Hans-Georg Aschenbach is an East German former ski jumper. Aschenbach was born in Brotterode. In 1969 he became junior world champion, two years he won his first national championship, he won the FIS Ski Flying World Championships in 1973. 1974 was a banner year for Aschenbach, winning the Four Hills Tournament, both ski jumping events at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Falun. He won the gold medal in the individual normal hill event at the 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck. Aschenbach admitted he had taken anabolic steroids for eight years, he described his 1976 Olympic victory as both his greatest and most anxious moment in sports. This was due to the doping controls in place at the time. Hans-Georg Aschenbach at the International Ski Federation Wallechinsky and Jaime Loucky. "Ski Jumping: Normal Hill, Individual". In The Complete Book of the Winter Olympics: 2010 Edition. London: Aurum Press Limited. P. 259
Dieter Thoma is a West German/German former ski jumper. During that time he was the second best German ski jumper after Jens Weißflog. Thoma was not the first known ski jumper in the family: his uncle Georg Thoma was both world and Olympic champion in the nordic combined. Thoma won his first competition in 1990, he won Ski-flying World Championships in Vikersund at the end of the 1989-90 season. Before the start of the 1993-94 season, Thoma changed his technique from jumping with parallel skis to the V-style, was a part of the German team who won the team competition at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, he won a bronze medal in the individual normal hill in Lillehammer won a silver medal in the team large hill competition at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. Thoma won a bronze in the FIS Ski-Flying World Championships 1998 in Oberstdorf. Thoma won five medals at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, including one gold, two silvers, two bronzes. Thoma retired after the 1998/99 season.
Dieter Thoma at the International Ski Federation
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a country located in central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km², the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west and Hungary to the north and Romania to the east, Albania and Greece to the south; the nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Vojvodina; the SFRY's origin is traced to 26 November 1942, when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II. On 29 November 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed after the deposition of King Peter II, thus ending the monarchy.
Until 1948, the new communist government sided with the Eastern Bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, Yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality. It became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, transitioned from a planned economy to market socialism; the SFRY maintained neutrality during the Cold War as part of its foreign policy. It was a founding member of CERN, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, OSCE, IFAD, WTO, BTWC. Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, the Yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment and inflation; the economic crisis led to a rise in ethnic nationalism in early 1990s. With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation failed. In 1991 some European states recognized their independence; the federation collapsed along federal borders, followed by the start of the Yugoslav Wars, the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992.
Two of its republics and Montenegro, remained within a reconstituted state known as the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia", but this union was not recognized internationally as the official successor state to the SFRY. The term "former Yugoslavia" is now used retrospectively; the name Yugoslavia, an Anglicised transcription of Jugoslavija, is a composite word made up of jug and slavija. The Slavic word jug means'south', while slavija denotes a'land of the Slavs'. Thus, a translation of Jugoslavija would be'South-Slavia' or'Land of the South Slavs'; the full official name of the federation varied between 1945 and 1992. Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 under the name Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. In January 1929, King Alexander I assumed dictatorship of the kingdom and renamed it the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, for the first time making the term "Yugoslavia"—which had been used colloquially for decades —the official name of the state. After the Kingdom was occupied by the Axis during World War II, the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia announced in 1943 the formation of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia in the substantial resistance-controlled areas of the country.
The name deliberately left the republic-or-kingdom question open. In 1945, King Peter II was deposed, with the state reorganized as a republic, accordingly renamed Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, with the constitution coming into force in 1946. In 1963, amid pervasive liberal constitutional reforms, the name Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was introduced; the state is most referred to by the latter name, which it held for the longest period of all. Of the three main Yugoslav languages, the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian language name for the state was identical, while Slovene differed in capitalization and the spelling of the adjective "Socialist"; the names are as follows: Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian languages Latin: Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija Cyrillic: Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: Macedonian pronunciation: Slovene language Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija Due to the length of the name, abbreviations were used to refer to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, though the state was most known as Yugoslavia.
The most common abbreviation is SFRY, though SFR Yugoslavia was used in an official capacity by the media. On 6 April 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers led by Nazi Germany. Yugoslav resistance was soon established in two forms, the Royal Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Communist Yugoslav Partisans; the Partisan supreme commander was Josip Broz Tito, under his command the movement soon began establishing "liberated territories" which attracted the attention of occupying forces. Unlike the various nationalist militias operating in occupied Yugoslavia, the Partisans were a pan-Yugoslav movement promoting the "brotherhood and unity" of Yugoslav nations, representing the republican, left-wing, socialist elements of the Yugoslav political
Jaroslav Sakala is a former ski jumper who competed for Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic. He entered his first World Cup competition on 15 January 1989 in Harrachov, his first big success was at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville with a bronze medal in the team large hill. Sakala finished fourth the following season, he won three medals at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1993 in Falun with a silver in the individual normal hill and bronzes in the individual and team large hills. Sakala achieved his first World Cup victory on 30 January 1993 at Planica, his only victory on a regular ski jump was in Liberec on 16 January 1994. Sakala's fourth and final World Cup victory on 20 March 1994 at Planica when he won the Ski Flying World Championships, he was the first Czech to break the 200 metre barrier. He could not follow up on these successes in the years afterward and he did not win a medal in ski jumping after 1996 because of his conflicts with the Czech skiing federation and because of his short period of excessive drinking.
Sakala made more frequent ski flying appearances from 1996 until his 2002 retirement. Jaroslav Sakala at the International Ski Federation More about Sakala Name
Letalnica bratov Gorišek
Letalnica bratov Gorišek is a ski flying hill and the biggest of eight hills located at the Planica Nordic Centre in Planica, Slovenia. It was built in 1969 and is named after the original constructors and brothers Vlado and Janez Gorišek. With a total of 28 world records set; the world's steepest zip-line with average incline of 38.33% and maximum incline of 58.7% incline opened at the hill on 19 September 2015. Yugoslavian ski jumper Miro Oman made the premiere test jump of 135 metres on 6 March 1969; the first FIS Ski Flying World Championships were organized on this hill in 1972. After Matti Nykänen set a world record jump of 191 metres at the SFWC 1985, a new rule was instituted by the FIS that no points for jumps over this distance would be awarded in order to prevent world record hunting. On 17 March 1994 Andreas Goldberger touched the snow with his hand at 202 metres for the first albeit disqualified over two hundred metre jump. Just a few minutes Toni Nieminen landed on his feet at 203 metres and became the first man in history to jump over two hundred metres.
In addition, the first jumps over 160 m, 170 m, 180 m, 190 m, 200 m, 210 m, 220 m and 230 m were recorded at the hill. The hill will host the FIS Ski Flying World Championships in 2020; the hill is known for annually hosting Red Bull 400 world series event, the stepeest 400 metres uphill run in the world, with over 1,000 competitors from around the globe. Velikanka bratov Gorišek was planned and developed by Slovenian constructors and brothers, Vlado and Janez Gorišek. At the time, a lead engineer of Planica was a Bloudek's successor Stano Pelan, who proposed to enlarge Bloudkova velikanka. At that time, Janez Gorišek was working as an engineer in Libya, where he prepared a plan and profile for a new hill. Construction started in summer of 1967 and was completed in late 1968. During the construction, Janez was still working in Africa, so his older brother Vlado was in charge of the construction site. Original construction point was at K153, with inrun 145 metres long and height difference between take-off table and bottom of the hill 127 metres.
On 6 March 1969, the hill was tested for the first time and Miro Oman from Yugoslavia was selected to be the first man to jump. He set the first hill record; the hill was opened and hosted a three-day competition called Planica Ski Flying Week from 21 to 23 March 1969. There were 60 competitors from 15 countries with Jiří Raška winning the competition. A total of 90,000 people has gathered in the three days of competition; the world record was improved five times and stopped at 165 metres, set by Manfred Wolf from East Germany. In 1972, the hill hosted the first FIS Ski Flying World Championships, where the Swiss ski jumper Walter Steiner became the first ski flying world champion. In 1984, in the honour of Planica's 50th anniversary, organizing committee decided to modernize the hill. First big renovation works were done in summer and fall of 1984. Soldiers from the Yugoslav Army and different working organizations helped at the construction site under the command of Gorišek brothers. 1,500 cubic metres of material was filled into the landing zone.
They dug out 300 cubic metres of material from inrun. Old wooden inrun tower was replaced with steel and take-off table was pushed back for five metres. During the 1986–87 season, two World Cup ski flying individual events were organized on the hill for the first time. Polish ski jumper Piotr Fijas set the last parallel style world record on the first day of competition when he jumped 194 metres. However, this record was only recognized seven years at FIS congress in Rio de Janeiro when they cancelled the "191 metres" rule. At the first round of the training on 17 March 1994, Austrian ski jumper Andreas Goldberger landed at 202 metres, making the first jump over 200 metres. Just a few minutes Finnish ski jumper Toni Nieminen landed on his feet at 203 metres and became the first man in history who jumped over 200 metres. In the 1999–2000 season, ski flying team event was organized at the hill for the first time in history. Two world records were set by Austrian ski jumpers Thomas Hörl with 224.5 metres and Andreas Goldberger with 225 metres.
Germany became the first team ski flying winner. In 2010, Planica got new chairlift, judge tower renovated, landing zone widened, profile adjusted, take-off angle lowered to keep jumpers closer to the ground. All this was needed to fulfill international FIS standards. In 2015, the hill was renovated and opened after one-year break. A new profile was drawn by Janez Gorišek with the help of his son Sebastjan Gorišek, a constructor; the hill's new construction point was at K200 and the hill size at HS 225. The take-off table was moved five metres higher and pushed back for twelve metres compared to the old one. In 2017, the hill size was changed from HS225 to HS240. Since 1969, a total of 28 official world records has been set at the hill; the longest jump at the hill was set by Gregor Schlierenzauer in March 2018 when he reached 253.5 metres, but the jump was invalid due to him touching the hill after landing. Specifications: K-point – 200 m hillsize – 240 m inrun angle – 35.1° inrun length – 133.8 m takeoff table height – 2.93 m landing zone angle – 30.6° to 35.6° takeoff table to
Čerťák is a ski jumping stadium with two hills located in the city of Harrachov in the Czech Republic. It was built in 1979 and both hill opened in 1980; the venue is most notable for being one of five ski flying hills in the world, though it has three smaller hills close by. It is owned by the sports club TJ Jiskra Harrachov. Audience capacity is about 50,000. Despite being a flying hill, only two world records have set at Čerťák, both in the 1980s, it was during this time, into the early 1990s, that many horrific accidents occurred. The hills are located on the north side of the mountain Čertová Hora, not far from the border to Poland; the first hill in Harrachov was at a different location in town. In the 1920s the first hill in Čerťák was built, it was expanded and supplemented with more hills. The ski flying hill was built in 1979 and opened in March 1980; the large hill in Harrachov was built at the same time as the ski flying hill, renovated in 1992. This hill has a hill size of 142 m; the official record is 145.5 m, set by Janne Ahonen on 12 December 2004 during the 2004–05 World Cup season.
The unofficial record is 151 m set by Martin Koch on 17 December 2004 in a Continental Cup event. The normal hill has a hill size of 100 m and a hill record of 102.5 m. The two smaller hills have K-points of K-point 40 meters; the standard hill has plastic mats, allowing summer use. The ski flying hill in Harrachov garnered an early reputation of being quite dangerous from which to jump. In its early years, jumpers achieved a significant height over the knoll, up to 12 m; the result of this height was that a gust of wind or error from the jumper could end catastrophically, there were indeed many injuries from bad falls. During the World Championship in 1983, injuries were suffered by Steinar Bråten, Horst Bulau and Jens Weißflog. In 1985, Pavel Ploc suffered a violent crash; the venue was closed by the FIS and rebuilt between 1989 and 1992, has since kept the requirements from FIS. Accidents have still occurred, however: in 1992, Andreas Goldberger fell out of the air at the highest point of his jump and crashed hard
Planica is an Alpine valley in northwestern Slovenia, extending south from the border village of Rateče, not far from another well-known ski resort, Kranjska Gora. Further south, the valley extends into the Tamar Valley, a popular hiking destination in Triglav National Park. Planica is famous for ski jumping; the first ski jumping hill was constructed before 1930 at the slope of Mount Ponca. In 1933, Ivan Rožman constructed a larger hill, known as the "Bloudek Giant" after Stanko Bloudek, which gave rise to ski flying; the first ski jump over 100 m was achieved here in 1936 by the Austrian Sepp Bradl. At the time, this was the biggest jumping hill in the world, sometimes called "the mother of all jumping hills."In 1969, a new K-185 hill, the Letalnica bratov Gorišek was built by Vlado and Janez Gorišek. Planica.info Media related to Planica at Wikimedia Commons