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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Oligoclonal band

Oligoclonal bands are bands of immunoglobulins that are seen when a patient's blood serum, or cerebrospinal fluid is analyzed. They are used in the diagnosis of various neurological and blood diseases in multiple sclerosis. Two methods of analysis are possible: protein electrophoresis, a method of analyzing the composition of fluids known as "agarose gel electrophoresis/Coomassie Blue staining", the combination of isoelectric focusing/silver staining; the latter is more sensitive. For the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, a patient has a lumbar puncture performed, which collects some of his or her cerebrospinal fluid; the blood serum can be gained from a clotted blood sample. It is assumed that all the proteins that appear in the CSF, but are not present in the serum, are produced intrathecally. Therefore, it is normal to subtract bands in serum from bands in CSF when investigating CNS diseases. OCBs are important for multiple sclerosis. In MS only OCBs made of immunoglobulin G antibodies are considered, though sometimes other proteins can be taken into account, like lipid-specific immunoglobulin M.

The presence of these IgM OCBs is associated with a more severe course. For an OCB analysis, the CSF is concentrated and the serum is diluted. After this dilution/concentration prealbumin appears as higher on CSF. Albumin is the dominant band on both fluids. Transferrin is another prominent protein on CSF column because its small molecular size increases its filtration in to CSF. CSF has a higher concentration of prealbumin than does serum; as expected large molecular proteins are absent in CSF column. After all these bands are localized, OCBs should be assessed in the γ region which hosts small group of polyclonal immunoglobulins. New techniques like "capillary isoelectric focusing immunoassay" are able to detect IgG OCBs in more than 95% of multiple sclerosis patients. More than 12 OCBs can appear in MS; each one of them represent antibody proteins secreted by plasma cells, although why these bands are present, which proteins these bands represent, has not yet been elucidated. The target antigens for these antibodies are not easy to find because it requires to isolate a single kind of protein in each band, though new techniques are able to do so.

In 40% of MS patients with OCBs, antibodies specific to the viruses HHV-6 and EBV have been found. HHV-6 specific OCBs have been found in other demyelinating diseases. A lytic protein of HHV-6A virus was identified as the target of HHV-6 specific oligoclonal bands. Though early theories assumed that the OCBs were somehow pathogenic autoantigens, recent research has shown that the IgG present in the OCBs are antibodies against debris, therefore, OCBs seem to be just a secondary effect of MS. OCBs remain useful as a biomarker. Oligoclonal bands are an important indicator in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Up to 95% of all patients with multiple sclerosis have permanently observable oligoclonal bands. At least for those with European ancestry; the last available reports in 2017 were pointing to a sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 87% for differential diagnosis versus MS mimickers Other application for OCB's is as a tool to classify patients. It is known since long ago; some reports point that the underlying condition that causes the MS lesions in these patients is different.

There are four pathological patterns of damage, in the majority of patients with pattern II and III brain lesions oligoclonal bands are absent or only transiently present. It has been reported that oligoclonal bands are nearly absent in patients with pattern II and pattern III lesion types. Six groups of patients are separated, based on OCBs: type 1, no bands in CSF and serum. Type 2 and 3 indicate intrathecal synthesis, the rest are considered as negative results; the main importance of oligoclonal bands was to demonstrate the production of intrathecal immunoglobins for establishing a MS diagnosis. Alternative methods for detection of this intrathecal synthesis have been published, therefore it has lost some of its importance in this area. A specially interesting method are free light chains, specially the kappa-FLCs. Several authors have reported that the nephelometric and ELISA FLCs determination is comparable with OCBs as markers of IgG synthesis, kFLCs behave better than oligoclonal bands.

Another alternative to oligoclonal bands for MS diagnosis is the MRZ-reaction, a polyspecific antiviral immune response against the viruses of measles and zoster found in 1992. In some reports the MRZR showed a lower sensitivity than OCB, but a higher specificity for MS; the presence of one band may be considered serious, such as lymphoproliferative disease, or may be normal—it must be interpreted in the context of each specific patient. More bands may reflect the presence of a disease. Oligoclonal bands are found in: Multiple sclerosis Lyme disease Neuromyelitis optica Systemic lupus erythematosus Neurosarcoidosis Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis Subarachnoid hemorrhage Syphilis Primary central nervous system lymphoma Sjögren's syndrome Guillain–Barré syndrome Meningeal carcinomatosis Multiple myeloma Parry–Romberg syndrome Oligoclonal b

Conscription Crisis of 1917

The Conscription Crisis of 1917 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. It was caused by disagreement on whether men should be conscripted to fight in the war, but brought out many issues regarding relations between French Canadians and English Canadians. All French Canadians opposed conscription. Led by Henri Bourassa, they felt. English Canadians supported the war effort. On January 1, 1918, the Unionist government began to enforce the Military Service Act; the act caused 404,385 men to be liable for military service. The most violent opposition occurred in Quebec, where anti-war attitudes drawn from French-Canadian nationalism sparked a weekend of rioting between March 28 and April 1, 1918; the disturbances began on a Thursday when Dominion Police detained a French-Canadian man who had failed to present his draft exemption papers. Despite the man's release, an angry mob of nearly 200 soon descended upon the St. Roch District Police Station where the man had been held.

Rioters ransacked the conscription registration office as well as two pro-conscription newspapers within Quebec City. The final and bloodiest conflict happened Easter Monday when crowds once again organized against the military presence in the city, which by had grown to 1,200 soldiers; the soldiers were ordered to fire on the crowds causing them to disperse. Though the actual number of civilian casualties is debated, official reports from that day name five men killed by gunfire. Dozens more were injured. Among the soldiers are 32 recorded injuries that day, with no deaths. Monday, April 1, marked the end of the Easter Riots, which totalled over 150 casualties and $300,000 in damage. Canada entered World War I on 4 August 1914. Colonel Sam Hughes was the Canadian Minister of Militia, on 10 August he was permitted to create a militia of 25,000 men. Before the end of August 1914, Hughes had created a training camp at Valcartier, capable of housing 32,000 men; the first contingent of 31,200 Canadians, dubbed "Canada's Answer", arrived in Britain on October 14 for continued training.

Hughes moved with incredible speed to create Canadian battalions which allowed Canadian troops to be kept together as units for the first time. Few French Canadians volunteered; the experience of the first contingent suggested that they could expect nothing but ill-treatment as French-speaking Catholics in English-speaking battalions filled with what they perceived as Protestant men and officers who were unable to communicate with them. Young French Canadians seeking to serve, instead, the few traditional "French" regiments of the Canadian militia, such as Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal, where barracks life was in French, only the command language was in English, they had to be turned away because the Minister of Militia and his subordinates were obstinate in their refusal to mobilize these traditionally French regiments or to create new ones. However, the government continued to raise its expectations for volunteers, aiming for 150,000 men by 1915. English Canadians did not believe. Sam Hughes, on June 1917, informed the House of Commons that of the 432,000 Canadian volunteers fewer than 5% came from French Canada, which made up 28% of the Canadian population at that time.

There have been many reasons proposed for the lack of Québécois volunteers. Political pressure in Quebec, along with some public rallies, demanded the creation of French-speaking units to fight a war, viewed as being right and necessary by many Quebecers, despite Regulation 17 in Ontario and the resistance in Quebec of those such as Henri Bourassa. Indeed, Montreal's La Presse editorialized that Quebec should create a contingent to fight as part of the French Army; when the government relented, the first new unit was the 22nd Battalion, CEF. While a few other French-speaking groups were allowed to be created by Reserve officers, they were all disbanded to provide replacements for the 22nd, which suffered close to 4,000 wounded and killed in the course of the war; as the war dragged on, soldiers and politicians soon realized. People learned of the trench conditions and some casualties in Europe, men stopped volunteering. There were over 300,000 recruits by 1916, but Prime Minister Robert Borden had promised 500,000 by the end of that year though Canada's population was only 8 million at the time.

After the Battle of the Somme, Canada was in desperate need to replenish its supply of soldiers. The recruiting effort in Quebec had failed, Canadian government turned to its only remaining option: conscription. All French Canadians opposed conscription. Led by Henri Bourassa, they felt. English Canadians supported the war effort; the Conscription Crisis of 1917 caused a considerable rift along ethnic lines between Anglophones and Francophones. After visiting Britain for a meeting of First Ministers on May 1917, Borden announced that he would introduce the Military Service Act on August 29, 1917; the Act was passed: allowing the government to conscript men aged 20 to 45 across the country if the Prim

Violin making and maintenance

Making an instrument of the violin family called lutherie, may be done in different ways, many of which have changed little in nearly 500 years since the first violins were made. Some violins, called "bench-made" instruments, are made by a single individual, either a master maker, or an advanced amateur working alone. Several people may participate in the making of a "shop-made" instrument, working under the supervision of a master. Various levels of "trade violin" exist mass-produced by workers who each focus on a small part of the overall job, with or without the aid of machinery. "Setting up" a violin is considered to be a separate activity, may be done many times over the lengthy service life of the instrument. Setup includes fitting and trimming tuning pegs, surfacing the fingerboard, carving the soundpost and bridge, adjusting the string spacing and action height, other tasks related to putting the finished instrument into playing condition and optimizing its "voice" and responsiveness to playing.

Violin maintenance goes on as long as the instrument is to be kept in playing condition, includes tasks such as replacing strings, positioning the soundpost and bridge, lubricating pegs and fine tuners, resurfacing the fingerboard, attending to the instrument's finish, restoring, repairing, or replacing parts of the violin or its accessories which have suffered wear or damage. The outer contour of a new violin, one of the more important aspects of the instrument, is designed by the violin maker, in the 2020s, the outlines of the old masters' violins are used. Different methods of violin making include using an inside mould, an outside mould, or building "on the back" without a mould; the "inside mould" approach starts with a set of plans, which include a drawing of the outer shape of the instrument. From these plans a template is constructed, which can be made from thin metal or other materials, is a flat "half-violin" shape; the template is used to construct a mould, a violin-shaped piece of wood, plywood, MDF or similar material 12 mm or 1/2" thick.

Around the mould are built the sides, which are flat pieces of wood curved by means of careful heating. The completed "garland" of ribs and linings is removed from the mould to allow attachment of the separately carved top and back; when the body is complete, the neck, carved out of a separate piece of wood, is set in its mortise to complete the basic structure of the instrument, after which it is varnished. Vital to the sound and playability of the instrument is setup, which includes adjusting the neck angle if needed, fitting the pegs so they turn smoothly and hold dressing the fingerboard to the proper scooped shape, fitting the soundpost and bridge, adjusting the tailgut and installing the tailpiece, stringing up. A removable chinrest may be put on at this time; the instrument begins the "playing-in" process, as its parts adjust to the string tension. The sound of a violin is said to "open up" in the first weeks and months of use, a process which continues more over the years. However, this process may be aborted at some point.

If you put a violin to storage and pull it out a while you will notice when you first play that the violin has lost volume, loss of quality. If you put a violin into storage, pull it out a while and play it for a few weeks, you will notice the violin's sound start to "open up" again. With careful maintenance, a violin can improve for many years. A well-tended violin can outlive many generations of violinists, so it is wise to take a curatorial view when caring for a violin. Most if the collected rosin dust is not wiped from the varnish and left for long enough, it will fuse with the varnish and become impossible to remove without damage. Cleaning the rosin off strings can make a striking difference to the sound. A common wine cork serves admirably scrubbing off the crust of rosin without damaging the winding of the string. A dry microfiber cloth is recommended. A cloth with a little rubbing alcohol is effective, if care is taken to protect the top of the violin from the slightest chance of stray droplets of alcohol touching the varnish.

The use of alcohol is avoided, as it damages varnish in ways which may be difficult or impossible to restore. The tuning pegs may be treated with "peg dope" when they either slip too causing the string to go flat or slack, or when they stick, making tuning difficult; some violinists and luthiers use a small amount of ordinary blackboard chalk on pegs to cure slippage. "Peg drops" may be used to treat slipping pegs, but, a temporary solution at best. The violin will benefit from occasional checks by a technician, who will know if repairs need to be made. Violinists carry replacement sets of strings to have a spare available in case one breaks. Before breaking, worn strings may begin to sound tired and dull and become "false" over time, producing an unreliable pitch. Another common problem with strings is unravelling of the metal winding. Strings may need replacement every three months with frequent use; the higher strings require replacement more than the lower strings since they are lighter in construction to produce a higher sound– their lighter weight means they cost less.

The price of strings varies, the quality of the strings str

HSAB theory

HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft acids and bases". Known as the Pearson acid-base concept, HSAB is used in chemistry for explaining stability of compounds, reaction mechanisms and pathways, it assigns the terms'hard' or'soft', and'acid' or'base' to chemical species.'Hard' applies to species which are small, have high charge states, are weakly polarizable.'Soft' applies to species which are big, have low charge states and are polarizable. The concept is a way of applying the notion of orbital overlap to specific chemical cases; the theory is used in contexts where a qualitative, rather than quantitative, description would help in understanding the predominant factors which drive chemical properties and reactions. This is so in transition metal chemistry, where numerous experiments have been done to determine the relative ordering of ligands and transition metal ions in terms of their hardness and softness. HSAB theory is useful in predicting the products of metathesis reactions.

In 2005 it was shown that the sensitivity and performance of explosive materials can be explained on the basis of HSAB theory. Ralph Pearson introduced the HSAB principle in the early 1960s as an attempt to unify inorganic and organic reaction chemistry; the theory states that soft acids react faster and form stronger bonds with soft bases, whereas hard acids react faster and form stronger bonds with hard bases, all other factors being equal. The classification in the original work was based on equilibrium constants for the reaction of two Lewis bases competing for a Lewis acid. Borderline cases are identified: borderline acids are trimethylborane, sulfur dioxide and ferrous Fe2+, cobalt Co2+ caesium Cs+ and lead Pb2+ cations. Borderline bases are: aniline, nitrogen N2 and the azide, bromide and sulfate anions. Speaking and bases interact and the most stable interactions are hard-hard and soft-soft. An attempt to quantify the'softness' of a base consists in determining the equilibrium constant for the following equilibrium: BH + CH3Hg+ ⇌ H+ + CH3HgBWhere CH3Hg+ is a soft acid and H+ is a hard acid, which compete for B.

Some examples illustrating the effectiveness of the theory: Bulk metals are soft acids and are poisoned by soft bases such as phosphines and sulfides. Hard solvents such as hydrogen fluoride and the protic solvents tend to solvate strong solute bases such as the fluorine anion and the oxygen anions. On the other hand, dipolar aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide and acetone are soft solvents with a preference for solvating large anions and soft bases. In coordination chemistry soft-soft and hard-hard interactions exist between ligands and metal centers. In 1983 Pearson together with Robert Parr extended the qualitative HSAB theory with a quantitative definition of the chemical hardness as being proportional to the second derivative of the total energy of a chemical system with respect to changes in the number of electrons at a fixed nuclear environment: η = 1 2 Z; the factor of one-half is arbitrary and dropped as Pearson has noted. An operational definition for the chemical hardness is obtained by applying a three-point finite difference approximation to the second derivative: η ≈ E − 2 E + E 2 = − 2 = 1 2 where I is the ionization potential and A the electron affinity.

This expression implies that the chemical hardness is proportional to the band gap of a chemical system, when a gap exists. The first derivative of the energy with respect to the number of electrons is equal to the chemical potential, μ, of the system, μ = Z,from which an operational definition for the chemical

Zhang Yanjun

Zhang Yanjun is a Chinese footballer who plays for China League One side Liaoning FC. Zhang Yanjun started his professional football career in 2012 when he was loaned to China League Two side Xinjiang Xiyu Grand Begonia from Liaoning FC, he played at Liaoning's reserve team after his return and was promoted to the first team squad in the 2017 season. On 2 May 2017, he made his senior debut for Liaoning in a 4–3 away defeat against Hangzhou Greentown in the 2017 Chinese FA Cup, he made his Chinese Super League debut on 20 May 2017 in a 2–0 away defeat against Hebei China Fortune, coming on as a substitute for Wang Liang in the 28th minute. He became a regular starter after his impressive performance in the match. On 24 June 2017, Zhang scored his first senior goal in a 2–1 away loss against Tianjin Quanjian. On 6 August 2017, Zhang collapsed in a league match against Guangzhou R&F at Yuexiushan Stadium where he collided with Ye Chugui, he was diagnosed as spinal shock. As of 3 November 2018 Zhang Yanjun at Soccerway

Bronte Beach

Bronte Beach is a small but popular recreational beach in the eastern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. It is 2 kilometres south of north of the much larger Coogee Beach. A long distance ocean swimming event is held every December between Bondi Bronte; the three beaches are linked by a paved coastal footpath along the rocky cliff tops, much frequented by tourists and local runners and walkers. The beach is popular with surfers and despite the non rough surf, less abled swimmers can avail themselves of the bogey hole or rock pool towards the southern end of the beach. At the south end of the beach is a 30-metre ocean pool, one of the best known in Sydney. Directly opposite from Bronte there are some popular cafes; the size of the sandy area of the beach is far less than it was in prior to 1914 when a promenade and sea wall were constructed. A functional storm water drain emptying near to the bogey hole was built in 1918. During heavy wave conditions in 1961 six children swimming in the bogy hole were wash back into the pipes.

All six were safely rescued by Waverley Council Life Guards and Bronte lifesavers who had to craw up into the pipes following the two branches. On the Northern end near to a stairway there is a formed, large sandstone cave; this shady sheltered cave may have been used by the local indigenous people. Contrary to the popular misconception that Bronte Beach was named after the Brontë sisters, or Bronte House, Bronte Beach was in fact named after the inspiring military figure Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, Duke of Bronté. Nelson was awarded the title of Duke of Bronte from the King of Naples in 1799 and from that time signed his name as "Nelson and Bronte". Bronte Beach was known as Nelson Bay and continues as the name of the bay fronting the beach. There are other references to Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, Duke of Bronte in the area the naming of Trafalgar Street, Nelson Avenue and Bronte Road. In 1957 the name Bronte for the suburb was first used in advertisements for the sale of land called the Bronte Estate.

There is a dangerous rip at Bronte Beach known as the Bronte Express. The beach is patrolled by Waverley Council full-time lifeguards on a daily basis and volunteer lifesavers from the life saving club on weekends and public holidays, it is home to Bronte Surf Lifesaving Club and is the oldest such organisation in the world, having been formed in 1903. The idea of having able swimmers patrol the beach thereby making swimming safer was developed by John Bond. A public park adjoins the beach, with provision of picnic seats and barbecue hotplates, although parking is limited and restrictions are enforced; the beach is served by the 379 bus from Bondi Junction station. The beach is shaded by hills to the west and tends to become cool and deserted towards the end of the afternoon; the beach is represented in literature. Sylvia in Kathleen Stewart's Spilt Milk walks the cliffs. Poets have found voice on its sands. Surfer Jessi Miley-Dyer is from Bronte Beach. Artist Caleb Reid is from Bronte beach The Book of Sydney Suburbs, Compiled by Frances Pollen, Angus & Robertson Publishers, 1990, Published in Australia ISBN 0-207-14495-8 "Sand in our Souls - the Beach in Australian History" Leone Huntsman, MUP, 2001 Guide to Sydney Beaches Bronte Surf Club