Drakes Estero is an expansive estuary in the Point Reyes National Seashore of Marin County on the Pacific coast of northern California in the United States 25 miles northwest of San Francisco. Situated at 38.047°N 122.942°W / 38.047. Seen from the air, Drakes Estero resembles a human hand, with Barries Bay, Creamery Bay, Schooner Bay, Home Bay as the "fingers" and Limantour Bay as the thumb; the waters of the Estero flow into Drakes Bay between Drakes Beach and a narrow strip of land called Limantour Spit. Drakes Estero is a Congressionally-designated "potential wilderness area". Although Drakes Estero is protected as part of the National Seashore, legacy agricultural uses such as dairy farms and oyster aquaculture have led to controversy over the water quality, conservation status, proper uses of this body of water. Conservationists, including L. Martin Griffin, Jr. and oceanographer Sylvia Earle called for an end to the ongoing oyster farming in the estero. Senator Dianne Feinstein criticized the National Park Service, alleging that data used to support the non-renewal was flawed.
On November 29, 2012, United States Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar directed the National Park Service to allow the permit for oyster farming to expire, allowing the land and waters of the estero to return to their natural state. A lawsuit was filed on December 4, 2012 by Kevin Lunny, the owner of Drakes Bay Oyster Company, to declare the decision by Salazar null and void. In February 2013, the 9th Cir. issued an injunction on the order to close Drakes Bay Oyster Company until it heard the company's appeal. However, on January 14, 2014 the court declined to rehear the case; the final court challenge to the order to remove the oyster farming was dropped in early December, 2014, with the removal of the operation completed in May, 2017. Drakes Estero has been designated as the most probable landing spot of Francis Drake on the coast of North America in 1579 during his circumnavigation of the world and has been established as a National Historic Landmark. A historical marker has been placed on Drakes Beach near the Kenneth C. Patrick Visitor Center and monuments to Drake have been erected at the Drake's Cove landing site.
The Drake landing is interpreted at the Kenneth C. Patrick Visitor Center and the Point Reyes National Seashore's Bear Valley Visitor Center. Drakes Estero is a component of the Phillip Burton Wilderness. Abbotts Lagoon Bolinas Lagoon New Albion Tomales Bay
Rodeo Lagoon is a coastal lagoon located in the Marin Headlands division of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, in southern Marin County, California. This brackish water body is separated from the Pacific Ocean by a sand bar. Rodeo Lagoon stretches 900 meters by 250 meters, is about 2 meters deep at its maximum depth, it covers a surface area of about 15 ha. Rodeo Lagoon empties into the Pacific Ocean when the water level reaches a high enough level to erode through the sand bar; this high water level occurs in the winter months. The outlet channel, shown at left looking southeast towards Rodeo Lagoon, is spanned by a pedestrian bridge that provides access to Rodeo Beach. Like many other coastal lagoons in California, the outlet becomes blocked by a sand bar during the dry summer months, resulting in negligible exchange between the lagoon and ocean during that time; the depth, surface area, volume of the lagoon all vary depending on the configuration of the sand berm and rainfall. Depths in the center range from less than 1.5 meters in a dry summer to nearly 3 meters in a wet winter.
Tides do not have a significant effect on the circulation of water in Rodeo Lagoon. Instead, the circulation of water in Rodeo Lagoon is driven entirely by the wind. Since the Marin Headlands are quite windy, it is not unusual to see Langmuir circulation form windrows of foam on the surface of the lagoon. Rodeo Lagoon is a brackish water body, with salinities in most of the lagoon ranging from 2 to 10 practical salinity units over the course of the year. However, water near the bottom of the lagoon is much saltier, reaching levels as high as 25 psu; the bowl-shaped bathymetry of the lagoon traps this dense, salty water and prevents it from draining back out in the ocean. Rodeo Lagoon provides habitat to the tidewater goby, it provides habitat to many species of migrating waterfowl. Resident fish include the threespine stickleback and prickly sculpin in addition to the tidewater goby. A family of river otters makes frequent use of the lagoon, includes brown pelicans in their summer diet The lagoon is ringed by emergent aquatic vegetation, such as willows and cattail, has submerged aquatic vegetation like sago pondweed and widgeon grass in the shallow areas.
The phytoplankton community includes diatoms, flagellated protozoa, Microcystis aeruginosa, Nodularia spumigena. Microcystis sp. and Nodularia sp. are types of toxic cyanobacteria, capable of releasing the toxins microcystin and nodularin into the water. The population of phytoplankton described above is high in the summer, a condition known as eutrophication. At times, the algae form a visible surface scum, their high concentration results in large swings in the dissolved oxygen content of the water, culminating in a depletion of oxygen when the population crashes; this annual algae bloom, because of its size and potential toxicity, is considered problematic for water quality and fish survival. Rodeo Lagoon suffers from an oxygen deficit or hypoxia in the summer and fall; this deficit is caused by the high oxygen consumption of decaying algae that occurs during that time of year. The large algae population, which withdraws carbon dioxide from the water raises the pH to high levels; the pH is greater than 9 throughout the summer algae bloom.
The lagoon is located within the geologically complex Marin Headlands and fills a valley drowned by recent sea level rise following the last glacial period. The bed of the lagoon is covered by viscous black mud, high in organic content, except at the east and west ends, where non-organic sediment can be found. Rodeo Lagoon was unaltered until the area was developed by the U. S. military into Fort Cronkhite and Fort Barry In 1937, the Army constructed a road crossing at the east of the lagoon, which resulted in a reduction in the lagoon's size as the area upstream of the crossing turned into a freshwater marsh. The lagoon is now about 80% of its original size. Recreation is not allowed in Rodeo Lagoon because of water quality and wildlife concerns. However, the lagoon and surrounding area is an excellent place for wildlife viewing birding and watching the playful river otters. Estuaries of California Lagoons of California List of lakes in the San Francisco Bay Area Golden Gate National Recreation Area-related topics
Drakes Bay is a 4-mile wide bay named so by U. S. surveyor George Davidson in 1875 along the Point Reyes National Seashore on the coast of northern California in the United States 30 miles northwest of San Francisco at 38 degrees north latitude. The bay is 8 miles wide, it is formed on the lee side of the coastal current by Point Reyes. The bay is named after Sir Francis Drake and has long been considered Drake's most landing spot on the west coast of North America during his circumnavigation of the world by sea in 1579. An alternative name for this bay is Puerto De Los Reyes; the bay is fed by an expansive estuary on the Point Reyes peninsula. The estuary is protected by Estero de Limantour State Marine Reserve & Drakes Estero State Marine Conservation Area. Point Reyes State Marine Reserve & Point Reyes State Marine Conservation Area lie within Drakes Bay. Like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. A portion of the coastal area of Drakes Bay is archaeologically and important.
It is believed to be the site of Francis Drake's 1579 landfall, the location where a Spanish Manila galleon sank during a storm in 1595. Both Drake and the Portuguese commander of the galleon, Sebastião Rodrigues Soromenho, interacted with the local Coast Miwok. There are fifteen archaeological sites on the bay of Miwok settlements where European trade goods have been found, including materials that the Miwok recovered from the wrecked galleon; the region was designated a National Historic Landmark District on October 17, 2012. Tomales Bay Drake's Plate of Brass List of National Historic Landmarks in California Again a safe harbor: Tiny cove many believe Sir Francis Drake repaired to 422 years ago reappears, San Francisco Chronicle, July 18, 2001 Shifting sandbars match Drake's descriptions of landing site Francis Drake: The Naming of Drakes Bay Media related to Drakes Bay Historic and Archeological District at Wikimedia Commons
Pirates Cove is an embayment in Marin County, United States, between Muir Beach and Tennessee Cove. A trail leads from the terminus of the California Coastal Trail to a small beach area, surrounded by steep hills and coastal scrub; this is a nude beach
Audubon Canyon is a coastal valley in Marin County, United States, associated with a small stream. The canyon provides habitat for a variety of plants. Notably, its redwoods provide nesting sites for great blue herons, great egrets, snowy egrets; the stream descends the western slope of Bolinas Ridge, crosses State Route 1, drains into Bolinas Lagoon about 3 miles north of Stinson Beach, California. Audubon Canyon Ranch, a private land preservation organization based in the North Bay, has preserved much of the canyon as part of its Martin Griffin Preserve, named after L. Martin Griffin, Jr. an environmentalist who helped save the area in the 1960s and founded the organization. The canyon was designated a National Natural Landmark in 1968. Several local chapters of the National Audubon Society, Marin Audubon Society and Golden Gate Audubon Society of the East Bay and San Francisco, organized to purchase property for the protection of heron and egret nesting sites. Golden Gate Biosphere Reserve List of watercourses in the San Francisco Bay Area Pike County Gulch Stinson Gulch Official website
Bolinas-Stinson Union School District
Bolinas-Stinson Union School District is a public school district in Marin County, with offices in Bolinas, California, USA. As of the 2004-05 school year, the District had 122 students at its two campuses. Bolinas School has been in continuous operation since 1858; the original wooden school-house was burned down in 1978 by an arsonist, but was rebuilt as a exact replica of the original building. Until the fire, it was said to be the oldest standing school building in California; the District had 9.0 full-time-equivalent classroom teachers. The other 15 staff included 8 instructional aides or coordinators, 1 administrator, 6 support staff. There were no guidance counselors or library staff; the District budget as of 2004-05 was $15,969 per student. Revenue sources were 8% federal, 81% local, 11% state. In 2000, the attendance area had a total population under age 18 of 477; the racial composition was White alone: 401 Black or African American alone: 15 American Indian or Alaska Native alone: 0 Asian alone: 13 Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander alone: 4 Some other race alone: 23 Population of two or more races: 21 The majority of the students are white.
Enrollment by race or ethnicity and by gender are as follows: Amererican Indian/Alaskan: 0 Asian: 4 Black: 1 Hispanic: 12 White: 94 Male: 62 Female: 48Bolinas-Stinson is a Title I school with a School-Wide Program. Twenty-five of the students in the District are eligible for subsidized meals—16 for free lunch and 9 for reduced-price lunch. There are no migrant students. Stinson Beach School is located on State Route 1, one mile north of the town of Stinson Beach, California. In 2004-05, it had an enrollment of 31 students in kindergarten through second grade. With 3.0 full-time-equivalent teachers, Stinson School had a student-teacher ratio of 10.3.. Stinson Beach School is not a magnet school. Bolinas School had an enrollment of 91 students in third through eighth grade in 2004-05. With 6.0 full-time-equivalent teachers, Bolinas had a student-teacher ratio of 15.1. The campus is located one mile east of the town of Bolinas, California, in an area known as Gospel Flats. Bolinas is neither a magnet school.
Bolinas-Stinson Union School District School Accountability Report Card Marin County Office of Education, Marin County Public Schools, Bolinas-Stinson Union School District, pp 14-15 Marin County Office of Education, Map of Bolinas-Stinson Union School District boundaries District Information at the National Center for Education Statistics