Oldies is a radio format that concentrates on rock and roll and pop music from the second half of the twentieth century from around the mid-1950s to the 1970s or 1980s. In the 1980s and 1990s, "oldies" meant the 15 years from the birth of rock and roll to the beginning of the singer-songwriter era of the early 1970s, or about 1955–1972, although this time frame varied and some stations chose 1950–1969. After 2000, 1970s music was included, early 1980s music is beginning to be called "oldies", though the term "classic hits" is used to distinguish the "new" oldies from the "old" oldies. Oldies tunes are from R&B, rock music genres. Country, classical music, other formats are not considered oldies music, although some of those genres have their own oldies format, a number of songs "crossed over" from country to top 40; the term is used to describe the rare station that includes 1940s music as well, although music from before 1955 is the domain of the adult standards format. However, the term constitutes ambiguity for people.

This format is sometimes called Golden Oldies, though this term refers to music from the 1950s and 1960s. Oldies radio features artists such as Elvis Presley, Chuck Berry, The Beatles, The Beach Boys, The Animals, The Four Seasons, Sam Cooke. One notable omission from most oldies playlists is the music of the folk revival of the early 1960s. Most traditional oldies stations limit their on-air playlists to no more than 300 songs, based on the programming strategy that average listeners and passive listeners will stay tuned provided they are familiar with the hits being played. A drawback to this concept is the constant heavy rotation and repetition of the station's program library, as well as rejection of the format by active listeners; this can be avoided either through the use of a broader playlist or by rotating different songs from the oldies era into and out of the playlist every few weeks. The oldies format has an inherent advantage over current-music formats in that it can draw popular songs from a broad period of over a decade and is not bound to devote the majority of its air-time to a single top 40 playlist as current stations are.

Oldies has some overlap with classic rock formats. Classic hits features pop and rock hits from the mid-1970s to early 1990s, while classic rock focuses on album rock from the late 1960s to 1990s; the oldies format began to appear in the early 1970s. KOOL-FM in Phoenix became one of the first radio stations to play oldies music, at that time focusing on the 1950s and early 1960s. In the 1960s few top 40 radio stations played anything more than a few years old. In the late 1960s, a few FM stations adopted top 40 formats that leaned towards adults who did not want to hear the same 30 songs repetitively but did not want to hear easy listening music featured on Middle of the road radio stations, they only played new music a few times an hour. These radio stations were referred to as "gold" stations; some AM radio stations began to employ this format. There were syndicated music format packages such as Drake-Chenault's "Solid Gold" format used on FM stations that needed separate programming from their AM sisters, that functioned as a hybrid of oldies and the adult-oriented softer rock hits of the day.

The popularity of the movie American Graffiti is credited with helping to spur the 1950s nostalgia movement of the early 1970s. It is this movement that gave rise to a number of gold-based stations, such as WHND/WHNE in Detroit, WCBS-FM in New York, WQSR in Baltimore, WROR in Boston, that were classified as oldies stations and not adult top 40; these stations, did play current product sparingly into the 1980s. WGAR in Cleveland and KRLA in Los Angeles were other examples of top 40 stations with heavy oldies orientations. Most of these "Solid Gold" stations began to either evolve into other formats or abruptly drop the format altogether in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Most AM gold stations flipped to other formats; some FM stations evolved into adult contemporary stations, including WROR in Boston and WFYR in Chicago. In the early 1980s many AC stations began mixing in more oldies into regular rotation and aired oldies shows on Saturday nights. Beginning in 1982, both AM and FM stations began changing to full-time oldies formats.

These stations played music from 1955 to 1973, focusing on the 1964–1969 era. Among these oldies stations were WNBC in New York City before 1988, WDRC-FM in Hartford, WODS in Boston, WOGL in Philadelphia, KLUV in Dallas, WWSW in Pittsburgh, WJMK in Chicago, CHUM in Toronto; some had as few as 300 songs while stations like WODS and WOGL had as many as 1,500 songs in regular rotation. By 1989

Noel Devine

Noel Devine is an American football running back, with the West Virginia Roughriders of the AAL. He was signed by the Philadelphia Eagles as an undrafted free agent in 2011 and was released four days after leaving the squad, he played college football at West Virginia. Devine had a successful football career for the West Virginia Mountaineers, he holds many high school rushing records. Devine completed his freshman season at West Virginia University, finishing with 73 carries for 627 yards and 6 touchdowns. Devine ended the season with 1,316 all-purpose yards, the 24th most in a single-season in school history, his performance in the 2008 Fiesta Bowl included a 65-yard TD run, the longest run by a West Virginia player in the school's NCAA bowl history. Devine went to North Fort Myers High School, the same high school attended by NFL stars Deion Sanders and Jevon Kearse. Devine averaged 8.6 yards per carry as a freshman. In his sophomore year, Noel had 1289 yards and 23 TDs on 206 carries, for an average of 6.3.

One of the most impressive games of his 10th grade year was in the 63-7 victory over Estero High. Devine rushed for 365 yards and six touchdowns on only nine carries. Devine returned a kickoff 84 yards for a touchdown; as a Junior, Devine rushed for 1,986 yards and 24 touchdowns on 173 carries, averaging 11.5 yards per carry. In his senior year, Devine totaled 31 touchdowns. On October 20, 2006, Noel became the all-time leader in rushing yards for Lee County, surpassing former Mariner High School student and Tampa Bay running back Earnest Graham Coincidentally, it was Graham's alma mater against which Devine was playing when the record was broken - he scored on a 65-yard touchdown run late in the 3rd quarter, he finished his high school career with another Lee County record. In the U. S. Army All-American Bowl game, he amazingly took David Green's kickoff back 88 yards before catching his big right toe on the turf and falling just short of the end zone. Devine was the #3 ranked running back in the nation by ESPN's 2007 Recruit Tracker.

Before signing with West Virginia, he was recruited by coaches from some of the nation's other top collegiate programs, such as the University of Nebraska, University of Alabama and Florida State University. Devine got his first chance to play in the 4th quarter of West Virginia's season opener against Western Michigan. Devine showed his speed as he beat the defense to the corner as he went 23 yards after spinning off of a defender. Devine scored his first collegiate touchdown on an 8-yard run to score WVU's final score, as the #3 ranked Mountaineers beat Western Michigan 62-24. Devine finished the game with 7 carries for a reception for 19 yards. In the second game of the season, Devine helped the WVU seal a 4th quarter victory over in-state rival Marshall. Devine only had 5 carries, but managed to rack up 76 yards and 2 touchdowns to help the third-ranked Mountaineers beat the Thundering Herd 48-23. Devine had two kickoff returns for 40 yards, his longest run of the day was 39 yards. In the third game of the season, against Maryland, Devine had the best game of the season to that point.

In the 31-14 win, Devine rushed. His biggest run of the day was a 76 yards dash down the sideline to the one-yard line. On his next carry he juked out a number of defenders and spun off a facemask grab to cap off the 18-yard gain, he had one reception for two yards and two kick returns for 47 yards. Devine took. In the next game against ECU, Devine had 7 rushes for 11 yards, a reception for 7 yards and a kick return for 25 yards. In the Mountaineers' first loss of the season against USF, 21-13, Devine had 4, he had 36 yards on two kick returns. In the 55-14 win over Syracuse, Devine was held to 13 yards on 4 carries, with 33 yards on two kick returns. Devine sat out the Mississippi State game. Against twenty-fifth-ranked Rutgers, Devine had 6. Against Louisville, Devine had 2 rushes for one reception for 4 yards, he had 4 kick returns for 97 yards, including a 41-yarder. After the 38-31 Louisville win, rumors circulated that Devine was mad about lack of playing time and had "torn up his locker" in a fit of anger.

In an article with, Devine dismissed the rumors saying, "If I wanted to play I would have gone to a sorry team... I didn't expect a lot of playing time." Devine said, "I think I have played fairly. There's people that are not playing and they're on the team and they're happy. You got a great running back ahead of you. I'm not expecting a lot."In the 28-23 road win against twenty-second-ranked Cincinnati, Devine had only 23 yards on 2 carries, including a 17-yard rush. However, had four kick returns for 86 yards, averaging 21.5 yards per return. In the Big East Championship-clinching 66-21 win over twentieth-ranked Connecticut, Devine rushed for 118 yards and a score on 11 carries, which ranked second-best on the team, trailing only quarterback Pat White. Subsequently, the second-ranked Mountaineers were upset 13-9 by Pittsburgh in the 100th edition of the Backyard Brawl. Devine had only 11 yards on 7 carries. However, in the 4th quarter, Devine returned a kickoff 48 yards in the final minutes of the game.

But the Mountaineers were stopped on fourth down to end the game. Devine would finish his freshman season in West Virginia's Fiesta Bowl win over Oklahoma. After losing Steve Slaton to a leg injury in the first quarter, Devine filled in for WVU with 105 yards on 12 carries and 2 touchdowns, including a 65-yard run which provid

Maroon leaf monkey

The maroon langur, maroon leaf monkey, or red leaf monkey belongs within the order Primate and the family Cercopithecidae. It is found on the southeast Asian island of the nearby smaller Karimata. P. rubicunda live in forests at altitudes below 2,000 m. They feed on leaves. Red Leaf monkeys are found in Southeast Asia. Red Leaf monkeys are endemic to the island of Borneo, their habitat has dipterocarp evergreens. Borneo has a healthy tropical rainforest; this island is not only made up of the tropical rainforest, but it contains shallow swampy areas, made up of sod containing acidic, decomposed plant matter. The swamp amalgamated along with the rivers nearby; these swampy areas have their seasonal bouts of dry weather but when the wet season comes about, the rivers rises around 2 meters. Red Leaf monkeys are arboreal spend most of their time in the canopy, they have a large home ranges and low population densities compared to other primates. This is believed to be because they rely on specific trees which are rare and dispersed.

Red leaf monkeys are herbivores. Their main diet is fruits, young leaves, flowers, they are selective feeders, as food becomes limited they will feed on certain types of plant matter or seeds during their time of abundance. To maintain a balance in their diet, Red Leaf monkeys will consume top soil from termite mounds, their primary food is the young parts of leaves, feeding less on seeds and whole fruits, on flowers. Feeding patterns vary seasonally; as the fruit season peaks during June to September, there is an increase of fruit being produced. During this time of abundance, Red Leaf monkeys feed on large amounts of fruits. Consumption of young leaves happens from October to June. During this dry time of the year, Red Leaf monkeys consume more succulent foliage and are decrease their intake of seeds. Flowers are consumed between March and May. There is only one type of flower that becomes a high demand of resource during the month of December. Food becomes scarce during the rainy season, at this time of year Red Leaf monkeys will feed on mature leaves.

During April and August, are the months when the Red Leaf monkeys consumed top soil of termite mounds. As they ate the termite mounds, they only ate that of the dirt; this is the way for Red Leaf monkeys to obtain the minerals needed for a balance diet. The termite mound soil has high levels of magnesium; this soil is acidic and has a dominant exchanging of cations, due to the aluminium, leached. Eating of the soil, they are maintaining the balance of minerals by having a source of potassium and phosphorus; the reason they may be eating termite mounds rather than the soil around the bed of the forest, is because of the construction of the soil due to the termite's saliva. Termite soil has higher nutrient content than that of the bed soil; this foraging mechanism helps them obtain the scarce nutrients and have a balance diet of plant matter and minerals. Since Red Leaf monkeys are from Southeast Asia, this means they must endure the scarcity of fruit due to the unpredictable time period of the releasing fruits.

Red Leaf monkeys spends around half their time eating that of leafy greens and the other half in eating seeds and fruits. They favor the digestibility, high within leaves, which has a fiber level, low, they combine young leaves with flowers to incorporate protein in high levels. Fruits and seeds allows them to have a concentration that contains high levels of fats or carbohydrates, to be stored; the Red Leaf monkeys only eat from rare trees as well as lianas. They must rely on fallback resources during the time. A 25-month observation was conducted, G. Hanya and H. Bernard observed their behavior and surveyed their phenology and vegetation, as well as conducting a chemical analysis which compared leaves that were eaten with the nonfood leaves. During this time, they observed the Red Leaf Monkeys "spending 46 percent of their feeding time on young leaves, 38 percent on seeds, 12 percent on whole fruits, 2.0 percent on flowers, 1.0 percent on bark, 1.2 percent on pith." The forest they are located is within the Danum Valley of eastern Sabah, northern Borneo, had rainfall of 3115 millimeter between the year 2007 and 2008.

The temperature of this year had a range of 31.4 °C being the maximum, 22.5 °C with the minimum, the mean being that of 27 °C. With their chemical analysis, they had sampled the leaves of having 20 different species being in abundance, but only seven of those species were being consumed, leaving the rest not having been consumed. During the time between April and October 2007, there was an increase of the percentage in fruiting trees. Whereas, the year of 2008 had a significant drop of the percentage of fruiting trees due to the lack of water consumption. With this change of climate, the Red Leaf monkey had to rely on the fallback resources to sustain them; when the time produced a high amount of seeds and fruits, they spent most of their feeding time eating that of what they desired. Due to the lack of water intake of the fruits, they are unable to produce those that the Red Leaf monkey enjoys to eat and they must fallback on what is available. During the time that they must fallback on the resources, they would feed on young leaves that are from a flowering plant known as Spatholobus macropterus.

This species of plants are important to their diet. It has had the total feeding time of 27.6 percent. The leaves, consumed had more protein than those that were not consumed. Red Leaf mo