprinted as sales increase due to word of mouth popularity of the novels — publishers dont often run large marketing campaigns for debut novelists, there are numerous literary prizes for debut novels often associated with genre or nationality. These prizes are in recognition of the difficulties faced by debut novelists and bring attention to deserving works, often an authors first novel will not be as complex stylistically or thematically as subsequent works and often will not feature the authors typical literary characteristics. As examples, Astor points to J. R. R, instead of writing novels to begin their career, some authors will start with short stories, which can be easier to publish and allow authors to get started in writing fiction. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest attested usage of first novel is from 1876, the term is much older, with instances going back to at least 1800. The Oxford English Dictionary doesnt have an entry for debut novel, the earliest usage of debut novel in the Google Books database is 1930.
The Google Books Ngram Viewer shows it becoming more used after about 1980
An Emmy Award, or simply Emmy, recognizes excellence in the television industry, and corresponds to the Academy Award, the Tony Award, and the Grammy Award. Because Emmy Awards are given in various sectors of the American television industry, Regional Emmy Awards are presented throughout the country at various times through the year, recognizing excellence in local and statewide television. In addition, International Emmys are awarded for excellence in TV programming produced, each is responsible for administering a particular set of Emmy ceremonies. The Los Angeles-based Academy of Television Arts & Sciences established the Emmy Award as part of an image-building and public relations opportunity. The first Emmy Awards ceremony took place on January 25,1949, at the Hollywood Athletic Club, shirley Dinsdale has the distinction of receiving the very first Emmy Award for Most Outstanding Television Personality, during that first awards ceremony. In the 1950s, the ATAS expanded the Emmys into a national event, in 1955, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences was formed in New York City as a sister organization to serve members on the East Coast, and help to supervise the Emmys.
The NATAS established regional chapters throughout the United States, with each one developing their own local Emmy awards show for local programming, the ATAS still however maintained its separate regional ceremony honoring local programming in the Los Angeles Area. Originally there was only one Emmy Awards ceremony held per year to honor shows nationally broadcast in the United States, in 1974, the first Daytime Emmy Awards ceremony was held to specifically honor achievement in national daytime programming. Other area-specific Emmy Awards ceremonies soon followed, the International Emmy Awards, honoring television programs produced and initially aired outside the U. S. was established in the early 1970s. Meanwhile, all Emmys awarded prior to the emergence of these separate, in 1977, due to various conflicts, the ATAS and the NATAS agreed to split ties. However, they agreed to share ownership of the Emmy statue and trademark. With the rise of television in the 1980s, cable programs first became eligible for the Primetime Emmys in 1988.
The ATAS began accepting original online-only web television programs in 2013, the Emmy statuette, depicting a winged woman holding an atom, was designed by television engineer Louis McManus, who used his wife as the model. The TV Academy rejected a total of forty-seven proposals before settling on McManus design in 1948. The statuette has become the symbol of the TV Academys goal of supporting and uplifting the art and science of television, The wings represent the muse of art. When deciding a name for the award, Academy founder Syd Cassyd originally suggested Ike, Ike was the popular nickname of World War II hero and future U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and the Academy members wanted something unique. Finally, television engineer and the third president, Harry Lubcke, suggested the name Immy. After Immy was chosen, it was feminized to Emmy to match their female statuette